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From its Source to the Nore 1885
An Unconventional Handbook

[ Charles Dickens, junior, formatted his book alphabetically. That reduced its usefulness to boaters who by definition want what's next geographically. This version is sorted from Source to Sea, geographically.
Note that the text may contain elements from more than one alphabetical entry.

For the full Dictionary entries in alphabetical order see
Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames with a full index; PDF

The banks of the river are named by Charles Dickens in the traditional conventional way, facing the sea. The Environment Agency have now gone against this and today use the opposite convention - SORRY! - ignorance of tradition ...]
Clicking the links will take you to the relevant page on "Where Thames smooth waters glide" (where the modern convention is grudgingly used!)

Trip from Cricklade to Oxford

Trip from Cricklade to Oxford:
Although scarcely any of the scenery of the Thames above Oxford is to be mentioned in the same breath with the beauties of Nuneham, of Henley, of Marlow, or of Cliveden, there is still much to attract the lover of nature who is content with quiet and pastoral landscapes, and to whom the peaceful solitude through which the greater part of the journey lies, will have a peculiar charm.
It is not advisable to take boat at Cricklade.
For some distance below this little Wiltshire town the stream is narrow, and in dry seasons uncomfortably shallow.
Travellers, therefore, who come to Cricklade, with the intention of seeing as much of the river as possible, may be recommended to take the very pretty walk of about ten miles along the towing-path of the Thames and Severn Canal to Lechlade.

from Cricklade to below Seven Springs

The Source of the Thames: As is the case with many other respectable rivers, there is some little doubt as to what is the actual source of the Thames.
Some authorities have regarded a river called the Churn, which has its rise at a place called Seven Springs, a short distance from Cheltenham, as the real source of the Thames; but others, including such writers as Leland, Stow, and Camden, give the distinction to Thames Head near Cirencester.
Between Thames Head and Cricklade, however, where the Churn and the stream from Thames Head amalgamate, the river is a small matter enough, and it is not advisable to take boat even at this point, as the stream, though navigable for small boats, is still very narrow - in dry seasons inconveniently so.


Isis: A name frequently given to the Thames until it is joined by the Thame a mile below Day's Lock, near Dorchester.
Camden thus derives the word Tamesis, or Thames, from the junction of the names of the two rivers.
This fanciful derivation appears to have no foundation in actual fact, but has been perpetuated by the poets who have sung of the nuptials of Thame and Isis;
"Beautiful Isis and her husband Thame",
Warton calls them.
In Julius Caesar's time the river was known as Tamesis, and the Anglo-Saxon name was Temese; very like the "Tamise ripe" of other days.
Whether Camden considered that he had sufficient evidence to justify Isis, or whether, misled by the other river Thame, he merely invented the derivation as the shortest way out of a difficulty, is not quite clear.
Probably he followed Leland, as other chroniclers in their turn followed him: a sheep-like practice much in favour in such cases, and productive of considerable confusion.
But as there can be no good reason why a river for a portion of its course should bear one name, and presently change it for something quite different, it seems desirable that, except as a poetical conceit, the Isis legend should be abandoned, and the river throughout be called the Thames.

the Thames Head Source

from Cricklade to Kemble

Cricklade, Wiltshire, on the right bank, distant from Oxford 43 miles.
Soil, loam; population, about 2,000.
The nearest railway station is Purton, about 4 miles off, an omnibus plying between the station and the town.
The fast trains from Paddington, distance 82 miles, perform the journey in two hours and a quarter, or thereabouts.
This is a straggling and fairly picturesque little place on the Thames and Severn and North Wilts Canals, and it is here that the Thames, at its junction with the Churn, begins to assume the appearance of a navigable river.
Though in itself a small place, Cricklade is the centre of a number of other parishes which have for many years united in returning two Members to Parliament, the constituency at the last general election numbering 7,473.
the present Members are Mr.M.H.N.Story Maskelyne (L.) and Sir Daniel Gooch (C).
Cricklade is a pleasant little town, clean and well-paved, but has not been the scene of any particularly remarkable events, since it shared the fate of so many of the other Thames towns and was plundered by the Danes in 1015, and now contains few objects of interest, except the church of St.Sampson, a very handsome building, with chancel, nave, and side aisles, and a remarkably good square embattled tower, with parapet and four pinnacles.
This, which is said to date from 1400, was built of stone from the same quarries as supplied the materials for the construction of Cirencester and Gloucester cathedrals, and which are now exhausted.
On the north side of the tower are carved a pair of reaping hooks and a pair of shears, and above them a wheel projects.
A local legend says that these objects refer to the three men who were most concerned in building the tower - a farmer, a tailor, and a clock-maker.
This, however, is more than doubtful, seeing that whatever meaning may be supposed to attach to the shears and the reaping hooks, the wheel is simply a Catherine wheel, and a very good one too.
But the builders of the tower delighted in quaint and out-of-the-way decoration, as is instanced in the walls and beautifully groined roof of the interior.
Here, in addition to numerous coats of arms - including, on the south side, that of the Hungerford family, by whom the tower was, in all probability, built - are sculptured the aces of the four suits of the pack of cards, the shears again, two pairs of ladies' stays, and a number of other quaint devices.
The church, which contains some excellent Early English windows and a very good west window and door, was undoubtedly the work of different periods, of which three may distinctly be noted at the flying buttress outside the east end, and is both handsome and commodious.
Among the tablets on the floor is one in memory of one Simon Wild, jun., 1710, who is oddly enough said to have been "in Jenis for singing, ringing, and writing", and the tomb of Robert Jenner informs the world that he "deceased this life" in 1651.
There is an empty niche in the north aisle to which it is probable that a curious and much-defaced stone figure, which lies by the side of the path to the church, of right belongs; although here again local tradition steps in, and declares that the effigy in question represents the mangled body of a man who fell from the tower during its construction.
At the west end of the pretty churchyard is a good old farmhouse, and on the north-east side a picturesque building dating from 1652, which, having started in life as a school, afterwards became a workhouse, and is now a school again.
In the churchyard there is also a fine old cross, which formerly stood in the marketplace.
Another good cross stands in the churchyard of St.Mary's at the other end of the town.
This church, though much smaller than St.Sampson's, is architecturally interesting, notably by reason of a Norman arch of the eleventh century.
The town also contains Baptist, Congregational, Wesleyan, and Methodist places of worship, and a Town Hall capable of holding about 300 people.
Bank: the Gloucestershire Banking Company.
Fire Engine: Church-street.
Market Day: third Tuesday in the month.
Hotels: "White Hart" and "White Horse".
Places of Worship: St.Sampson's and St.Mary's.
Police: the station is the last house at the north end of the town, just across the bridge over the Thames.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), High-street.
Mails from London: 3am, and 2.30pm
Mails for London, noon, and 9.45pm
Nearest Bridges: down, Eisey, for foot passengers, about a mile, and Castle Eaton, about 4 miles.
Lock: St.John's, about 10½ miles.
Railway Station: Purton, 4 miles.
Omnibus: three times a day.
Fares to Paddington, 1st, 14/4, 25/-; 2nd, 10/9, 18/9; 3rd, 6/9

Trip from Cricklade to Oxford:
Although scarcely any of the scenery of the Thames above Oxford is to be mentioned in the same breath with the beauties of Nuneham, of Henley, of Marlow, or of Cliveden, there is still much to attract the lover of nature who is content with quiet and pastoral landscapes, and to whom the peaceful solitude through which the greater part of the journey lies, will have a peculiar charm.
It is not advisable to take boat at Cricklade.
For some distance below this little Wiltshire town the stream is narrow, and in dry seasons uncomfortably shallow.
Travellers, therefore, who come to Cricklade, with the intention of seeing as much of the river as possible, may be recommended to take the very pretty walk of about ten miles along the towing-path of the Thames and Severn Canal to Lechlade.

Source?; Cricklade Churches; Cricklade; A419; Marston Meysey

Castle Eaton

Castle Eaton - A little village in Wiltshire, on the right bank, about 39 miles from Oxford, with the small church of St.Mary, chiefly noteworthy for a fine old bell turret.
The river increases considerably in its volume and width about here, and is spanned by a bridge.
Population about 320.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Fairford (the nearest money-order and telegraph office).
Nearest Bridges: up Eisey 3 miles; down, Hannington.
Lock: down, St. John's about 6½miles.
Railway Station: Fairford 3 miles.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 18/6, 27/6; 2nd, 12/-, 20/-; 3rd, 8/3½.

Red Lion Castle eaton


Kempsford: A village in Gloucestershire on the Thames and Severn Canal, and not far from the Thames at Castle Eaton, situated about 4½ miles from Lechlade and 6 from Cricklade.
Kempsford is of no particular importance, but is worth visiting for the very fine square tower, with two noble windows, which rises from the centre of the church of St. Mary the Virgin.
The interior of the church, though possessing many features of architectural interest, is rather plain, except for the roof of the tower, which is very rich in colour, and for some good stained glass.
In the chancel is a stone altar tomb with figures considerably mutilated; and in the vestry, which is notable for a good Norman arch, is a curious old picture which apparently represents King David, and was "the gift of Robert Pope, London".
The population is about 1,000.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office in the village.
Letters through Fairford.
Mails arrive at 7.30am, and are despatched at 6.10pm
Nearest Railway Station: Fairford, distant about 3 miles.
Fares to Paddington, 1st, 18/6, 27/6; 2nd, 12/-, 20/-; 3rd, 8/3½

Hannington Bridge to below Kempsford; Inglesham to below Hannington Bridge; the Limit of Navigation; Lechlade Marina Slipway; Riverside Inn and Wharf, Lechlade; Lechlade Halfpenny Bridge

Lechlade, from Oxford about 33 miles.


Lechlade, Gloucestershire, on the left bank, distant from Oxford 33 miles.
A station on the Great Western Railway, 86 miles from Paddington, the time occupied by the fast trains being about 2¾ hours.
The station is some little distance from the town, but an omnibus meets the trains.
Population about 1,300. Soil: loam; subsoil, gravel.
Lechlade is situated a short distance below the junction of the Thames with the Thames and Severn Canal.
The river Lech here falls into the Thames, which at Lechlade first becomes navigable for practical purposes, and runs, except in very dry seasons, in a goodly stream under the handsome arch of the bridge.
Lechlade is a pretty little place, with a sheep and cattle market on the last Tuesday in each month, but, except for its position on the river, is not of any importance.
The ideas of its inhabitants on the subject of paving are, it may be remarked, open to considerable exception.
Its church of St.Lawrence, which was built by one Conrad Ney, the then vicar, in the time of King Edward IV., is, with its tower and spire, a conspicuous object in the landscape for many miles round, and is a rather plain but handsome building in the Gothic style.
It appears, however, to have been somewhat severely restored.
The most pretentious monument it contains is on the south wall of the chancel, and consists of a medallion of Mrs.Anne Simons (1769), to which one of the fat and ugly naked boys, who were so popular with the sculptors of that period, is pointing; and in the east of the south nave is a mural tablet with coats of arms and two fat marble children, the whole being dedicated to the memory of certain members of the Coxeter family.
Nearly under this is an imperfect brass and in the north nave are two more, one of a male and another of a female figure, in good preservation.
Lechlade is the point at which boats may be taken for the trip down the river (see Trip from Lechlade to Oxford), and boats may either be sent from Salter's at Oxford by van or by the Great Western Railway Company, who make arrangements for conveying them from the station to the river.
There is a good hotel in the town (the "New Inn"), but boating parties occasionally prefer to put up at the "Trout Inn", at St.John's Bridge, about half a mile down the stream, which is also favourably spoken of, but of which the Editor has no personal experience.
Banks: County of Gloucester Banking Company and Gloucestershire Banking Company.
Fire Engine: In the town.
Hotels: "New Inn", in the town; "Trout", St.John's Bridge, about half a mile off.
Market Day: Last Tuesday in each month.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, telegraph, savings bank, and insurance) near the "New Inn".
Mails from London, 4.50am, and 1pm; mails for London, 10am, and 8.45pm
Nearest Bridges: up, Hannington, 3 miles; down, St.John's, about half a mile.
Lock: down, St.John's, about half a mile, the first lock on the Thames.
Fares, from Lechlade to Paddington, 1st, 15/9, 26/3; 2nd, 11/7, 19/6; 3rd, 7/11½.

Here the river proper may be said to begin.
To this point boats may be sent by the Great Western Railway, or, if hired by Salter of Oxford, in the usual way in his vans.
Should short journeys only be taken, the "Trout Inn", at Tadpole Bridge, may be noted as a clean little place, making up a small number of beds; and the market-town of Bampton is only a couple of miles distant should the little inn be full.
Perhaps the best course, however, is to push on at once to Eynsham, and, leaving the boat at the bridge, to sleep in the town.
Excursions can then be made next day to Cumnor, Stanton Harcourt, or other interesting places in the neighbourhood, and the journey finished at Oxford the same afternoon.

Old father Thames;

[Father Thames arrived here in 1956]

St Johns Lock;

Half a mile after leaving Lechlade, on the right is St.John's Lock, with an average fall of 3 feet;

and just below it is the St. John's Bridge, with the "Trout Inn" on the left bank.
For some distance below this stream is very narrow, and generally weedy;

St Johns Bridge;

and just below it is the St. John's Bridge, with the "Trout Inn" on the left bank.
For some distance below this stream is very narrow, and generally weedy;

Trout Inn, Lechlade. Slipway;

with the "Trout Inn" on the left bank.
For some distance below this stream is very narrow, and generally weedy;

Bloomers Hole Footbridge, Lechlade

Buscot Lock

Buscot, a village in Berkshire on the right bank, about 31 miles from Oxford.
Soil, clay; population, 500.
Buscot is only a small agricultural village, and, with the exception of the fine estate of Buscot House, contains nothing of any interest but its old church of St.Mary, with its rather low, square, embattled tower.
The interior of the church is plain, but a fine Norman arch divides the nave and chancel; and there is a piscina of apparently considerable antiquity.
Buscot church is further adorned by a couple of mural monuments, dating from the end of the eighteenth century, quite in the taste of that period, and fitted with the customary angels, fat boys, and generally hideous emblematical devices.
There is a lock at the village, the second from the source of the river, with a fall of rather more than four feet in ordinary seasons.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Lechlade.
Nearest Bridges: up, St.John's, about 2 miles;
down, Radcot about 5 miles;
Locks: up, St.John's about 2 miles;
down, Rushy 8½ miles.
Railway Station: Lech- lade, distant about 2 miles {which see).

and, after passing Buscot Church, a couple of sharp turns bring us on the left to Buscot Lock, from Oxford 30½ miles, with an average fall of rather more than 4 feet.

Eaton Footbridge

[Eaton Weir was removed and replaced by a footbridge in 1936]

After passing the lock the river pursues a most tortuous course for some distance, and about a mile further down, after the first good stretch of water we have had, is Hart's Weir, which in ordinary seasons will be found open, and with little or no fall.
Should the season be a dry one, a good deal of care is necessary in shooting this and the other weirs on the Upper Thames.

Kelmscott Manor and Plough Inn

Eaton Hastings

A couple of miles lower down is the little village of Eaton Hastings; Faringdon Hill, with its large clump of Scotch firs, being a conspicuous object on the right bank

Grafton Lock; Radcot Old Bridge; Radcot New Bridge; 'Once upon a river' by Diane Setterfield; The Swan Inn, Radcot, Boat Hire; Radcot Cradle Footbridge

Radcot Lock

Radcot Bridge, distant from Oxford 26 miles.
Approaching this bridge, the stream divides, and in anything like a dry season the right-hand channel should on no account be taken, as the navigation immediately below the bridge is awkward by reason of weeds and shoals.

Old Mans Footbridge

Old Man's Bridge, 25 miles from Oxford,

Rushey Lock

and after about two miles of rather monotonous travelling, we come, sharp on the left, to Rushy Lock, 23 miles from Oxford, with a very slight fall;

Tadpole Bridge

The Trout Inn, Tadpole

and a mile further to Tadpole Bridge, 22 miles from Oxford, with the "Trout Inn", a convenient place for luncheon, if the traveller is going from Lechlade to Eynsham in one day.
Tadpole Bridge is situated in a pretty country, especially on the Berks side; and, for some distance below, the river, which is hereabout very narrow and with many aggravatingly sharp turns, runs through a prettily wooded landscape.

Tenfoot Footbridge

Rather more than a mile from Tadpole is Ten Foot Bridge,

Shifford Footbridge; 'Footsteps' Thriller based on Shifford Lock; Shifford Lock

below Shifford Lock

and two miles lower down are the village and ferry of Duxford.
A mile or so below this there is considerable shoaling, and half a mile further an island with Poplars, where the Berks bank should be followed.
After making two or three bends, beyond this point, there is a prettily wooded bank on the right,

River Windrush at Newbridge

Maybush at Newbridge


Rose Revived @ at Newbridge

and a short mile of capital water for rowing brings us to New Bridge, from Oxford 15 miles, which, notwithstanding its name, is of great antiquity.
Convenient for refreshment is the "Rose Inn", and just above the bridge the little river Windrush falls into the Thames.

Harts Footbridge; Northmoor Lock; Site of Arks Weir

Bablock Hythe, Slipway & Ferryman Inn

About 4½ miles from New Bridge is Bablock Hithe Ferry, 10½ miles from Oxford, below which there is a fine stream, the scenery becoming very good, with fine bold hills and the Earl of Abingdon's woods at Wytham.

Cumnor, a very picturesque village in Berkshire, on the right bank, about a mile and a half from Bablock Hithe Ferry, and distant from Oxford 4 miles by road.
Population, about 1,000.
The walk from Bablock Hithe to Cumnor is very pretty, though rather steep - the path past the cottage, immediately opposite the ferry, should be taken - but except from its association with Sir Walter Scott's noble romance of "Kenilworth", the village itself has little to recommend it to the notice of passing travellers.
Cumnor House or Place has now entirely disappeared, and except the tomb of Sir Anthony Forster (Scott's Tony "Fire-the-Faggot") in the church, nothing associated with the sad story of Amy Robsart now remains in Cumnor.
The Church of St.Michael (the keys of which can be obtained at the post-office) is charmingly situated, and consists of nave, chancel, north aisle, and south transept, with a plain square tower.
Inside it has some handsome pointed arches, and on the north wall of the chancel is the sculptured stone altar-tomb of Sir Anthony Forster, with brass of himself, his wife, and his three children.
This monument has a long and florid Latin inscription, eulogising Sir Anthony and his lady in the highest terms, and especially attribut- ing to the gentleman the possession of the highest Christian virtues in a very unusual degree.
From this it would seem to follow that, unless the writer of the epitaph had even less regard for truth than such gentry are usually credited with, Sir Walter Scott's account of the facts connected with the death of Amy Robsart cannot be considered as in the least degree historically correct.
The church also contains an old chained Bible, and on the south wall, on a brass, is the following curious
Epitaph upon ye Death of James Welsh.
the body of James Welsh lyeth buryed here,
Who left this mortal life at fourscore yeare;
One thousand and six hundred twelve he dyed,
And for the poore did Christianly provide.
According to the talent God had lent,
Five poundes he gave of zeale and good intent;
the fruite makes knowne the nature of the tree,
Good life the Christian, even so was hee;
Whose tyme well spent unto his soul did gaine
The heavenly rest where holy saints remaine.
Yhis memory a loving wife unto her husband gave,
To show her heart remembers him, though death inclose his grave.
The gyfte he gave unto the poore she hath inlarged the same,
With five poundes added to his five, unto her Christian fame;
Hath placed them both to ye churchmen here, nowise to be delay'd,
But that yearly to the poor of Cumner be a mark of silver pay'd;
Which is the full apoynted rent of the whole beqveathed some,
And so for ever shall remaine untill the day of dome.
In Cumner, for the poore's releife, Margery Welsh doth will,
The charge of this, when she is deade, may be performed still.

The lady certainly got a thorough good advertisement for the money.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office in the village.
Nearest money order, telegraph office, &c., Oxford.
Letters through Oxford.
Nearest Railway Station, Oxford; distant 4 miles {which see).

Stanton Harcourt

Stanton Harcourt, a village in Oxfordshire, about two miles from Bablock Hithe Ferry, is distinguished in county history as the manor of the Harcourt family, to whom it was granted in the time of Henry I., and who resided here until late in the 17th century, when they removed to Nuneham Courtney.
To students of English literature Stanton Harcourt is still more interesting as having been frequently visited by Pope, who finished the translation of the fifth book of "Homer" in the study which was allotted to his use by the Harcourt of that time - a circumstance which he recorded with a diamond on one of the panes of the window, a curious and interesting autograph still preserved at Nuneham Courtney.
Of the old manor house little now remains, except the tower, on the second floor of which Pope's study still exists, the view from it over the surrounding country being very charming.
The kitchen of the old house also remains, and is almost unique, there being, it is said, but one other of the period in England.
It is of enormous size, with prodigious arrangements for furnaces, but without a chimney, the smoke being allowed to escape by an ingenious arrangement of loopholes and shutters in the lofty roof.
The present pretty house is built upon the site of the old lodge.
The village itself is very charming, and possesses a remarkably handsome church with chancel, nave, transepts, and a fine square tower, at the north-east corner of which is a tourelle.
There is excellent Norman work in the building, and some remarkably good windows, &c., of the Early English period.
A fine old piscina in the chancel and the old rood screen are also interesting.
On the south of the chancel is the private chapel of the Harcourt family, containing four altar tombs with recum- bent figures representing distinguished members of the family, among them Sir Robert Harcourt, in plate armour and the mantle of the Garter, who died in 1490; another Sir Robert Harcourt, who fought at Bosworth; George Simon, Earl Harcourt, who died in 1809; and Archbishop Harcourt, dated 1847.
The chapel also contains a brass memorial tablet to members of the family, the list beginning with "Bernard the Dane", 876.
In the south of the church is a curious marble mural monument, with half-length figures holding skulls, of Philip Harcourt and his wife, 1688, and a passable statue of Field Marshal Harcourt, 1830.
Noticeable also is a large marble mural tablet with two allegorical female figures as supports.
Two well-preserved brasses will be found on the chancel floor, and in the chancel is an altar-tomb with a painted recumbent female figure; and another, which probably also at one time had a figure under its canopy.
Among the minor celebrities of Stanton Harcourt are John Hewitt and Sarah Drew, two virtuous villagers, who, just before the day fixed for their marriage, in 1717, were struck dead together by lightning.
This incident greatly exercised the sentimental feelings of Lady Mary Wortley Montague and Mr.Pope.
The lovers are buried in Stanton Harcourt churchyard, and on the south side of the church is a tablet bearing the following epitaph from the pen of Pope himself, whose genius would appear to have somewhat deserted him during its composition:

Think not by rigorous judgment seized
A pair so faithful could expire;
Victims so pure Heaven saw well pleas'd,
And snatch'd them in celestial fire.

Live well and fear no sudden fate;
When God calls virtue to the grave,
Alike 'tis justice soon or late,
Mercy alike to kill and save.

Virtue unmoved can hear the call,
And face the flash that melts the ball.

Some half-mile from Stanton Harcourt are two large stones called the "Devil's Quoits", which are said, on doubtful authority, to have been set up to commemorate a great battle fought in 614 between the Britons and the Saxons under that Cynegil who was subsequently baptized by Birinus at Dorchester.
The soil of Stanton Harcourt is gravel, and the population of the village numbers between 600 and 700.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office in the village (nearest money order, savings bank, and telegraph office, Eynsham).
Nearest Railway Station, Eynsham, about 3 miles (which see).

Farmoor Reservoir; Pinkhill Meadows Nature Reserve

Pinkhill Lock

After passing Skinner's Weir, rather more than 1½ mile further, the river twists and turns about A great deal, until we reach Pinkhill Lock, 8½ miles from Oxford, with a fall of about three feet.

Oxford Cruisers Boatyard

Swinford Bridge (Eynsham

Round a good many corners, and rather more than a mile off [from Pinkhill Lock], is Eynsham [Swinford] Bridge, from Oxford 7 miles,

Eynsham, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, distant from Oxford about 7 miles, a station on the Great Western Railway, 70 miles from Paddington, the time occupied by the fast trains being about 2¼ hours.
Eynsham is a sufficiently uninteresting little town; situated on a hill, about three-quarters of a mile from the river, which is here spanned by a handsome bridge; and, except as a centre for excursions, headquarters for anglers, or a resting-place for oarsmen travelling between Cricklade and Oxford, offers no attraction to the visitor.
The church of St.Leonard is an old stone building of considerable size, with a square embattled tower, and presents many varieties of architecture to the examination of the student.
The interior, which contains several mural monuments and a brass of 1632, is chiefly remarkable for the arches which divide the nave from the aisles.
there are also Baptist and Methodist places of worship in the town.
The soil is various, and the population about 2,200.
Fire: Engine opposite the church.
Hotels: "the Swan" and "Red Lion".
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph), opposite the church.
Mails from London (via Oxford) 6.48am, 12.30pm
Mails for London, 10.40am, 9pm
Nearest Bridges, up, Langley's (or Ridge's Weir) foot, about 7 miles, and New Bridge, a mile farther;
down, Godstow, 2½ miles.
Locks, up, Pinkhill, rather more than a mile; down, Godstow, near the bridge.
Ferry, Bablock Hithe, 3½ miles.
Fares: From Eynsham to Paddington, 1st, 12/8, 21/3; 2nd, 9/6, 16/-; 3rd, 5/10.

Eynsham Lock

and just below, round a very sharp corner, which necessitates a considerable deal of caution, is the [Eynsham] weir.

River Evenlode

Kings Lock

[Kings Weir was replaced by a lock in 1928]

Good reaches for about three miles [from Eynsham Lock] bring us to King's Weir, sharp on the right, the stream to the left going to the Duke's Lock, the junction with the Oxford Canal.
Our route lies over King's Weir, which is provided with a roller slip.

Thames Bridge

[1961: "Thames" Bridge over the "Isis" built; A34, Western Bypass]

Godstow Bridge

Passing presently under Godstow Bridge at the end of the cut, the ruins of Godstow Nunnery being on the right ...

Godstow Nunnery

Godstow: Of the "house of Nunnes beside Oxford", as Stow calls it, in which Fair Rosamond was buried, nothing now remains but some ivy-covered walls and its association with the story, or rather the legend, of the lady who was certainly no better than she should have been, but who almost as certainly never had that interview with Queen Eleanor and a bowl and a dagger which was for so many years accepted as an historical fact.
Travellers who wish to inspect the ruins will find them on the Berkshire shore,

The Trout Inn at Godstow

while those who are more interested in refreshing the inner man will find a snug little house on the opposite side of the bridge.

Godstow Lock

At Godstow, which is 3½ miles from Oxford, is a lock as well as a bridge.
Passing presently under Godstow Bridge at the end of the cut, the ruins of Godstow Nunnery being on the right, is Godstow Lock, 3½ miles from Oxford, on leaving which a pretty view of the city is obtained.

Port Meadow below Godstow Lock; The Perch Inn at Binsey; Medley Sailing Club

Bossoms Boatyard, Medley

A little distance lower down is an island where a number of boats are kept for hire;

Medley Footbridge

Medley Weir Site

Medley Weir was removed in 1937]

and on the right of this is Medley Weir, with a fall of about a foot.

Oxford Canal Round Trip from Folly Bridge up Canal and across to Kings Lock and back via Godstow

Various puntable Oxford rivers; Four rivers - a river crossroads

Osney Road Bridge

From this point the river runs past the railway and some very unaesthetic cottages to Osney Bridge, the weir on the right requiring attention.

Osney Lock

Three hundred yards further is Osney Lock.
{1883: with a fall of 4½ feet}
{1885: Extensive alterations are now (1885) being made here.}

Osney Marina; Bullstake Stream from the River towards Hinksey; Osney Railway Bridges; Castle Weir Stream; Osney Footbridge (was Gasworks Bridge); Oxford Footbridge

Site of Bacons Study, Roger Bacon

Trip from Oxford to London

Trip from Oxford to London: Twenty years ago [1860] this delightful excursion was almost unknown except to ardent devotees of aquatics, and although at that time there were comparatively few hotels along the river-bank, there was generally very little difficulty in obtaining accommodation.
Of late years the journey has become one of the regular things to do, and in a fine season the river swarms with boats for some four months.
Hotels have sprung up and have been enlarged in all directions to meet the demand; but, especially if there be ladies in the party, it will be found discreet not to trust to the chance of getting rooms at the end of the day's journey, but to write or telegraph beforehand to secure what is wanted.
The drawback of this plan of course is that it binds the traveller to a fixed itinerary, and parcels the journey out into so many days, whatever may be the temptations to linger on the way or to push forward.
On the other hand, to arrive at a landing-stage about dinner-time, wet through and hungry, and with perhaps three miles and a couple of locks to the next hotel, it is, to say the least, annoying to find that some more wary wayfarers have occupied the quarters which you had hoped to obtain.
In the height of the season, indeed, especially on Saturday and Sunday, considerable notice is necessary to ensure even the humblest quarters.

One week allowed for journey, after which extra hire will be charged, unless notice be given that the boat is done with, and where left. 2s 6d to be paid for care until van calls.
Boat vans from Oxford to Kingston, Richmond, or Wandsworth, and back, usually every week during the summer. Gentlemen's boats carted.
Competent watermen at reasonable charges. Cooking stoves and requisites for camping supplied.

There are many ways of making this excursion; perhaps the pleasantest form of conveyance is a randan skiff with two sitters, as there is thus plenty of rest and variety in the work.
People who do not own suitable boats would do well to engage what they want from Mr. Salter, of Oxford, who lets boats specially for these excursions at rates which include carriage back to Oxford, thus relieving the hirer of any responsibility after he has finished his trip and deposited his boat with one of Mr. Salter's agents, from whom he will take a receipt.
It is, of course, undesirable to take much luggage in the boat.
There are so many railway stations on or near the banks of the river that the heavy luggage which may be required for a lengthened stay can be forwarded from place to place without difficulty.
Good waterproof rugs or sheets to protect such bags, &c, as are taken must not be omitted from the outfit.
The most convenient stopping places are Abingdon, Wallingford, Streatley, Pangbourne, Sonning, Wargrave, Henley, Medmenham, Marlow, Cookham, Maidenhead, Bray, Windsor, Staines, Chertsey, Halliford, and Hampton Court.
At all of these places there is good hotel accommodation.
The prices of the Thames hotels are, as a rule, fairly reasonable; although, like all similar matters, they have shown a considerable tendency to increase of late years.
The fashionable places, such as Oxford, Henley, Maidenhead, and Windsor (so far, at least, as regards the two big hotels, opposite the Castle), are, of course, more expensive than the others, and may be called even high in their charges.
The hotels at the other places vary but little.
Generally speaking, 14s or 15s a day will cover the expense of bed, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and attendance.
To say that the majority of Thames hotel-keepers still have fossil ideas as to the value of wines is only to say that they are human, and hotel-keepers.
It is astonishing that nobody can be induced to try the experiment of stimulating a largely- increased consumption by a system of reasonable charges.
There is, undoubtedly, a fortune waiting for the sensible man who is first in the field.

So many accidents have occurred and continue to occur, not only to novices but to practised oarsmen familiar with the river and its vagaries, that without any desire to assume the office of mentor, or to lay down the law to people who may quite well know what they are about, a word of caution may be added here before starting on the trip.
The river is safe enough for anyone who can manage a boat, but too much care cannot be observed in all boating excursions.
"Sky-larking", which sacrifices almost as many lives as incautious boating, will of course be avoided by all sensible people; but it cannot be too strongly or too often urged that a very little carelessness may produce a very great disaster, and that, although it is very easy to get into the river, it is sometimes uncommonly difficult to get out again, more especially if the scene of the accident be in a lock.
Locks should always be treated with the greatest respect both in entering, passing through, and leaving, and a wide berth should be given to all weirs, mill streams, and lashers.
Towing against a strong stream requires more care on the part of the coxswain as well as of the person on the bank than people are generally disposed to believe.
A typical accident occurred near The Grotto at Basildon on the bank holiday of August, 1879, when a boat, which was being towed up against a strong flood, and was steered suddenly too far into the stream, was absolutely pulled over by the tow-rope, and capsized with a loss of two lives.

Folly Bridge

{1883: and a short distance beyond this is the weir just above Folly Bridge, Oxford.}
{1885: A little further is Folly Bridge, Oxford.}

[1884: The Folly Bridge Lock gates were removed and passage left open
I assume the weir was also removed at that date]

Oxford City: From London 111½ miles.
By rail from Paddington, 63 miles, Population, 32,000.
Mr.John Richard Green, in his "Stray Studies from England and Italy", is hard upon the city of Oxford:
"To most Oxford men - indeed, to the common visitor of Oxford - the town seems a mere offshoot of the University; its appearance is altogether modern ...
In all outer seeming, Oxford appears a mere assemblage of indifferent streets that have grown out of the needs of the University, and the impression is heightened by its commercial unimportance ... as a municipality it seems to exist only by grace or usurpation of prior University privileges ...
The peace of the town is still but partially in the hands of its magistrates, and the riotous student is amenable only to University jurisdiction."
Mr.Green goes on to show, that so far from the above being the fact, Oxford had been a prosperous city hundreds of years before the foundation of the University, and opines that its connection with the University
"has probably been its commercial ruin ...
The University found Oxford a busy, prosperous borough, and reduced it to a cluster of lodging-houses."

It is certainly not given to the casual visitor to see anything of the commercial ruin of which Mr.Green speaks.
The town has a thriving and money-making air; even out of term the streets, especially about Cornmarket-street and Carfax, are thronged, and although the business done maybe of a retail sort, there is no doubt plenty of it.
Its modern appearance, however, cannot be denied; and although its history is surpassed in importance and romantic associations by that of few cities in the empire, it is for its University surroundings that it presents the most attractive features for the tourist and sightseer.
Only a few ruins of the castle, which was built by Robert D'Oilly after the Conquest, and of the massive city walls remain.
Oxford City is only old in its annals.

Oxford is governed by a high steward, mayor, recorder - W.H.Cooke, Esq. Q.C: sheriff, ten aldermen, and thirty councillors.
It is a Parliamentary borough, constituency, 6,134, and has returned members to Parliament since the time of Edward I., but is at present unrepresented.
It is the capital of the episcopal see of Oxford; the original abbey at Osney, which was at one time the cathedral, has long been destroyed, and the present cathedral is Christ Church.
Oxford is an infantry brigade depot, is the headquarters of the Oxfordshire Militia and of the 1st (University) and 2nd Administrative Battalions Oxfordshire Rifle Volunteers.

The University boat-races attract many visitors, especially in the spring, and the great event of the year, which should be attended by all who wish to see Oxford from its best and brightest - but it must be owned most expensive - side, is the Encoenia or Commemoration of Founders Com mem. as it is generally abbreviated.
The festivities of this function are spread over almost a week, and include public orations and recitations of prize exercises in the Sheldonian, which is annually filled by a crowd of ladies who, one would think, must find the proceedings dull; balls, garden parties, processions of boats, picnics to Nuneham, excursions to Blenheim, Godstow, and Woodstock, flower-shows, interspersed with little dinners and breakfasts, the engineering of which your Oxford Don well understands.

As the capital of an important agricultural district, Oxford is naturally selected as the headquarters of many county institutions.
Among them are the Oxfordshire Agricultural Society, established in 1811 to encourage the rearing and breeding of live stock, &c., and for organising shows in various parts of the county; the Oxfordshire Horticultural Society, established i830,a flourishing institution whose objects are indicated by its name; the Charity Organisation Association, established 1844; and to take another point of view, the Labourers' Union, an offshoot of that which had its origin at Leamington.
The charities are numerous, the most interesting and ancient being Cutler Boulter's Charity; Stone's Hospital, founded 1700 by the Rev.W.Stone, Principal of New Inn Hall; and Richard Wooten's Charity for 14 pensioners.
The Radcliffe Infirmary, founded by that Dr.Radcliffe whose name occurs so often in the annals of the University, opened in 1770, has a weekly average of 112 beds occupied, and treats, besides, a large number of out-patients.
A Provident Dispensary has been established within the last two or three years with satisfactory results.
The Boys' and Girls' Blue Coat Schools date respectively from 1710 and 1756, and educate about 110 children.
Naturally Oxford is the home of numerous educational establishments, of which the Diocesan Training College for schoolmistresses deserves notice.
Very important and significant are the Colleges for Ladies, founded under the auspices of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women.
Following the example of Girton and Newnham at Cambridge, the Lady Margaret Hall and Somerville Hall provide for ladies such educational opportunities as would qualify them for taking the University degree, if Alma Mater took as much interest in the girls as she does in the boys.
At Lady Margaret, or Lady's Hall, the expense is about £75 per annum, in addition to about £15 per annum fees for instruction.
At Somerville Hall, the expenses are rather less.
The terms correspond generally with those of the University.
Full particulars in regard to these novel and useful institutions may be obtained, as to Lady Margaret Hail, from Miss Wordsworth, the principal, the Hon.Mrs.Talbot, Keble College, or Mrs.A.H.Johnson, 22, Norham Gardens, Oxford; and as to Somerville Hall, from the secretaries, the Hon.Mrs.Harcourt, Cowley Grange, Oxford, and Mrs.T.H.Ward, 5, Bradmore-road, Oxford, or the Principal, Miss M.Shaw Lefevre.
The City Public Library of about 9,000 volumes is at present located in inconvenient quarters under the Town Hall.
The Masonic body musters strongly; and there are two Masonic Halls, one in Alfred-street, High-street, where three lodges meet, and the other, that of the Apollo University Lodge, in Frewen-court, Cornmarket-street.

Two political clubs, the Conservative and the Reform (entrance fee, £1 1s, subscription, £1 1s) keep the fire of party politics alive and there is also the Clarendon Club with social and literary objects (entrance-fee, £2 2s, subscription, £2 2s), admission being by ballot, excluding black balls being calculated in proportion to number of voters.
There is also St.Catherine's Club, Broad-street, founded in 1874 for the benefit of the scholares non ascripti of the University, and conducted by the undergraduates themselves.
The ordinary subscription is 15s per term.
A dinner at a very reasonable price is served every evening, and co-operative stores, etc., are connected with the club.
There is an extensive corn exchange, county hall, and courts where the assizes are held, and the county gaol, the city prison having been lately dismantled.
The Town Hall in St.Aldate-street is a spacious chamber, and has at the back of the dais a quaint carving of the city arms, dating from 1577.
In the council chamber will be found numerous portraits, the most important being one of the third Duke of Marlborough by Gainsborough.
Among others are portraits of Queen Anne; Alderman Nixon, 1638, and Joan his wife, principally noticeable for her curious conical hat; Richard Hawkins, Alderman, 1638; Sir Thomas White, Alderman of London, "a worthy benefactor who gave unto the Cite of Oxford and xxiii other cities and townes everie 23rd year one hundred and fiv poundes for ever".

St.Mary the Virgin, the University church in the High-street, is, with curious twisted pillars, elaborately-decorated facade, and beautiful spire, one of the most prominent buildings in the city.
It was built under the superintendence of Adam de Brome, almoner to Eleanor of Castile, whose tomb is in the north chantry.
On the south wall, under the tower, is a brass, apparently to Edmund Crofton, 1507, and over the door are some very curious carvings.
The chancel and nave are separated by an organ-screen and loft.
The Lenten University Sermon and Bampton Lectures are delivered here.
In the south part of the nave is a brass inscription to William Tillyard, 1587, Peter Pory, 1610, and Elizabeth their wife, 1621.
The stained glass on the south side of the nave is exceedingly good.
By the reading-desk in the chancel, covered by a mat, is a marble slab let into the pavement, bearing the following inscription: "In a vault of brick, at the upper end of this quire, was buried Amy Robsart, wife of Lord Robert Dudley, K.G., on Sunday 22nd September, A.D. 1560."
St.Aldate's is dedicated to a British Saint, who lived about 450, and is supposed to have been originally founded by the Britons.
Speed says it was founded or restored about 1004.
It subsequently belonged to the Priory of St.Frideswide and to the Abbey of Abingdon.
The present building is of various dates and styles.
The oldest remains - an arcade of five small circular-headed arches, apparently of Norman work - were removed at the enlargement in 1862 from the chancel to the east end of the north chancel aisle.
A recess in the north wall of the chancel, with a flat pointed arch of later date, probably once used as an Easter sepulchre, now contains a good alabaster altar tomb to the memory of John Noble, Principal of Broadgates Hall (the original of Pembroke College), who died 1522.
The north aisle, originally called St.Saviour's Chapel, was built in 1455 by Philip Polton, Archdeacon of Gloucester.
The south aisle was built early in the reign of Edward III. by Sir John de Docklington, several times Mayor of Oxford, and in its original state must have been a fine specimen of decorated work.
The old tower and spire were of about the same date, but being in a dangerous state were taken down and rebuilt 1873-74.
During the incumbency of the present rector more than £6,000 have been expended under the superintendence of Mr.J.T.Christopher, of Bloomsbury-square, London, in the enlargement and restoration of the church.
A number of brasses are in the church, but, as is unfortunately the case in too many of the Oxford churches, the interior is so dark as to preclude the possibility of deciphering the inscriptions.
The church possesses a fine old carved font, supported at the foot by carved monsters.
Hearne states that it was the custom for the people of this parish to eat sugar sops out of the font on Holy Thursday.
The present sexton has a lively recollection of hot rolls and butter in his youth at Pembroke on the same date.

St.Mary Magdalen, between Balliol and Cornmarket-street, is a very ancient church, the original edifice dating from before the Conquest, but has been rebuilt, repaired, and restored from time to time down to 1875, when the tower arch was opened up.
It has a perpendicular battlemented tower, partly built from materials taken from Osney Abbey, on the Cornmarket side of which will be observed in a niche a small cunningly-wrought stone effigy of St.Mary.
The north, or martyr's aisle, was added by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1841.
Here is the old oak door, surmounted by carvings of Ridley, Latimer, and Cranmer, which formerly stood in the old city gaol, the Bocardo, at the entrance to the cell in which the martyrs were confined.
On the wall facing the old font are one or two old brasses: one to Jane Fitzherbert, 1574; another with a kneeling figure to General Smithers, 1580.
Against the west wall of the south aisle is a slab (1735) to the memory of Francis Seely, late of the University of Oxford, Barber and Periwig Maker, "who, in the relation of a husband, a father, or a friend, was equalled by few, excelled by none".
A slab in the vestry records in peculiar language the virtues of Mrs.Elizabeth Baylie, "niece to yt glorious Martyr and Asserter of the Church of England, Dr.William Laud, Arch-Bpp. of Cant".
Under the west window by the organ is a finely-carved old oak-chest, called the Jewel Chest, formerly used as a receptacle for the old Catholic communion plate.

St.Michael, in Cornmarket-street, was restored by Mr.Street in 1855, and has a coloured marble altar-piece, his gift.
In the lady-chapel on the north is an elaborately-painted brass with kneeling figures of Alderman Randolphus Flexney and Catarina his wife, who died respectively in 1578 and 1567; close to which will be found an extraordinary stone carving of a man and a woman, apparently having high jinks with a skeleton.
Here also is a brass, "Joannis Pendarves", 1617, and a stone with an incised portrait, dated 1603, of Walter Dotyn.
St.Peter's-in-the-East, by St.Edmund Hall, the back of which runs along the churchyard, is a very ancient church, dating probably from the 12th century.
The crypt, sometimes called Grymbald's with its rows of squat columns, is probably the oldest part of the building.
A door is here pointed out, in connection with which is a Fair Rosamond legend.
The south door, which is a unique specimen of Norman work, and the groined roof of the chancel with its appropriate chain ornaments, should be noted.
The Petworth marble tomb to the memory of Sir R. Atkinson, 1574, four times Mayor of Oxford, is in the choir-room; but as it is covered with a deal bookcase it is quite impossible to say more of it.
On the right of the entrance to the crypt is a small but fine window.
The Catholic church of St.Aloysius, St.Giles's-road-west, was opened in 1875, and is a lofty though rather bare and cold building, with a fine reredos and altar, the gift of the Marquis of Bute.

Banks: Gillett and Co., 54, Cornmarket-street;
London and County, 121, High-street;
Oxford University and City, 119, St.Aldate-street;
Parsons, Thomson, and Co.
, High-street.
Fairs: May 3; Monday and Tuesday after St.Giles; Thursday before September 29.
Fire: Volunteer: Engine-house, New Inn Hall-street.
Hotels: "Clarendon", Cornmarket-street; "Mitre", High-street: "Randolph", corner of Beaumont-street; "Roebuck", Cornmarket-street.
Infirmary: Radcliffe.
Markets: Every second Wednesday (cattle); Saturday (corn).
Places of Worship: Christ Church Cathedral; All Saints, Cowley; St.John; Holy Trinity; St.Ebbe's; Magdalen College Chapel; New College Chapel; St.Aldate's; St.Barnabas; St.Clement's; St.Cross or Holywell; St.Ebbe's; St.Frideswides; St.George the Martyr; St.Giles's; St.John the Baptist; St.John the Baptist (Summertown); St.Mary Magdalene; St.Martin's (Carfax); St.Mary the Virgin; St.Michael's; St.Paul's; St.Peter's-in-the-East; St.Peter-le-Bailey; St.Philip and St.James; and St.Thomas the Martyr.
The Roman Catholic Church of St.Aloysius, and numerous chapels belonging to the Baptist, Congregational, Independent, Methodist, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan bodies.
Police: Station, High-street; County Police Station, New-road.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), St.Aldate-street.
Mails from London, delivered at 6.30 and 9.30am, and 12.30 and 6.45pm; Sunday, 6.30am.
Mails for London, 8.25 and 11.15am, 3.20, 6.45, and 12pm; Sunday, 12pm
Nearest Bridges: Folly; down, Abingdon 7¾ miles.
Lock: down, Iffley about a mile.
Railway Station: Oxford.
Fares to Paddington or Euston-square, 1st, 11/-, 18/6; 2nd, 8/4, 14/-; 3rd, 5/3½.

Cab Fares, Distance:
Not exceeding a mile and a quarter, one person: 1s
For every additional person: 6d
For each succeeding half-mile: 6d
For every additional person: 6d
For every fifteen minutes' detention: 6d
Persons hiring by distance may return to the place of hiring, or any portion of the distance, on payment of one-half the proper fare.
One or two persons, one hour; 2s 6d
For every additional person: 6d
For every additional fifteen minutes: 6d
For every additional person: 3d
If a carriage be hired by time, and the driver cannot return to the nearest cabstand within the hour, half-hour, or such other time for which he shall receive payment, he shall in such case be entitled to charge one-half the proper fare for so much time as may be necessary to enable him to return to the nearest cab-stand.
Children being Passengers:
Infants carried in the arms or on the lap, or one child not so carried, but under seven years of age, and accompanied by an adult, shall not be charged for as passengers; but every two children under seven years of age, not so carried, shall be charged for as one adult passenger.
Night Fares:
An additional half fare, both by distance and time, shall be paid for every fare or so much of every fare as may be performed by any carriage after twelve o'clock at night and before six o'clock in the morning.
Luggage allowed not to exceed 112 lbs. in weight;
9d to be paid for every 112 lbs weight carried in excess of the weight allowed.
Computation of Distance:
the distance travelled shall be computed from the stand or place where the carriage may be engaged or hired, and shall extend to any distance not exceeding five miles within the district to be computed from the General Post Office aforesaid.
(as given in the "Oxford Chronicle Railway Guide").
From the Great Western Railway Station (down platform) to the following places is one mile and a quarter:
To the south end of Magdalen Bridge,
To the Banbury-road, opposite Shrub-lands (north of Bevington-road).
To Plantation-road, Woodstock-road.
To Kingston-road, midway between Tackley-place and Farndon-road.
To Abingdon-road, near Whitehouse-lane.
From Oxford Post Office (St.Aldate-street) to the following places is one mile and a quarter:
To Iffley-road, midway between Henley-street and Stanley-street.
To Cowley-road, about 20 yards short of Divinity-walk (Local Board boundary).
To Woodstock-road, at the Small-Pox Hospital, about 230 yards north of Rackham-lane.
To Abingdon-road, at Cold Harbour.
To Botley-road, 60 yards short of Seven Arches Bridge.

Oxford, from London Bridge about 111½ miles.
The towing-path, after leaving Folly Bridge, Oxford, follows the right bank.
On the left are the boatrafts, and the barges of the various colleges moored off Christ Church Meadows, where in the winter, after a flood, there is sometimes capital skating.

Oxford University [link to alphabetical section below]

Oxford Royal Regatta

Neptune Rowing Club

Neptune Rowing Club, Oxford: the object of this club, which consists of effective members, members, and honorary members, is to encourage amateur rowing.
Effective members pay a subscription of £1, members one of 10s, and honorary members not less than 5s.
The members elect; one black ball in four excludes.
Colours, orange, black and red.
Headquarters, "three Cups" Hotel, Queen Street, Oxford.

See also University of Oxford

Head of the River pub, Oxford; Punting, where and how; Salters Steamers; Christ Church Meadow, Oxford

Cherwell - Victoria Arms up to Islip (punt limit; ; Victoria Arms on the River Cherwell; Bardwell Rd to Victoria Arms on the Cherwell; Boat Rollers to below Bardwell Rd on the River Cherwell; Above Magdalen Bridge. Magdalen Water to the boat rollers on the River Cherwell; Magdalen Water and Addisons Walk on the River Cherwell; Magdalen Bridge on the River Cherwell; River Cherwell to below Magdalen Bridge; River Cherwell first mouth on the Isis beside Christchurch Meadow

Online levels, Flowmeter and graphs, Flags & levels

Oxford Rowing before 1820 - prints and history; 1820s; 1830s; 1840s; 1850s; 1860s; 1870s; 1880s; 1890s; 1900s; 1910s; 1920s; 1930s; 1940s; 1950s

Oxford Life 1950s

1960s; 1970s; 1980s; 1990s; 2000s; 2010s; Boathouse Island

[c.1950s: Boathouse replaced the College barges]

Right bank University College Boathouse on the Isis; Left bank Main Cherwell mouth onto the Isis; Left bank Astons Eyot, Greenbank

Right bank Longbridges Rowing boathouses on the Isis

About three-quarters of a mile from Folly Bridge are the long bridges, across a backwater, which re-enters the Thames - in this part of its course sometimes called the Isis - half a mile below Iffley.
Here is the University bathing-place.
The passage is impeded by weirs, and the course of the river must accordingly be followed.

The Gut; Freshman's River; Sea Scouts; Falcon Rowing; Riverside Slipway

Donnington Road Bridge

[1962: Donnington Road Bridge opened]

Oxford City RC; Salters Boatyard; Iffley Nature Reserve; Haystacks Corner; Isis Boathouse

Isis Inn

Rather more than half a mile farther is the "Isis Tavern" (right bank).
Here the right bank must be followed, with a careful eye on the lasher, which appears rather unexpectedly, as the weir-stream which turns Iffley Mill, and which is marked by a large Conservancy "Danger" board, is very rapid and unprotected,

Iffley Lock

[1924: Iffley lock was completely re-sited and the weir between it and the Isis Inn was removed.]

Iffley, called in Domesday Book Giftelei, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, 110 miles from London, 1½ miles from Oxford.
Population about 1,000. Soil, loam.
Iffley is noticeable chiefly for its old mill on the river, and for its church, which is one of the best specimens of Anglo-Norman architecture now left to us in a building of this size.
It is hardly necessary to visit Iffley to see the mill.
It has been painted in every kind of medium, and photographed in every sort of camera, till it must be as familiar to most people as Windsor Castle itself.
Rarely, indeed, is there an exhibition of the Academy, or the Dudley, or of any of the water-colour societies, without at least one bit from Iffley.
From the lock, the village is approached by a bridge over the weir, passing through a gate at the mill.
This is kept locked, and a toll is required from each person of 1d.
About five minutes' walk from the lock is the post-office, and about 200 yards to the right is the church, dedicated to St.Mary, which is known to have been built prior to 1189, so that a tablet on the outer north wall, dated 1659, which elsewhere might lay claim to a decent antiquity, here appears to be even absurdly juvenile.
The fine embattled tower rises between the chancel and the nave, and is in common with the rest of the church, in singularly fine preservation.
Perhaps the best point about the exterior is the west front, which has a grand doorway with a noble arch, enriched with carving, about which there is even something Saracenic, as is indeed the case with some of the carved and fretted work of the interior.
The east bay of the chancel is as built by Robert de Efteley, a prior of Kenilworth, about 1270.
The ornamented piers and capitals of the south and north doorways and the chevron and sunflowers of the tower arches in the interior, are very noteworthy.
The vaulted chancel roof is boldly groined.
The building appears to be unusually narrow in proportion to its length.
Above the doorway at the west end is a characteristic circular window.
The font is large and massive, and is said to be coeval with the church itself.
The windows are of stained glass of no great interest, except in so far that the west window commemorates the author of "the Crescent and the Cross".
The churchyard is famous for its yew, certainly one of the finest old trees of that class in the country, and which it requires no great stretch of imagination to believe might have been planted at a date not very much later than the foundation of the church itself.
Near it stands a monumental cross of ancient date, which has recently been restored by Mr.G.Street, R.A.
The rectory house, which abuts on the churchyard, harmonises well with its venerable neighbours.
The west side contains some excellent perpendicular work, and with the old Norman tower behind it, and its garden sloping to the river, forms one of the prettiest pictures on the Thames.
The Manor House (which overlooks the lock), though perhaps older by a century than the rectory, has been altered and patched until scarcely any traces of what it was remain.
Dr.Johnson visited this house with Boswell on 11th June, 1784, when Dr.Nowell resided there.
Boswell says:
"We were well entertained and very happy at Dr.Nowell's, where was a very agreeable company, and we drank 'Church and King' after dinner with true Tory cordiality."
The name of the village has, it is said, been found spelt in eighty different ways during the last 1,000 years.

Iffley lock is on the right bank of the lasher, immediately on passing which the lock comes into view, leaving the river a little distance up stream.
The weir, on which is the mill, has a very rapid stream, and has a somewhat evil reputation for accidents.
Some care, therefore, should be exercised when waiting for the lock to open.
The lock is of stone, in good repair except as to the gates.
A roller slip has been recently added.
The fall is from 2½ to 3 feet.
Excellent dace-fishing with the fly on the scowers and shallows from Iffley Mill-tail to Rose Island, Kennington.
Inns: "Isis" (Grandpont on the river); "the Trees", in the village.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Mails from London, 6.23am, 2.05pm; Sundays, 6.23am
Mails for London, 6.20pm; Sundays, 3.19 pm
Nearest money order and telegraph office: Cowley.
Nearest Bridges, up, Oxford; down, Abingdon about 7 miles.
Locks: Iffley; down, Sandford 1¾ miles.
Railway Stations: Oxford and Littlemore.
Fares, Oxford to Paddington: 1st, 11/-, 18/6; 2nd, 8/4, 14/-; 3rd, 5/7.
From Littlemore the fares are a trifle lower.

Iffley Lock, average fall 2 ft 6 in, is reached.
The lock is in good condition, but the upper gates want repairing.
It has a roller slip.

Iffley Mill

[1908: Iffley Mill destroyed by fire]

Isis Bridge

[1962: Isis Bridge, A423, Southern Bypass, was built]

Kennington Railway Bridge

Half a mile below Iffley is the iron bridge of the Great Western Railway, from beneath which is a very pretty view of the spires of Oxford, particularly of the tower of Magdalen College,

Rose Island [Kennington Island]

and at the bottom of the next reach (left bank) is Rose Island (sometimes called Kennington Island, the little village of that name being on the opposite bank), with its plain but snug little inn, the "Swan".
Here the river takes a sharp curve to the right, and just below the island is a rustic bridge to the Oxfordshire bank, and the tow-path just below crosses a backwater by an iron bridge.
The course of the river is, however, quite plain.

Kennington Island, sometimes called Rose Island, opposite the little village of Kennington in Berkshire, about 2½ miles from Oxford.
Here is a good little inn, "The Swan", to which is attached some private fishing.
Nearest Bridges, up, Oxford about 2½ miles; down, Abingdon about 5½ miles.
Locks: up, Iffley ½ mile; down, Sandford 1½ mile.
Railway Station: Littlemore.
Fares, Littlemore to Paddington: 1st, 10/9, 18/-; 2nd, 7/6, 12/6; 3rd, 5/2
Fares, from Paddington: 1st, 10/9, 18/-; 2nd, 7/6, 12/6; 3rd, 5/2.

Kings Arms

(the mill, weir-stream, and "King's Arms Inn" are [on the] left [bank])
Sandford, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, 108¾ miles from London, 2¾ miles from Oxford.
Population, 348. Soil, heavy clay.
Sandford is a village nestling in a well-wooded country, its most picturesque portion lying in a dip at the back of the churchyard, where is an old farmhouse, dating from the beginning of the 17th century, which deserves attention.
A walk of about seven minutes from the river leads to the church, which was originally founded in the time of William the Norman, and which has been twice extensively restored within the last thirty years, the last time in 1864.
A memorial of a former restorer exists in the shape of a tablet over the porch, bearing the following inscription:
"Condidit me Dnina Eliza Isham Anno Gratiæ 1652.
Porticus patronæ.
Thanks to thy charitie religiose dame,
Wch found mee old, and made mee new againe."
Within the church is a mural monument to one William Powell, dated 1661, and adorned with the cherubs and skull so dear to the monumental designer of that period.
On the east wall is an elaborate carving in a somewhat defaced condition, which is said to represent the Assumption of the Virgin.
This interesting specimen of 16th-century art was found buried in the churchyard, where it had probably been concealed from the spoiler.
The church stands in a quaint little walled churchyard, containing very ancient grave-stones, and made bright and cheerful with standard roses along the main pathway.
From one side of it is a view of the old farm- house and of some fine trees, which, together, make a picture such as Creswick delighted to paint.
Abutting on the churchyard at the west end are the schools, built in 1860 and 1868; and opposite are the village shop and post-office.
A Preceptory of Knights Templars was founded in Sandford by Queen Maud, which latterly fell into the possession of the Knights Hospitallers.

The pool here is good for pike and perch, and where the water is quiet, heavy bags of roach may be made in the season, particularly during September and October, when the aquatic vegetation upon which the fish feed becomes sour and unpalatable.
All the way down below Nuneham good swims may be found for roach and gudgeon, while under the overhanging trees of Nuneham Park very handsome chub lie in wait for the insects that breed and fall from the foliage.
Inn: The "King's Arms".
Place of Worship: St.Andrew's.
Postal Arrangements: Mails from London, from 6.45 to 9; same on Sunday.
Mails for London, 5.45pm; Sunday, 2.45pm
Nearest telegraph office, Cowley.
Nearest Bridges, up, Folly Bridge, Oxford 2¾ miles; down, Abingdon 5 miles.
Locks: up, Iffley 1¾ mile; down, Abingdon 4½ miles.
Railway Station: Littlemore, near Oxford.
FARES, from Littlemore to Paddington: 1st, 10/9, 18/-; 2nd, 7/6, 12/6; 3rd, 5/-.

Falcon Rowing Club

Falcon Rowing Club, Oxford: Number of members not limited.
Election by ballot of general meeting, one black ball in three excludes.
Members proposed and seconded at one meeting and balloted for at the next, except in the boating season, when names of candidates are posted in the Barge for six clear days before the meeting for election.
Headquarters, King's Arms Hotel.
Entrance fee, 2s 6d.; subscription, £1; honorary members, 5s.
Colours, black, blue, and yellow.

Sandford Lock

On the right is Sandford Lock, average fall 7 ft, from London 108 miles 7 fur[longs ie 108⅞ miles], from Oxford 2 miles 5 fur [2⅝].

Sandford Lasher (Weir)

The pools at Sandford Lasher are very dangerous for bathing, and the obelisk that stands on the bank should warn bathers to avoid the spot.
It is notorious to all rowing men and habituis of the river that Sandford Lasher has almost yearly demanded its tale of victims, and it is almost inconceivable that people will continue year after year to tempt fate in this and other equally dangerous places.

Radley College Boathouses

Radley (St.Peter's College), near Abingdon, in the county of Berks, was opened by the Rev.Dr.Sewell, of Exeter College, Oxford, on June 9, 1847.
It is situated on rising ground within easy distance of the Thames, 4½ miles from Oxford, and about a mile from the Radley station on the Great Western Railway.
The design of the college is to give a thorough public school education to boys of the upper classes on the principles of the Church of England, and boys are admitted between the ages of 10 and 15.
Each boy is assigned to the special care of one of the masters, who is called his social tutor, and who is entrusted with a general supervision over his progress and welfare.
The gymnasium is made a special feature.
The Sewell Scholarships were founded in memory of the late Dr.Sewell, value £55 per annum.
Scholars are elected every second or third year.
Four Entrance Scholarships (value £50, £50, £30, and £20 respectively) are filled up each year, and are open to boys who were under 14 on the 1st of January preceding the examination.
The entrance scholarships are tenable for four years.
The other scholarships are: one founded by Sir Walter C.James, Bart., for boys under 18, value £30; two in memory of the late Rev.W.Beedon Heathcote, formerly warden, for boys under 17 and 18 respectively, value £20 each (one for classics and one for mathematics); one, founded by the late W.Gibbs, Esq., for boys under 16, value £20.
All these scholarships are tenable for one year only.
There is an entrance fee (for boys over 12) of £10 10s, and the college fees vary from about £105 to £126 per annum.
Railway Station: Radley.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 10/4, 18/-; 2nd, 7/9, 13/6; 3rd, 5/2

Radley Boat Club

At a safe distance below [Sandford] are the boat-houses and bathing-places of St.Peter's College, Radley.
Radley Boat Club is composed of students at St.Peter's College, Radley, in Berkshire, and is consequently a private club.
Its training course is from Abingdon Lasher to Nuneham Island, and the club annually puts on an eight for the Ladies' Plate at Henley Regatta. Boathouse at Sandford Lock.
Colours, red and white. Flag, white with red Maltese cross.

Nuneham Park

[1948: Sold to Oxford University
1993: Oxford University leased Nuneham Park to the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University, as the Global Retreat Centre.]

Leaving Sandford, the woods of Nuneham Courtney form the background of the prospect, and two miles from Sandford is Nuneham Park, the seat of E.W.Harcourt, Esq., M.P.
Nuneham Courteney (Oxfordshire) [now spelt 'Courtenay'], a seat of the Harcourt family, is one of the most delightful residences on the Thames.
The house, which is fortunately free from the inconvenience of over magnificence, is large and roomy, and gardens and park are second to none on the river's banks.
The property was purchased in 1710 by Simon, first Viscount Harcourt and Lord Chancellor, it is said for £17,000.
The house was built by him from designs by Leadbetter.
It consists of a central block, united to its two wings by curved corridors, and from almost all its windows commands beautiful views.
It is a perfect storehouse of curiosities and relics, with a fine library and many excellent pictures, and with literary associations of special value, Mason, Pope, Prior, Horace Walpole, and many others having been frequent visitors at Nuneham.
The library contains a most interesting and valuable collection of autograph letters and family documents; among the former being a very curious letter from Lord Salisbury after the Gunpowder Plot, which completely upsets the theory that the King behaved with courage and presence of mind on hearing of the threatened danger, as it expressly states that James was not told of the plot until all was safely over.
There is a strange and melancholy interest about a collection of letters of George III., from his schoolboy days to the time when his brain failed him, in which the progressive steps of the fatal malady can be clearly traced.
George III. was on very intimate teams with General Harcourt, and among the pictures now at Nuneham are drawings by the King, Queen Charlotte, and the Duke of York - not very successful, it may be added, as works of art.

Among the most remarkable pictures in the extensive collection may be mentioned Sir J.Reynolds, by himself, age 17; Michael Harcourt, by Velasquez; a portrait of Sir Simon Harcourt, said to have been the first man killed in the conflict between Charles I. and the Parliament (fortunately for the family, Sir Simon's widow married General Waller, and so saved Stanton Harcourt from confiscation); a portrait of Lady Anne Finch, by Van Dyck; portraits of Rousseau (from a bust taken after death) and John Evelyn; a fine Sir Joshua (in the drawing-room) of the Earl and Countess and Hon.W.Harcourt.
In the same room hangs a very noteworthy Rubens, "the Two Lights", and another laudscape by the same master; good specimens of Ruysdael, Van der Neer, and Van der Velde, and another beautiful Reynolds, a portrait of a Duchess of Gloucester.
In the octagon drawing-room, from the windows of which the views are specially delightful, are a portrait of Pope, by Kneller; another of Mary Countess Harcourt, by Opie; and a good Velasquez.
The dining-room contains a boy with an asp, by Murillo; a landscape by Ruysdael, with figures by Wouvermans; and a portrait of Georgiana Poyntz, Countess Spencer, by Gainsborough.
This lady was the mother of the beautiful Duchess of Devonshire, and alludes to her daughter, in a letter now at Nuneham, as a lanky girl, with no pretensions to good looks, but who hopes to have something of a figure.
The family portraits in this room are very interesting; one of Lady Harcourt, the wife of Sir Robert Harcourt, is specially odd, from its extraordinary costume.
Near it hangs a portrait of Sir Robert himself, one of Raleigh's men, who parted with hundreds of broad acres to fit out an expedition to Guiana, with no result but the subsequent publication of a little book.
There is a good portrait of Lady Anne Harcourt, by Jackson, and a large picture of Simon, Earl of Harcourt (the earldom was granted by George II.), with his little dog, by Hunter.
To this a curious bit of family history is attached.
Lady Nuneham, the earl's daughter, who was staying in the house, was one night much disturbed by a dream, in which she saw her father lying dead in the kitchen at four o'clock in the afternoon - Lord Harcourt being at the time in perfect health.
Lady Nuneham was so impressed with the vividness with which the dream presented itself to her, that she was unable to persuade herself that some disaster was not impending, and confided her fears to her husband, and subsequently at breakfast to the rest of the family.
After breakfast the earl went out into the park, for the purpose of marking trees, and nothing further was seen or heard of him until a labourer was attracted by the violent barking of a dog to a well in the grounds.
There he found the body of the earl head downwards in the mud at the bottom of the well, having, it was supposed, overbalanced himself in an attempt to rescue his little dog, who had fallen in.
A stretcher was brought, and the body taken into the house.
The nearest room was the kitchen, and on the dresser the corpse was laid - strange to say, at exactly four o'clock in the afternoon !
The coincidence is, to say the least of it, very remarkable, and the story is undoubtedly well authenticated.

In the small dining-room is a portrait of Aubrey Vere, twentieth Earl of Oxford, by Walker; a Salvator Rosa, "Ulysses and Nausicaa"; and two portraits by Reynolds of Simon Lord Harcourt and his son, respecting which the family accounts have the following curious entry;
"£24 10s paid Mr.Reynolds, the painter".
The library contains many portraits valuable in themselves and for their associations.
There are portraits of Horace Walpole, Prior, Mason, and Pope, all presented by themselves; a portrait of Rowe; a good specimen of Kneller; and a very fine portrait of Milton as a youth, by Van der Gucht, probably the earliest portrait of the poet in existence.
The curiosities and relics, whose name is legion, comprise the service of Sevres made for the great fete at Ranelagh Gardens on the occasion of the king's recovery in 1789, and given by Marquis del Campo to Earl and Countess Harcourt; a locket which once contained a portion of the heart of Louis Quatorze, brought from Paris, in 1793, by Lord Harcourt; Rousseau's Tasso and pocketbook, with numerous papers and memoranda, given by his widow to Lord Harcourt; a piece of glass from Stanton Harcourt, on which Pope scratched, "Finished here the Fifth Book of Homer"; Queen Charlotte's snuff-box, still containing a little high-dried; her majesty's box of rouge, &c.; a tiny watch, given by the Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I., to Frederick Harcourt; a piece of Charles II.'s oak; and a box said to be made from the tree against which Sir Walter Tyrrell's arrow glanced.
Strict belief in the latter article is not considered absolutely necessary at Nuneham.
There is also a curious piece of 14th century needlework, and some tapestry worked by Mary Queen of Scots.
The gardens on the right of the house were laid out by Mason in rather a formal style, and abound in monuments and tablets with somewhat pompous inscriptions, grottoes, and high hedges.
The present owner has made great improvements, which have had the effect of opening up fine views which were formerly shut out.

Beyond the gardens is the old church (now closed), dedicated to All Saints, which was built in 1764 by the second Lord Harcourt, and is modelled on the design of an Early Christian church.
On the left of the house run for some distance along the river's bank, and amidst most beautiful trees, the walks constructed by Capability Brown, where artfully-devised vistas, cut through the foliage, afford lovely and unexpected peeps of Oxford, Abingdon, and Radley.
At what is known as Whitehead's Oak, there is a particularly fine view of Oxford, although it must be confessed, from a landscape-painter's point of view, Sandford Mill, with its ugly chimney, is decidedly in the way.
On a knoll in this part of the park stands Carfax Conduit, which was built by Otho Nicholson in 1590, and being taken down in 1787 to enlarge the High-street, Oxford, was presented by the University to George Simon Earl Harcourt.
The village, which formerly stood near the house, was removed to some distance down the road by Earl Harcourt, who at one time had an odd idea of improving the villagers by the institution of orders of merit, prizes of virtue, &c. &c.
It is scarcely necessary to add that the attempt did not answer the sanguine expectations of its promoter.
The population of the village is 304.
The nearest railway station is Culham, a station on the Great Western Railway, 56 miles from Paddington.
Divine Service is celebrated in the new church, close to the village (which was consecrated on May 18th, 1880) on Sundays, Holy Days, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
The house is not shown to casual visitors, but the park is, owing to the kindness of Mr.E.W.Harcourt, M.P., its present owner, a famous place for picnics and water-parties.
The regulations for admission to the park are as follows: the season for admission commences on the 1st of May and ends on the 1st of September.
The days of admission are Tuesdays and Thursdays only, by ticket.
Each ticket admits ten persons to the lock and Carfax.
Tickets for private parties, giving admission to the gardens between the hours of 2 and 5, are granted for Tuesdays only.
Members of Oxford University and their friends are admitted on Tuesdays and Thursdays without tickets, but are required to inscribe their names in a book kept for that purpose at the lock.
Tickets can be had on application by letter from F.Mair, Esq., Nuneham Courteney, Oxfordshire.
Dogs are not admitted, and it is particularly requested that all broken glass and other debris of picnic parties may be carefully removed.
Accommodation for small parties can be had at the lock cottages.
Fares to Paddington, see Culham.

Lock Wood Island

[The Northern Bank (Old River) side is no longer used and may be blocked.]

Three-quarters of a mile farther is an island, which may be passed on either side.
The stream on the right is, in fact, a cut made by Earl Harcourt.
The old river on the left, which is more convenient for picnic parties going to Nuneham, is slightly the shorter of the two, but care must be observed in passing under the rustic bridge at the bottom of the island, as in dry seasons the water shoals considerably.
Pleasure parties land at the cottages by the bridge, where once stood a lock.
For regulations, &c, see Nuneham Courtney.
Along the left bank for some distance is one of those grand pieces of woodland scenery for which the Thames is so renowned.

Nuneham Railway Bridge

The woods extend as far as the iron railway-bridge, after passing which the spire of Abingdon church appears above the trees to the right.

Old channel weir stream on right bank

Rather more than a mile below the cottages at Nuneham is the fall on the left where the old and present channels diverge.
Below the fall is a ferry, and the tow-path crosses to the left bank.

Abingdon Lock

Abingdon Lock, average fall 6 ft, from London 104¼ miles, from Oxford 7¼ miles.
This is a good stone lock, with a strong stream rushing over the weir.

Abbey Meadow Island

Abingdon Bridge

A little farther is Abingdon Bridge, with the Nag's Head landing-place for the "Crown and Thistle", and the Anchor for the "Queen's Hotel".

Nags Head Island below and above Abingdon Bridge


Abingdon, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 103¾ miles, from Oxford 7¾ miles.
A station on the Great Western Railway, from Paddington 60 miles.
The time occupied by the trains varies from one hour and three quarters upwards; the station is about twelve minutes' walk from the river.
Population, 6,506.
Soil gravel.
Abingdon is situated at the junction of the Ock with the Thames, and can boast very considerable antiquity.
It appears to have grown up round a great abbey which was founded here so far back as the 7th century, but it is probable that much of the early history of Abingdon is entirely of a legendary kind and that litt1e is known about it with absolute certainty until the time of the Conquest.
The evidence of Domesday book goes to show that the abbey at that time was rich in landed property.
Desperate quarrels occurred between the monks and the citizens, and in 1327 a great part of the abbey was burnt in a riot in which the Mayor of Oxford and disorderly students of that University took the part of the inhabitants of Abingdon.
The town gradually pricipally through its extensive cloth trade, but received a severe blow when the abbey was abolished in 1538 and its revenues diverted into other channels.
Another reason for the importance of the town in ancient days was the building of its bridge by John Huchyns and Geoffey Barbur in 1416.
In the reign ot Queen Mary, 1557 a Charter of Incorporation was granted to the town at the instigation of Sir John Mason an influential inhabitant, and it has ever since been represented in Parliament, the original number of two members being now reduced to one.
The borough is now represented by Mr.John C.Clarke, a Liberal.
The number of voters on the register in 1878 was 890.
The town is governed by a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors.
The principal business centre is the Market-place, with High-street, Stert-street, East St.Helen's-street, the Square, and Ock-street.
It is a clean, quiet little place - quiet even to the point of dulness - with many good houses both modern and ancient.
Among the latter may be instanced an excellent example of old timbering in a house in Stert-street.
Notwithstanding its apparent quiet a fair amount of trade is carried on in Abingdon, and one of its principal industries is that of the manufacture of ready-made clothing, thus, oddly enough, carrying out the old traditions of the place, which, as Leland says at one time "stood by clothing".
The market-house stands on an open arcade of stone pillars with a timbered roof, and is the work of Inigo Jones.
Built in 1667, it was restored in 1853, and stands on the site of the famous old market cross which was destroyed by the Parliamentary General Waller in 1644.
A curious picture of the cross is on the outside of the south wall of Christ's Hospital,facing the river.
The abbey gateway still stands to the eastward of the market-place, and a little beyond it, on the right, are some very interesting remains of the old abbey itself, now in the occupation of a brewer but readily accessible to visitors.
Here, at the extreme end of the yard, on the right, some crumbling steps with a time-worn wooden balustrade at the top lead to the abbot's apartments, now used as lofts, in which are the remains of a fire-place, said to be of the time of Henry III., with capacious chimney, some good windows, and well preserved poited archways to the doorways.
The roofs are lofty and the walls of immense thickness.
Underneath this room is a crypt, also unusually lofty, which is at present used for the storage of bitter ale.
The entrance to crypt is close to the backwater of the Thames and is shaded by some splendid chestnuts - for which indeed Abingdon is remarkable.
The upper windows facing the river at this point are in good preservation, and from a lane between the brewery and the abbey gateway, is a very picturesque view of the great chimney above mentioned.

The church of St. Nicholas (which, at the time of writing, is in process of restoration) adjoins the abbey gateway and will well repay a visit.
It contains a painted mural monument, with a carved stone base, reaching from the floor almost to the ceiling, dedicated to the memory of John Blacknall and Jane his wife, "who both of them finished an happy course upon earth, and ended their days in peace on the 21st day of August, 1625."
They are represented by two figures in black kneeling on red and gilt cushions, she with her two children praying behind her; and the epitaph runs as follows;
When once the lived on earth one bed did hold
Their bodies, which one minute turned to mould,
Being dead, one grave trusted with that prize,
Untill the trump doth sound and all must rise.
Here death struck even, yet did not part this paire,
But by this stroke they more united were
And what left they behind, you plainly see,
One oniy daughter, and their charity.
What though the first, by death's command did leave us,
The second we are sure will ne'er decieve us.

Blacknall was a great benefactor to the town and among his charities is a dole of forty seven loaves of bread, which are distributed from his tomb every Sunday.
There is a small brass with an inscription to the Bostock family (1669), some curious old stained glass panes with an almost undecipherable inscription, and an old carved stone font.
The registers date back to 1558, are in splendid order, and most carefully bound and preserved, and contain many curious entries; among others, the records of several civil marriages, after publication of the names three times in the market, attested by John Bolton and others, mayors of the town in 1657.
The church has a tower with a singular square turret attached, and a good Norman doorway.
A much finer church is St. Helen's, close to the river, the spire of which, with its flying buttresses, is a landmark to this portion of the Thames.
This really handsome church has a nave and chancel of equal breadth, and side aisles, with timbered roof, good throughout and in the nave and chancel very elaborate.
In the north aisle the roof is still decorated with curious paintings, many of which are gradually but surely fading.
There is a new carved marble font and modern oak rood-screen, both of considerable beauty.
Among the monuments is the stone memorial in the north aisle to John Roysse, the founder of the Abingdon Grammar School, who died in 1571, leaving express orders that the great stone in his arbour in his London garden should be the upper stone of his tomb at Abingdon, round about which four-and-twenty pensioners should for ever kneel on Sundays to receive alms; and with further careful provision that "twelve pence in white bread, being good, sweet, and seasonable", should be distributed every Sunday at his tomb, to twelve old widows, "women or men", of whom every one at the receipt thereof should say, "The blessed Trinity upon John Roysse's soul have mercy!
Another stone monument, in the west of the north aisle, bears the following inscription:
"This tombe is honord with the bones of our pious benefactour, Richard Curtaine, gent., a principall magistrate of this Corpa. [sic], hee was buried July ye 18, Ano Dominy 1643";
and elsewhere on the tomb are these lines, which at the time were no doubt considered to embody a quaint conceit:
Our Curtaine in this lower press,
Rests folded up in nature's dress.

At the foot of this tomb is a brass, with a half-length figure in action of prayer, Galfridus Barbur, 1417; and behind the organ is another brass, nearly obliterated, displaying a full-length female figure.
In the east of the south aisle is a curious painting of the genealogical tree of W. Lee, 1637.
Mr.Lee was five times Mayor of Abingdon, and "had in his lifetime issue from his loins two hundred lacking but three".
The organ displays a quaint wood-carving of King David, with gilded harp and crown.
The tomb of Mrs.Elizabeth Hawkins, 1780, is a capital example of what should be avoided in the way of monumental sculpture.
It is crowded with busts of fat naked children, weeping tears of colossal size, and all the usual devices and properties of the most conventional stonemason.
The perpetrator of this work of genius was, it appears, one Hickey, who was fortunate enough to receive for it £400 under the deceased lady's will.
In the churchyard of St. Helen's is a row of almshouses in memory of Charles Twitty, 1707, who gave £1,700 for building and endowing "an hospital for maintayning in meate, drinke, and apparrel, and all other necessarys of life 3 poor aged men, and the like number of poor aged women".
Abutting on the churchyard also are the cloistered buildings of the charity of Christ's Hospital, which was refounded in 1553 - having been dissolved by Henry VIII. - at the instance of Sir John Mason, who procured for it a charter from Edward VI.
Over the central porch of the hospital are some curious old paintings, representing such subjects as the giving of alms, the story of the Good Samaritan, and other Scripture subjects, as well as a portrait of Edward VI.
The picture of the old market cross has already been noticed.
The oak-panelled hall, which is lighted by a lofty lantern, has several odd pictures, among them one representing the building of Abingdon Bridge, in memory of "Jefforye Barbur and John Howchion".
On the frame is inscribed : "Frauncis Little, one of ye governors of this hospital, gave this table, An. Dni. 1607."
and underneath the picture stands the table in question, a fine one of oak, with curiously carved legs.
A portrait of Edward VI. hangs, with several others, in the hall; and there is also preserved the original charter, which shows considerable signs of age.
The later portion of the hospital buildings, which runs parallel to the river, dates from 1718, and it is just below this point that the waters of the Ock and of the Wilts and Berks Canal join the Thames.
At the north side of the town is the Albert Park, presented to the town by the trustees of Christ's Hospital in 1864.
It is well laid out and planted, and in it stands a monument to the late Prince Consort, with his statue in the robes of the Garter.

Adjoining the park are the new buildings of the grammar school, founded by John Roysse in 1563.
The profligacy of John Roysse's son was the immediate cause of the foundation of Abingdon Grammar School.
It is said that nothing but the universal estimation in which men held his father, "as well in the west country as also in Kent or otherwise", saved the criminal from the penalties of the law.
Roysse disinherited him, and, after providing for his grandson and making certain other bequests, bequeathed the residue of his fortune, directing that as it was endowed A.D.1563, and in the 63rd year of its founder's life, it should educate 63 boys for ever.
Thomas Teesdale, the first scholar admitted into this school, endowed an ushership in the school, and left funds for purchasing lands for the maintenance of fellows and scholars from Abingdon school at Balliol College, Oxford.
His trustees, however, combined with Richard Wightwick to found Pembroke College, Oxford, at which college the school possesses five of the incorporated scholarships.
Of these one is filled up annually, and two boys who have been educated at the school for two years are nominated as candidates.
Each scholarship is of the value of £50 per annum, with rooms rent free, and is tenable for five years.
The fees for boarders under the age of 13 are £57, over 13, £63.
Hard by Roysse's school is Sir Gilbert Scott's church of St. Michael, which serves as a chapel-of-ease to St. Helen's.
The street leading to the park from Ock-street is by the side of the almshouses founded by Benjamin Tompkins in 1733.
The angler should not be afraid of fishing near the town, as there are some excellent swims close by.
In Blake's Lock-pool there are barbel, chub, perch, &c, and on the tow-path side, opposite Thrup, just past the overfall, there is a swim of considerable length, and full six feet deep, reachable from the bank.
Banks.- Gillett & Co., The Square; London and County, Market-place.
Fairs.- First Monday in Lent, May 6, June 20, July 1, September 19 and 30, December 11.
Fire Engine.- Abbey-gateway.
Hotels.- "Crown and Thistle" (landing-stage at the "Nag's Head" ); "Lion", High-street; "Queen's", Market-place (landing-stage at the "Anchor").
Market Day.- Monday.
Places of Worship.- St. Helen's, St. Michael's, and St. Nicholas; and the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady and St. Edmund.
There are also Baptist, Independent, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels in the town.
Police.- Borough, Abbey-gateway; County, Bridge - street, close to the bridge.
Postal Arrangements.- Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), Market-place.
Mails from London, 7, 10, and 11.30 a.m., 5 p.m.;
Sunday, 7 a.m. Mails for London,11.10 a.m., 1.55, 4.5, and 10 p.m.;
Sunday, 10 p.m.
Nearest Bridge, Ferry, Lock, and Railway Station, Abingdon.
Nearest Bridges, up, Oxford, 7¾ miles; down, Sutton, 2 miles.
Locks, up, Sandford, 5 miles; down, Culham, 2 miles.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 10/10, 18/3; 2nd, 8/2, 13/9 ; 3rd, 5/6.

A quarter of a mile below the bridge (right) the river Ock and the Wilts and Berks Canal enter the river.
The river here runs through flat meadows.
The view of Abingdon, with the spire of St.Helen's, is very pretty.

Andersey Island; Abingdon Marina Slipway

Old Culham Bridge over the exit of the Swift Ditch (old channel)

Half a mile below the Ock, the unnavigable channel which was left above Abingdon re-enters the river,

Culham Reach with canal cut and no longer proposed reservoir; Culham Cut Footbridge

and half a mile farther the river takes a very sharp turn to the left, into a long and narrow cut; the broad stream to the right leads to the weirs of Sutton Courtney, the cut to the left, which is crossed by two small wooden bridges, leads to Culham Lock

Culham Lock

Culham Lock, average fall 7 ft, from London 101¾ miles, from Oxford 9¾ miles.
Culham, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, a portion of the parish being in Berkshire.
A station on the Great Western Railway, 56 miles from Paddington, trains take from i1½ hour upwards; from London 101¾ miles, from Oxford 9¾ miles.
Population, about 600.
Soil, gravel.
The station is 30 minutes' walk from the lock.
A small village 2 miles below Abingdon.
the green is a few minutes' walk from the lock, the road passing by Culham House and grounds, the wall of which encloses a fine belt of trees.
The church is at the western end of the green, and is dedicated to St.Paul.
Little remains of the original edifice, the church having been rebuilt some 25 years ago.
The square tower, however, which dates from the first year of the last century, is still standing; the register dates from 1650.
the sum of between £50 and £60 is distributed annually in coal to the inhabitants, arising from the sale of some common land on which the parish had the right of cutting gorse.
The following entry occurs in the parish register:
"Oct.10th, 1666. Collected for the poore of London, disabled by a dismall and lamentable fire, £1 3s 8d."
The training college for schoolmasters, with school attached, is about a mile from the railway-station.
This institution, capable of accommodating nearly 100 students, was founded by the late Right Rev.Samuel Wilberforce, when Bishop of Oxford, for the purpose of training young men as Church schoolmasters.
Seventy-five per cent, of the expenditure is defrayed by Government grant.
Just below Culham Lock is a fine reach for pike.
Sutton Mill-pool close by is one of the deepest on the river, and when a fish is laid hold of here it is generally worth the taking.
In the wall of Culham House, and immediately opposite the "Sow and Pigs" Inn on the green - a good specimen of modern reproduction of an old red-bricked and timbered building - is the Post Office letter box, which is cleared on week-days at 7.10pm, and on Sundays at noon.
Letters arrive from Abingdon, the nearest money order and telegraph office, at 7am.
Inns: "Sow and Pigs", and "Railway Hotel " at the station.
Place of Worship: St.Paul's Church.
Nearest Bridge, Lock, and Railway Station: Culham.
Nearest Bridges: up, Abingdon 2 miles;
down, Clifton Hampden 3¼ miles.
Locks: up, Abingdon 2½ miles;
down, Clifton 3 miles.
FARES to Paddington: 1st, 9/11, 17/6; 2nd, 7/5, 13/-; 3rd, 4/8.

Sutton Bridge

Just below are Sutton Bridges; boats coming up must be careful to keep the right bank.

Sutton Courtenay

Sutton Courtney, Berkshire, on the right bank, a village at the weir just above Sutton Bridges, formerly belonged to the Abbots of Abingdon, and was given by Henry II. to Reginald Courtenaye.
Population, about 1,100.
"The Abbey" is an interesting building of the Gothic period, and formerly belonged to the Abbots of Abingdon.
The Manor House dates from Edward III., and contains some very interesting architectural details.
The Church of All Saints is a good Gothic building, with square tower, and is remarkable for the width of its nave.
It has a good perpendicular screen and some fine windows of the same period.
On a parvise over the south porch are the Courtenaye arms.
The village contains many curious and picturesque cottages and farmhouses of the Elizabethan period, with carved gables and barge-boards.
Postal Arrangements: Nearest money order and telegraph office, Abingdon,
Mails from London, 7.30am,;
Mails for London, 7.10pm
Nearest Railway Station, Culham (which see).

Appleford Railway Bridge

[1929: The current third bridge was built]

Going down the next reach is the first view of Wittenham Clump, a grassy hill, crowned with a clump of trees, which is visible for many miles upward and downward, and reappears in the most unexpected places as the river Winds around it.
The country is flat as far as Appleford iron railway-bridge, rather more than a mile from Sutton Bridges.

Clifton Lock

Clifton Lock, average fall 3 ft, from London 92 miles 7 fur [92⅞], from Oxford 12 miles 5 fur [12⅝].

Long Wittenham

A village in Berkshire, on the right bank, 4 miles, S.E. from Abingdon.
Population: 629. Soil: gravel on gault clay, with upper green-sand.
The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, is of mixed age, as shown by the variety of its architecture.
The earliest portions are Norman and Early English (decorated) of several periods, and late perpendicular.
The chancel, which is of the same period, is divided from the nave by a good Norman arch.
The chancel was originally Norman, as shown by a small round-headed window and a piscina of the same date.
The remainder of the chancel is Early English, as shown by one light lancet-windows; others are of the decorated period.
The north and south aisles are divided from the nave by piers and arches of very Early English.
The font, standing in the north aisle, is of lead, resting on a base of stone.
It bears on it a row of figures of a mitred bishop under an arcade, holding a cross, and in the act of blessing.
In a chapel to the south is a small piscina, with the effigy of a cross-legged knight in full armour treading on a serpent, with the figures of two angels sculptured on the arch above him.
The figure is only two feet in length, and is thought to be of unique design.
The tower is late perpendicular.
The south porch is of the decorated period; the barge board of elegant design.
Inns: "Plough", "Vine Cottage", "Three Poplars", "Machine Man's Inn".
Place of Worship: St.Mary the Virgin.
Police: A constable lives in the village.
Postal Arrangements: Nearest money order and telegraph offices, Abingdon and Dorchester.
Mail from London, 8am, Mail to London, 5.35pm. Sunday, 10am.
Nearest Bridge: Clifton Hampden; Lock: Clifton; Railway Station: (which see for Fares).

The Barley Mow Inn

[1975: Gutted by fire and rebuilt
1997: Rebuilt and rethatched]

On the Berkshire side, two or three minutes walk from the bridge is the "Barley Mow", one of the thatched, sile built, old-fashioned resting-places which have been almost improved out of existence by the modern system of hotels. The parlour of the "Barley Mow" is a queer panelled room, more like the cabin of a ship than the coffee-room of an inn, and is of so low a pitch as to still further favour the illusion. But although the house is primitive, and the entertainment unpretending, it is a capital little inn of its class, and may be recommended to boating men.

Clifton Hampden Bridge

About half a mile below [Clifton Lock] (coxswains coming up must be careful and keep to the right, after passing the bridge) is Clifton-Hampden, with its red brick bridge.
Here the tow-path crosses to the Berks side.

Clifton Hampden Church

On the cliff to the left are the church and vicarage, embosomed in trees, which come down to the water's edge, and the view down the reach is closed by luxuriant trees backed by the soft outlines of the distant hills.
As we proceed the view becomes still prettier, the middle distance being broken by an eyot with a magnificent horse-chestnut tree.

Clifton Hampden

Clifton Hampden, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, 98½ miles from London, 13 miles from Oxford.
Population, 377.
Soil, chiefly gravel.
This picturesque little village is situated at the foot of a bold bluff, which rises abruptly from the somewhat flat country around.
The cliff is surmounted by the church and vicarage, and is clothed with luxuriant trees down to the water's edge.
The village, a pretty collection of old-fashioned cottages, all of which are bright with flowers, does not call in itself for more than a passing notice.
It derives some importance from the new red brick bridge with six pointed arches, built by the lord of the manor in place of the ferry which formerly existed here, the towing-path crossing the river at this point.
The toll for horses not drawing vehicles is 1½d, and for foot passengers, 1d.
The church, dedicated to St.Michael and All Angels, formerly a chapelry in connection with the Abbey of Dorchester, was entirely restored in 1844 by the late Mr.G.H.Gibbs, and is a very elaborate specimen of the work of Sir Gilbert Scott.
It contains in the north of the chancel a tomb with a recumbent portrait figure of the late Mr.Gibbs, and a most elaborate brass screen with figures in bronze.
The reredos is a somewhat bold work in mosaic, representing on either side the Prophets, Evangelists, and Latin Doctors, and in the centre the Last Supper.
The churchyard, from which a charming view extends up and down the river, is, like the village, ablaze with flowers, and is entered through a handsome modern lych gate.
On the Berkshire side, two or three minutes' walk from the bridge, is the "Barley Mow Inn", one of the thatched, sile built, old-fashioned resting-places which have been almost improved out of existence by the modern system of hotels.
The parlour of the "Barley Mow" is a queer panelled room, more like the cabin of a ship than the coffee-room of an inn, and is of so low a pitch as to still further favour the illusion.
But although the house is primitive, and the entertainment unpretending, it is a capital little inn of its class, and may be recommended to boating men.
Inns: "the Barley Mow" (Berkshire side); "Plough".
Place of Worship: St.Michael and All Angels.
Postal Arrangements:
the nearest money order and telegraph offices are at Dorchester and Abingdon.
Mails from London, 8am, and on Sundays.
Mails for London, 6pm; Sunday, 10.55am
Pillar-box at Burcott, cleared at 5.40pm
Nearest Bridges: Clifton Hampden; up, Sutton Bridges (Culham) 3¼ miles; down, Shillingford, 5¼ miles (a foot-bridge at Day's Lock 2½ miles).
Locks, up, Clifton ½ mile; down, Day's 2½ miles.
Railway Station, Culham.
Fares, Culham to Pad.: 1st, 10/-, 17/6; 2nd, 7/6, 13/-; 3rd, 5s.


Burcott, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, rather more than a mile and half above Day's Lock, is a hamlet of Dorchester of no importance.
It receives letters through Abingdon, Dorchester being the nearest money order office and telegraph station.

Days Lock

A mile and a half brings us to the ferry, where the tow-path crosses, and on the left to Day's Lock, average fall 4 ft 6 in, from London 96 miles, from Oxford 15½ miles.
This is one of the most striking views, the course of the river appearing to be blocked by Wittenham Clump and Sinodun Hill.
A little over a mile on the left bank is Dorchester {which see) with its famous abbey church, which is well worth a visit.
The footpath crosses the Roman remains known as The Dyke Hills.
On Sinodun Hill on the right is a fine Roman camp.

Wittenham Clumps


Dorchester, Oxfordshire, on the Thame, about a mile from its junction with the Thames, which some people delight to call, up to this point, the Isis, fondly imagining that the name Tamesis is a compound of Thame and Isis.
The quaint conceit of Warton that
Beauteous Isis and her husband Thame,
With mingled waves for ever flow the same,

is probably to some extent responsible for this delusion, a hallucination further encouraged by Drayton, who expresses the same idea in somewhat more high-flown language.
The Thame is not a comfortable river for boats, and visitors to Dorchester from the river would do well to leave their boats in charge of the keeper of Day's Lock and to take the footpath across the fields, some twenty minutes' walk.
The path passes by some interesting Roman remains called the Dyke Hills, evidently portions of an extensive fortified camp which rested upon the Thame at one extremity and the Thames at the other, and being protected by the rivers, then probably running through much marsh land, must have been of great natural as well as artificial strength.
Dorchester, an unimportant village on the Oxford coach road, is distant from Oxford about eight miles, from London fifty.
Population, 1,050.
Soil, alluvial.

It is somewhat surprising to find in so small a village so fine a church as that of St.Peter and St.Paul, Dorchester, but in truth the village has a very ancient ecclesiastical history.
So far back as 630 it is recorded that Birinus here baptized Cynegils, the king of Wessex, of which Dorchester was once the capital, and the authority of the venerable Bede is adduced to prove that the city called Dorcinca was the seat of many fine churches.
These are also mentioned by William of Malmesbury, but it would seem that shortly after his time the line of bishops of Dorchester came to an end, and that its ecclesiastical brilliance rapidly waned.
In 1554 the abbey church was bought by Richard Bewforest for £140, and by him bequeathed to the parish.
The present church is the building in question, and represents the work of many architects.
The north wall of the nave and two arches in the interior are probably part of the old Saxon cathedral.
The rest of the fabric has been built at subsequent periods, as may easily be seen from the different styles of architecture peculiar to the successive periods down to the late Tudor porch.
It was last restored, although not completed, by Sir Gilbert Scott, and is a most remarkable building.
Restoration is still in progress.
A number of carved fragments of stone have been collected from a house under repair in the village, and are now in the church awaiting the time when they can be again incorporated in the fabric.
A fine window in the west front, now bricked in, might advantageously be opened, but the fact of the nave being closed by the tower will always necessarily give a somewhat sombre, not to say grim, appearance to this part of the church.
The church is entered on the south side from the handsome churchyard by a fine stone porch with timbered roof, outside which, on the left, is a mutilated cross, the head of which has been restored.
The curious in such matters may compare this cross with that standing by the great yew in the churchyard at Iffley.
At the south-west angle of the church opposite the cross is a buttress with two canopied niches for statues.
On the right of the entrance from the porch is the font, a Norman work of lead, exhibiting the figures of the Apostles minus Judas, in excellent preservation.
On the south side is a chapel, or ante-church, in which some singular carvings round one of the pillars should be noticed, and which is now used for the Sunday morning celebration and occasionally for other services.
From here a pointed arch leads into the south aisle, which contains at the east end a lady-chapel, the altar in which is a memorial to the late Bishop of Winchester.
Here is a remarkably fine groined roof, lofty and of the most graceful proportions.

The roof of the nave, which is also of magnificent proportions, is supported by beautiful clustered columns.
In the lady-chapel will be found four recumbent life-size monumental figures, one of which represents a most truculent Crusader, lying in a singular attitude, with legs crossed and apparently in the act of drawing his sword.
If this figure be a portrait it is certain that the sculptor did not flatter his model.
The other three monuments are of great antiquity, and one, that of a knight in armour, said to be of the Segrave family, is especially worthy of careful inspection.
A tablet on the floor of the lady-chapel in memory of Thomas Day, who died in 1693, has this curious epitaph:
Sweet Death he Came in Hast
& said his glass is run,
thou art ye man I say
See what thy God has done.

To the amateur of brasses it must be a source of lasting regret that so few remain of what must at one time have been among the most magnificent specimens in the country.
The church may be said to be carpeted with their remains.
In the lady-chapel is a small brass in fair preservation of Richard Bewforest and his wife, and in the chancel is one of a bishop in cope and with crozier with the inscription:
Here lyeth Sir Richard Bewfforeste.
I pray thee give his sowl good rest.

On the south side of the chancel is a stone which bears witness to the existence at one time of a very important brass of a full-length figure under a canopy with much elaborate ornamentation, which must have been fine indeed.
One of the curious devices in this is reproduced on the end of a carved oak seat in front of the organ, also commemorating Sir Richard Bewforest.
The sedilia and piscina in the chancel are elaborate in design, and opposite to them on the north side is the renowned Jesse window, which is surely unique of its kind.
It is in the form of a genealogical tree springing from the body of Jesse himself, and bearing stone effigies of the line of David; the crowning figure of our Lord has unfortunately been destroyed.
The stained glass of the window itself works with the design.
The window dates from the 14th century.
Leaving the church by the west door the path to the village passes under a lych-gate, overshadowed by a glorious chestnut.
Dorchester Church lies a little out of the way of any but enthusiastic sightseers, but should certainly be visited if for the Jesse window alone.

The old Grammar School, endowed by the Fettiplace family, no longer exists as such, but has been converted, with the approval of the Education Commissioners, into a National School for boys.
The building is supposed to have been a part of the old monastery (probably the refectory), established by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1140.
The massive wall of the south side of the building, the rude but substantial beams and quaint, closed-up fire-places, bespeak its antiquity.
There is a Cottagers' Horticultural Society in Dorchester, instituted in 1869, which offers many prizes for competition at its annual shows.
Day's Lock and Weir, as well as right away down past the entrance to the Thames, has in recent years risen in estimation for the yield of fish.
Barbel, jack, and perch are plentiful.
It is one of the few places on the Thames in which the angler is almost certain to get from one to half-a-dozen fine tench in a day's general fishing: this applies almost as low as Shillingford.
Fair: Easter Tuesday.
Inns: "Fleur de Lis", opposite the church,
and "White Hart", up the village.
Places of Worship: St.Peter and St.Paul (Abbey Church), and Roman Catholic Church.
Post Office Arrangements:
Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph), near the church.
Mails from London, 7.30am, 2.45pm (to callers); Sundays, 7.30 am.
Mails to London, 10.45am, 6.35pm; Sunday, 11.35am
Nearest Bridges: up, Clifton Hampden 2½ miles; down, Shillingford 2¾ miles.
Locks: Day's; up, Clifton 2¾ miles; down, Bensington 4 miles.
Ferries: Shillingford and Day's Lock.
Railway Station, Cullham (which see for fares).

River Thame

Two miles below the [Days] lock is a ferry, where the tow-path crosses,

Shillingford Village

Shillingford Bridge Hotel

and three-quarters of a mile below, after a sharp turn in the stream, is Shillingford Bridge, at the foot of which, on the right bank, is the "Swan Inn" on the Berks shore, and where the tow-path again crosses to the left bank.
On the Berkshire side is the "Swan Inn", where rowing or picnic parties will find comfortable accommodation.

Shillingford Bridge

Shillingford Bridge spans the river with three stone arches, and connects Oxfordshire and Berkshire about 2½ miles above Wallingford.

Waterfront Cafe above Benson Lock

the tow-path ... re-cross[es] a mile farther down at the village of Bensington or Benson.

Benson Lock

Below the ferry on the right is Benson Lock.
Bensington, commonly called Benson, a village on the left bank in Oxfordshire, 92 miles from London, 19½ miles from Oxford.
Population, 1,259.
Soil, loam and gravel.
This village, which was originally called Besintone, appears at one time to have been of some importance, but at present differs but little from the numerous places of a similar character which are scattered about the valley of the Thames.
The church of St. Helen is of considerable age, but has been extensively restored, and in parts, indeed, entirely rebuilt.
With the exception of the fine arch which separates the nave and chancel, there is little to arrest the attention.
The following curious epitaph will be found on a tablet on the south wall:

The rest of the date was apparently never completed.
Close by is a stone whence brasses have been removed.
Heavy baskets of fish are often got near here.
Inns: "Castle"; "White Hart".
Places of Worship: St.Helen's; and Baptist, Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels, and a Free Church.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance).
Mails from London, 7. 10am. 2. 10pm.
Sunday: 7 10am.
Mails for London, 11.45am., 6.55 pm;
Sunday: 11.30am.
Nearest Bridges, up, Shillingford 1¼ mile;
down, Wallingford 1¼ mile.
Locks: Bensington [Benson]; up,
up: Day's 4 miles;
down: Wallingford 1¼ mile.
Ferry: Mill Stream.
Railway Station: Wallingford.
Fares, Wallingford to Paddington:
1st: 11/-, 16/-;
2nd: 7/-, 12/-;
3rd: 4/7½.
No Sunday trains.

Bensington Lock, average fall 6 ft 6 in, from London 92 miles, from Oxford 19½ miles.
Emerging from the lock some care is necessary owing to the strong cross current to the weir, against which boats coming up should particularly guard.
Below the mill-stream is a ferry, but the tow-path keeps to the Berks shore.
The country from here to Wallingford is charmingly wooded.
The large red brick mansion on the left bank is Howberry Park, after passing which we soon arrive at Wallingford Bridge, the landing-place for boats being on the right, a short distance above the bridge.


Ewelme, a village in Oxfordshire (excursion from Bensington 2 miles, or from Wallingford 4 miles).
Population, about 750.
The road to Ewelme from Wallingford passes through Crowmarsh and Bensington, and affords a pleasant drive or walk along leafy roads, and past many good houses.
Ewelme itself is a very pretty little village in a hollow, and gives its name to the hundred in which it is situated, and is formed by the combination of two words, one Norman and the other Saxon, "Eau" and "whelm", meaning "the outgush of water", a beautifully clear stream of water taking its rise near the church.
Chaucer, whose son owned the manor by his marriage with Maud née Burghersh, must frequently have been at Ewelme, and he seems to have had this stream of water in his mind, as also the name of the place when he thus describes a brook;
In world is none more clear of hewe,
Its waters ever fresh and newe,
That whelmeth up in waves bright,
Its mountenance three fingers height.

The church stands on a hill, and is approached from the road through an old brick gateway, and through the cloisters of the almshouses, picturesque with their timbered brick walls, high red roofs, and elaborate wood carvings.
A flight of steep steps leads thence to the west door of the church.
The church is of the perpendicular period, and contains many monuments of great beauty and interest.
Among these is the alabaster tomb of Alice, Duchess of Suffolk, widow of the unfortunate Duke who was beheaded by a skipper with a rusty sword on Dover beach in Henry VI.'s reign.
This is placed between the chancel and side chapel of St.John, and is surrounded by small full-length angels bearing heraldic shields.
The effigy of the duchess reclines under a canopy, and below, in a sort of crypt, is an ogglesome representation of a mouldering human body.
The curious stone carvings above the tomb are surmounted by pinnacles with angels - four on each side.
The tomb of her father, Thomas Chaucer, and his wife Maud (whose sister Margaret was third wife of John of Gaunt, and therefore aunt by marriage of King Richard II., and by virtue of which alliance the royal arms are displayed in many of the quarterings emblazoned upon the tomb) is on the north side.
The two figures are on an inlaid brass in fine preservation, he in complete armour standing on a unicorn, she on a lion rampant à queue fourchée, the Burghersh device.
The church is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and the side chapel, with its beautiful carved walnut (or chestnut) roof, to St.John the Baptist.
This south chapel and the south aisle belong to the thirteen alms-men who inhabit the hospital, and receive 10s weekly with apartments.

The hospital is a venerable cloistered building, adjoining the church, founded by the Duke and Duchess of Suffolk, and endowed with valuable estates in Wilts, Hants, and Bucks.
It is intended that these shall form the basis of a grammar school, when the property shall have recovered from the improvident management of four centuries.
The Regius Professor of Physic, Oxford, is, ex officio, master of the hospital, with a council of twelve other trustees, according to the provisions of a scheme framed by the Court of Chancery in i860.
The manor house, when the Suffolk property was escheated to the Crown, became a royal residence in the reigns of Henry VIII. and of Elizabeth.
A road overhanging the common is still known as Queen Elizabeth's Walk.
On the attainder ot Edmund, Earl of Suffolk, in the reign of Henry VIII., the advowson with the manor passed into the possession of the Crown.
James I., famed for inexpensive acts of generosity, endowed the Regius Professorship of Divinity in the University of Oxford with the Rectory of Ewelme, and entailed upon the parishioners for two centuries and a half a series of dignified but non-resident rectors.
In 1871 a short Act was passed in the House of Commons, whereby the Rectory was severed once more from the Professorship, and opened out for the acceptance of any Clergyman of the Church of England.
But the House of Lords took a more restrictive view and made it tenable only by members of the Oxford Convocation.
The church contains many brasses.
Among these may be mentioned that in the St.John's Chapel, in front of the altar, to Anne, wife of John ffroste, 1585; that to Catherine Palmer, 1599, in the north of the chancel; and that dedicated to "Rodolpho Speiro, qui obiit, 1580", which bears a coat of arms and Latin epitaph, and will be found just within the painted iron rood screen.
Of older date still is one representing the figures of a knight (once pursuivant at-arms to King Henry Vlll.) and lady, dated 1518.
Fifteenth-century brasses are represented by that of William Branwhait, a half-length in cope, &c., dated 1498; and one in the extreme west of the south aisle, dated 1454.
In the middle of the nave is a brass of Samuel Brayle with inscription only, dated 1469; and in the north aisle is another, with inscription to Thomas Vernon, 1471.
Place of Worship: Church of the Blessed Virgin.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order and savings bank) in the village.
Mails, through Wallingford, arrive at 7.30am, and 2.30pm; dispatched at 6.30pm
Nearest Bridge, Lock, and Railway Station: Wallingford, 4 miles (which see).

The Boathouse at Wallingford Bridge

Wallingford Bridge

Wallingford, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 90 ½ miles, from Oxford 21 miles.
A station on the Great Western Railway; from Paddington 51 miles.
The time occupied by the trains varies from two to three hours.
The station is about 12 minutes' walk from the river.
Omnibuses meet the trains.
Population, 2,972.
Wallingford, a very ancient town which, to this day, shows evident signs of having been of some importance at the time of the Roman invaders, has figured largely in the history of England.
The remains of extensive fortifications, erected at the Roman period, will be found on the left on the road to the station.
Shortly after the Conquest the old castle here was greatly strengthened, and figured frequently in the little wars and internecine disputes which so largely made up the domestic history of the country for the next three or four hundred years.
Later on the town had again bitter experience of warfare, and suffered cruelly at the hands of Fairfax, who took it in 1646 after a long siege.
Little now remains of the stronghold except a few crumbling walls and an old window enclosed in the gardens of Wallingford Castle, the seat of Mr.J.K.Hedges.
Wallingford is a Parliamentary borough, with a constituency of 1,226, and is at present represented by Mr.Pandeli Ralli, a Liberal.
The town is governed by a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors.
The principal business centre is the Market-place, where is the spacious corn-exchange and the Town Hall, supported on an arcade of somewhat squat pillars.
In the council-chamber above hang some portraits of more or less merit.
One of Archbishop Laud, "a munificent benefactor to this boro'", in his sixty-fourth year, dated 1635, and ascribed to Holbein, bears a remarkable resemblance to other portraits of this worthy in the neighbourhood, one in the council-chamber at Reading, the other in the Town Hall at Henley.
Probably they are all copies from the same original picture.
A portrait of the Hon. Mr.Justice Blackstone, recorder of the borough, 1749, presented by his grandson, the member for the town, in 1841, is apparently a modern picture, and depicts the learned judge in wig and robes.
The fire-engine house is under the Town Hall.

Wallingford is but a dull place, and even in its churches has but little to offer in the way of antiquities.
The town once contained fourteen churches, but now has but three.
The disappearance of the other eleven, and the comparative bareness of the three that remain, may, probably, be attributed to the rough handling of Fairfax's Roundheads.
The church of St.Mary, in the Market-place, restored in 1854, has on its tower a mutilated tablet, supposed, by persons of lively imagination, to represent King Stephen on horseback.
In the church, which has nave, chancel, and two aisles, is a tablet to the memory of Walter Bigg, alderman of the City of London, and a native of Wallingford, who died 1659, after bequeathing £10 yearly to the grammar school- this being its original endowment- and £10 annually for the relief of the poor.
The worthy alderman's memorial is surmounted by a skull wreathed incongruously with laurel leaves- why it is difficult to see.
In the west end of the nave is a memorial tablet to Henry Stampe, who died in 1619, which has some curious carving and a somewhat odd inscription.
In Thames-street, near the bridge, is St.Peter's, the burial place of Mr. Justice Blackstone, which is further distinguished by a singularly hideous spire which rises from the square flint tower, and which, said to be from the design of the learned judge himself, was erected by him.
Sir William is buried here, and a monument to his memory has been built into the outer part of the south wall of the church at its eastern end, on which there is the following inscription, viz,:
Kyrie Eleison.
Sir Wm. Blackstone, Knt.
One of the Judges of His Majesty's Superior Courts at Westminster, who was born
a.d.1724, and died 24 Feb. 1780.

Edward Stennett, one of John Bunyan's friends, lies buried in the graveyard.
In the north wall, at its eastern end, a small stone is inscribed to his memory thus:
Here lyeth the body of Mr. Edward Stennett,
who died in November ye 28th, 17 ? 5 aged 77.

A chip of the stone having fallen off, the date is imperfect.
The spire was finished in 1777, the church in 1769.
At the end of Thames-street is St. Leonard's Church, the handsomest of the three.
It was rebuilt in 1849, has a nave, chancel, and south aisle, and affords some good specimens of later Norman architecture.

Bigg's Grammar School existed for more than 200 years, and was then in abeyance for 15 years.
New schools were then established under a scheme of the Endowed Schools Commissioners, and new school buildings were opened in 1877.
They are situated on the right hand side of the road to the station, and are handsome buildings, with lofty, well ventilated and lighted school rooms, with every modern convenience.
Bigg's £10 per annum is now represented by an income of £210, and the scholars comprise sixty boys and thirty five girls.
The entrance fee both for boys and girls is 10s, and the school fees per term, boys under thirteen, £1 5s, above thirteen, £1 12s; and for girls under thirteen, £1, above thirteen, £1 7s.
There are the usual three terms in the year.
The head master receives boys, and the head mistress girls, as boarders: terms, including school-fees, £34 13s per annum; weekly boarders, £28 7s.
Archbishop Laud left £45 a year for apprenticing five boys, Sir Thomas Bennett £150 a year to be given to fifteen old people, and there are several similar charities.
Tusser, the author of that quaint old book, the "Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry", was educated at Wallingford, but does not appear from his own account to have been too happy here.
He says:
O painful time, for every crime,
What toosed eares ! like baited beares !
What bobbed lips ! what yerks, what nips !
What hellish toies !
What robes how bare ! what colledge fare !
What bred how stale ! what pennie ale !
Then Wallingford, how wert thou abhor'd
Of sillie boies !

The headquarters of the Royal Berks Horticultural Society are at Wallingford.
It is the oldest society of a similar class in the county, and was established in 1831, under the direct patronage of King William IV.
It was then a general Horticultural Society, but has been since 1855 a cottagers' society only.
An Art Loan Exhibition and prizes for needle-work have been appended to it, with, however, separate funds.
The Free Library and Public Institute, St.Mary's-street, was founded in 1871.
Subscriptions vary from 5s to £1 1s.
Visitors are admitted, and all inhabitants of the town of "ten years of age and upwards" are entitled to the free use of the public reading-room.
Favourite excursions from Wallingford are to Swyncombe, about 5 miles; Ewelme (which see), 4 miles; and Wittenham Clump and Hills, 3 miles.
Banks: Hedges, Wells, and Co., Market-place; London and County, High-street.
Fairs: June 24, September 28.
Fire: Engine at Town Hall.
Hotels: "George", High-street; "Lamb", High-street.
Inn: "Town Arms", by the bridge.
Market Day: Friday.
Places of Worship: St.Leonard's, St.Mary's, St.Peter's; and Baptist, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Station, St.Mary's-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office {money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), St.Martin's-street.
Mails from London, 7am, 1.00, 6.20, and 11pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 9.15am, 3.15, and 10pm; Sunday, 10pm
Nearest Bridges: Wallingford; up, Shillingford 2 ½ miles; down, Streatley 6 miles.
Locks: up, Benson 1 ¼ mile; {1885: down, Cleeve 5 ¼ miles}.
{1882: down, Wallingford ½ mile.}
Ferries: Benson and Little Stoke.
Railway Station: Wallingford.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 9/5, 16/-; 2nd, 7/-, 12/-; 3rd, 4/3.
No Sunday trains, but passengers can book to Moulsford (3 miles by road from Wallingford), where flys can be had.

Wallingford, from London 90¾ miles, from Oxford 220¾ miles, is a very convenient place to break the journey, and the breakfasts and ale at the "Lamb" deserve particular attention.
The "Town Arms Inn" is at the foot of the bridge.
The "George" and "Lamb " Hotels a few minutes' walk up the High-street.
The tow-path crosses at the bridge.

Crowmarsh Gifford

Crowmarsh Giffard, sometimes called Long Crowmarsh, Oxfordshire, on the left bank opposite Wallingford, 90¾ miles from London, 20¾ miles from Oxford.
Population about 350.
Soil, upper greensand.
Crowmarsh is a small village joined to Wallingford, Berks, by a stone bridge, and within the Parliamentary borough of Wallingford.
The church, St.Mary Magdalene, of great antiquity, was built in the reign of King Stephen, and consists of nave, chancel, and north transept.
The western doorway is a fine specimen of Norman work.
The old west door of massive oak has been recently removed and fitted to the vestry; it still bears marks of the bullet-holes which were made (it is said) during the siege of Wallingford Castle at the time of the Civil Wars.
In this parish is Howbery Park; the old mansion (formerly the seat of W.S.Blackstone, Esq., M.P.) was burnt down a century ago.
It is now rebuilt on same site, and owned by H.B.Watkin Williams Wynn, Esq.
The rents of two acres of land in the parish have from time immemorial been applied to the repair of the church.
Fair: Horse fair, August 2.
Place of Worship: St.Mary Magdalene.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford, which is the nearest money order, telegraph, and insurance office.
Mails from London, 6.15am, Mails for London, 7pm
Nearest Lock, Bridge, and Ferry: Wallingford.
Nearest Bridges, up, Shillingford 2½ miles; down, Streatley 5¾ miles.
Locks: up, Bensington 1½ mile; down, Cleeve 5¼ miles.
Railway Station: Wallingford.
Fares, Wallingford to Paddington: 1st, 9/5, 16/-; 2nd, 7/-, 12/-; 3rd, 4/3.

Wallingford Lock (site of)

{1883: Wallingford Lock which has little or no fall.}
{1885: Half a mile below stood Wallingford Lock, a structure with little or no fall to justify its existence. It was removed in 1884.}
Here is a ferry where the tow-path again crosses.

Newnham Murren

On the left the belfry of the tiny church at Newnham Murren peeps above the trees.
Newnham Murren, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, about one mile from Wallingford Bridge, from London 89½ miles, from Oxford 22 miles.
Population, 170. Soil, gravel.
The little church has a curiously carved oak pulpit, and a small brass tablet representing Letitia Barnarde and her four children, dated 1593.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford, which is the nearest money order office, &c.
Nearest Bridges: up, Wallingford 1 mile; down, Goring 5 miles.
Locks: up, Wallingford ¼ mile; down, Cleeve 4¾ miles.
Ferry: Wallingford.
Railway Station: Wallingford.
Fares, Wallingford to Paddington: 1st, 9/5, 16/-; 2nd, 7/-, 12/-; 3rd, 4/3.
No Sunday trains.


and immediately below on the same side are the velvet lawns and shady groves of Mongewell House, one of the most delightful residences on the river.
From this point is a fine reach about a mile in length, with flat banks, the monotony of which is relieved by some fine trees, and there is a good view of the wooded heights above Streatley.
Mongewell, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, about a mile from Wallingford, from London 82½ miles, from Oxford 22 miles.
Population, 106. Soil, chalk.
A small village, with church dedicated to St.John the Baptist.
Mongewell Park, which stands on the bank of the river here, is one of the most charming residences on the river.
Place of Worship: St.John the Baptist.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford, which is the nearest money order office, &c.
Nearest Bridges, up, Wallingford ¾ mile; down, Streatley 5 miles.
Locks: up, Wallingford ¼ mile; down, Cleeve 4½ miles.
Ferry: Wallingford.
Railway Station: Wallingford.
Fares, Wallingford to Paddington, 1st, 9/5, 16/-; 2nd, 7/-, 12/-; 3rd, 4/3.
No Sunday trains.

Papist Way Slipway [Little Stoke Ferry]

At the bottom of this reach the church tower of North Stoke appears on the left.
On the opposite side a little farther down, and some distance inland, are the extensive buildings of the Berks County Lunatic Asylum at Cholsey.
Here is Little Stoke Ferry, where the tow-path crosses.
Little Stoke: A ferry between Oxfordshire and Berkshire, nearly opposite the Berks county lunatic asylum, in the parish of Cholsey, and about one mile from Moulsford.

Moulsford Railway Bridge

Half a mile brings us to the brick bridge of the Great Western Railway near Moulsford Station, just above which there is a little island

North Stoke

North Stoke, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, 2 miles from Wallingford (a station on the Great Western Railway 51 miles from Paddington), from London 88 miles, from Oxford 23½ miles.
Population 187. Soil, chalk.
The church of St.Mary has a good pointed arch between the nave and chancel and another good arch at the west end, filled up and spoiled by a gallery.
Unlike most of its neighbours, the church has not been touched by the hand of the restorer, but it is high time that it should be taken in hand.
At present it has an almost pitiably bare and barn-like look.
It is understood that the delay in the restoration of the church is a matter of finance.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford.
Mail from London, 6.55am, Mail to London, 7.10pm, No delivery or collection on Sunday.
Nearest money-order office, &c.: Wallingford.
NEAREST Bridges: up, Wallingford 2¼ miles; down, Streatley 3½ miles.
Locks: up, Wallingford 2 miles; down, Cleeve 3 miles.
Ferry: Little Stoke.
Railway Stations: Wallingford and Moulsford, G.W.R.
Fares from Wallingford to Paddington: 1st, 9/5, 16/-; 2nd, 7/-, 12/-; 3rd, 4/5.
No Sunday trains.
From Moulsford to Paddington: 1st, 8/5, 14/6; 2nd, 6/3, 11/-; 3rd, 3/11½.

South Stoke

South Stoke, sometimes called Stoke Abbas, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, opposite Moulsford - a station on the Great Western Railway 48 miles from Paddington, from London 87 miles, from Oxford 24½ miles.
Population (including Woodcote), 761. Soil, chiefly chalk.
The Church of St.Andrew was restored and thoroughly repaired in 1858, and calls for no particular notice.
The school, now under a Board, was endowed with twenty acres of land left by the Rev.Griffith Higgs, D.D., 1659, for the purpose.
Among other charities are the following: Dr.Higgs also left £5 per annum for ever, in 1659, to be given annually to the poor; £3 to be given to six poor families "of South Stoke below the Hill", and £2 to six of "Woodcote".
This charity is called "the doctor's gift".
Augustine Knapp, in 1602, left 20s a year for the poor.
Henry Parslow, in 1675, left a great coat to one poor man of South Stoke, and to two poor men of Woodcote, to be given yearly.
A sum of £300 (three per cents) was recently left by Mr.W.Claxson, for the poor of Woodcote only.
Places of Worship: St.Andrew's; and St.Leonard's, Woodcote.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford.
Mail from London, 7.30a.m
Mail for London, 5.15pm Nearest money-order, savings bank, and telegraph office, Goring; insurance, &c, Wallingford.
Nearest Bridges: up, Wallingford 3¾ miles; down, Streatley, 2¼ miles.
Locks: up, [Wallingford 3¼ miles]; down, Cleeve 2 miles.
Ferries: Moulsford and Little Stoke.
Railway Stations: Goring and Moulsford, G.W.R.
Fares, Goring to Paddington, 1st, 7/10, 14/-; 2nd, 5/11, 10/6; 3rd, 3/9.
Moulsford to Paddington: 1st, 8/5, 14/6; 2nd, 6/3, 11/-; 3rd, 3/11.

Moulsford Boatyard and small slipway

South Stoke Ferry Lane slipway

Moulsford, The Beetle and Wedge Inn

and about half a mile farther [after Moulsford railway Bridge], after passing Moulsford Church, on the bank of the river, is the "Beetle and Wedge Inn" and ferry.
Here the towpath again takes the Berkshire bank, and a fine stretch of water succeeds.
It is here that the trial eights of Oxford University are annually rowed.


Moulsford, Berkshire, on the right bank, 87 miles from London, 24½ miles from Oxford; a station on the Great Western Railway, 47½ miles from Paddington; trains take 2 or 2½ hours.
Flys can be hired at the Railway Tavern.
Population, 180. Soil, chalk.
A village on the right bank, about 3½ miles from Wallingford, principally known to boating men and anglers for the "Beetle and Wedge Inn", and for the fact that the trial eights of the Oxford University Boat Club are rowed on the splendid stretch of water which here affords, perhaps, the best course on the river.
There is excellent perch fishing between the islands near the bridge.
Moulsford station and the Berks lunatic asylum are in the adjoining parish of Cholsey.
The church, St.John the Baptist, is of the 14th century, and was restored by Sir Gilbert Scott in 1847.
It stands immediately on the bank of the river.
Inns: "Beetle and Wedge", on the river at the ferry;
Railway Tavern, close to the station.
Place of Worship: St.John's.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Wallingford.
Nearest money order office, Cholsey; telegraph station, Moulsford.
Nearest Bridges, up, Wallingford 3¾ miles; down, Streatley 2¼ miles.
Locks: up, Wallingford 3¼ miles; down, Cleeve 2 miles.
Ferries: Moulsford and Little Stoke.
Railway Station: Moulsford.
Fares to Paddington, 1st, 8/5, 14/6; 2nd, 6/3, 11/-; 3rd 4/2½

Leatherne Bottel Restaurant

Cleeve Lock

At the turn of the river is a ferry, and just below, on the right, is Cleeve Lock, average fall 4 ft, from London 85½ miles, from Oxford 26 miles.
There is a lovely view from here of the hills and woods above Streatley, and the succession of weirs below the lock affords a variety of charming peeps.

Trip: Oxford to London: Streatley (See also Streatley)

Streatley, where there is good accommodation and a first-rate boat-house at the "Swan Inn".
It is, however, not safe to trust getting quarters at the "Swan", without previous correspondence, as the whole house is not unfrequently let for weeks together.
The cut to the left, at the diverging point, leads to

The Swan Inn at Streatley

About half a mile below, where there are a quantity of weeds and rushes, the stream divides, the right branch going to Streatley.


Streatley, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 84¾ miles, from Oxford 26¾ miles.
Population, 650. Soil, chalk and loam.
This beautifully-situated village lies at a bend of the river at the feet of the great chalk downs of Berkshire, and faces its twin village Goring (a station on the G.W.R., 45 miles from Paddington), with which it is connected by a long bridge (toll 1d).
It is a very convenient resting-place for boating-parties, there being excellent boat-houses at the "Swan Hotel", and possessing also rare attractions for the artist and lover of peaceful English riverside scenery.
From the bridge beautiful views are obtained in all directions, the rushing weirs and wooded hills down stream forming a remarkable contrast to the quiet rushy reach above, and on either hand the villages nestle picturesquely in the many-tinted shade of venerable trees.
At few places on the river is the combination of almost every variety of Thames scenery so striking and so pleasant as at Streatley and Goring.
The village of Streatley probably derives its name from the Roman Road, which crossed the Thames at the fords which occur here, where the river strikes the flinty beds of the chalk formation.
The chalk hills of the Berkshire Downs no doubt once joined the Chilterns on the Oxfordshire side, and, forming a barrier, produced a lake extending for a great distance, until its waters, boring through the chalk, drained the upper valley of the Thames, and, in fact, made it a river.
Roman remains have been occasionally found here.
Like all the parishes bordering on the Thames, it runs back a considerable distance from the water, giving to the inhabitants all the privileges of water frontage and meadows, cornland, woodland, and higher pasturage.

The earliest notice of the place is in the cartulary of the Abbey of Abingdon, which recites a gift of land at "Stretlea", by Ina, King of Wessex, in A.D. 687.
At the time of the Conqueror, we find from Domesday Book that the manor, which had been held by the Saxon Esgar in the time of Edward the Confessor, had been transferred to the Norman follower of William, Geoffrey de Manville, and that a priest named Wibert held of him the church of the manor, together with some land and four acres of meadow worth 50s.
From that time we pass to February, A.D. 1215, just four months before the signing of the Magna Charta, and we find the tithes being assigned by Herbert Pone, Bishop of Sarum; the great tithes to the monastery of Saffron Walden, the small tithes with a redecimation of the great tithes to the perpetual endowment of the Vicarage.
To the Vicar was assigned at the same time one manse situate at the waterside, and about two acres of land adjoining it.
Later on a small Dominican priory was attached to the church; on the site there was a house which, until the enclosure of the parish in 1817, was standing, and called the Rectory.
The great tithes on the dissolution were given to the Chapter of Westminster, but afterwards in some unexplained manner found their way into lay hands, and the small remainder of them at the enclosure of the parish was commuted into land, as were the small tithes of the Vicarage.

The church seems to have been built under the direction of the same Bishop Pone who endowed it, as it has the same date and many of the features, as regards details, of the great cathedral church of Sarum.
It is given generally upon no extant authority as St.Mary's, but there is better evidence to show (viz. The time at which the village feast is always held) that it should be called St.John the Baptist's.
It is noticeable for a good square tower, and for the many magnificent trees which surround it, and contains some good brasses.
One, with a figure of a lady in a ruff, is on the vestry wall; one in the south aisle, dated 1603, records the fact that the deceased had six sons and eleven daughters; another immediately underneath has on it two figures, and is in excellent preservation; and one at the end of the north aisle, with full-length figure of a lady, commemorates the death of Elizabeth Osbarn, 1440.

Streatley - Basildon Park & Aldworth

Among the notable excursions from Streatley is Basildon Park, distant about 2 miles, where there is a collection of pictures well deserving a visit.
About the same distance, among the Berkshire hills, lies Aldworth, the church of which contains a remarkable collection of monuments of the De la Beche family, respecting which many odd legends are still current among the natives.
A very aged yew, measuring some 28 feet round, which stands in the churchyard, and is supposed to be even older than the very ancient church itself, is among the Aldworth sights.

For the [Streatley] fishing, see Goring.
Inns: "The Bull", up the village; "The Swan", on the river.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Police: A constable lives in the village.
Postal Arrangements: Letters from Reading.
Mails from London, 6.30am and noon; Sunday, 6.30am,
Mails for London, 9.35am, 6.30pm, Sunday, 6.30pm
Nearest money order, savings bank, and telegraph office: Goring.
Nearest Bridge: Streatley; up, Wallingford 6 miles; down, Whitchurch 4 miles.
Lock: Cleeve ¾ mile; down, Whitchurch 4 miles.
Ferries: Moulsford and Basildon.
Railway Station: Goring, G.W.R.
Fares, Goring to Paddington: 1st, 7/10, 14/-; 2nd, 5/11, 9/6; 3rd, 3/9.

Goring Lock

Goring Lock, average fall 5 ft 6 in, from London 84 miles 7 furlongs [84⅞], from Oxford 26 miles 5 furlongs [26 ⅝].
Here is a favourite place for campers.
After passing through the lock and under the bridge, which here crosses the river (tow-path left bank), the scene continues extremely picturesque, with bold wooded hills on either side.
Goring, Oxfordshire, on the left bank.
A station on the Great Western Railway, 45 miles from Paddington; trains take about 1½ hours.
The station is a few minutes' walk from the river.
From London 85 miles, from Oxford 26½ miles.
Population, 926.
Soil, light, on gravel and chalk.
Goring is a village situated in a most picturesque part of the valley of the Thames.
The scenery around is deservedly admired.
It consists of gently rising hills which recede from the river, and are clothed with woods and cornfields.
The banks of the river are divided into a succession of verdant meadows.
The river, here crossed by a long wooden bridge (toll 1d), is much resorted to in the summer for fishing, and for picnic parties.
This part of the valley of the Thames, owing to the fertility of the soil and its attractive features, has been settled from the earliest times.
Traces of Roman villas and utensils have been occasionally- found in the neighbourhood.
The old Roman road called "Icknild-street" is believed to have crossed the Thames near Goring.
The church, which is almost on the banks of the river, and is dedicated to St.Thomas a'Becket, is a very interesting structure.
It is supposed to have been built in the reign of Henry II., and to have been enlarged in that of King John.
It contains some interesting specimens of Norman and Early English architecture.
It was connected with an Augustinian nunnery, traces of which are found to the south and west of the church.
There was a priory about two miles north-east of the village, the remains of which are built into a farmhouse called Elvingdon.
There are some excellent brasses in the church.
On the right of the altar will be found four with full-length male and female effigies attended by their three sons and five daughters.
They are in excellent order, and are probably of the time of Mary, although they bear no date.
A full-length of a lady under a canopy in the north-aisle is dated 1401, and an inscrip- tion on a brass to Henry de Aldryngton, between the nave and north aisle, bears date 1375.
A charity school, maintained by Alnutt's Charity, is at the extreme east end of Goring parish, this part of the parish is called Goring Heath.
Alnutt's Charity was founded by a gentleman of that name, and endowed by him in 1724.
There are twelve houses or rooms for almsmen, a school for twenty-seven boys from the parishes of Goring, Checkenden, and South Stoke, and one for girls.
The boys are clothed and apprenticed by the Charity at the age of fourteen.
A few boys and girls are admitted into the schools on the payment of a weekly fee of 3d.
There is also an almshouse in Goring village, founded by Richard Lybbe, of Hardwick, in the parish of Whitchurch, in the year 1714.
It admits four old men, two from Goring, one from Checkenden, and one from Whitchurch.
The range of the Chiltern Hills commences with Goring.
There are several beautiful and extensive views in the parish, while the air is extremely fresh and bracing.
The angling in the reaches of the sister villages, Streatley and Goring, is at times all that can be desired.
The fisher may make his choice of waters, from the sharp and swift to the slow and deep.
Pike, perch, roach, dace, gudgeon, and eels are abundant.
Inns: "the Miller of Mansfield", "the Queen's Arms", "the Sloane Hotel".
Places of Worship: St.Thomas a'Becket,and Lady Huntingdon's Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph):
Mails from London, week days and Sundays, 7.05am, and 12.05pm
Mails for London, 9.50am, 7.30pm; Sundays, 5.40pm
Nearest Bridges: Goring; up, Wallingford 6 miles.
Locks: up, Cleeve ¾ mile. down, Whitchurch 4 miles.
Ferries: up, Moulsford 2 miles; down, Basildon 1½ mile.
Railway Station: Goring.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 7/10, 14/-; 2nd, 5/11, 10/6; 3rd, 3/9.

Goring Bridge; Goring Gap

About a mile brings us to The Grotto (right bank), a large white house backed with fine trees and with lawns sloping to the river.
Passing under the railway-bridge the beech woods on the Oxford side appear to bar the way.

Gatehampton Railway Bridge

Passing under the railway-bridge the beech woods on the Oxford side appear to bar the way.

Basildon Ferry site

At the ferry, below the bridge, the tow-path crosses.
Farther on to the right are Basildon church and village, and farther still, opposite the beech woods and on the brow of the hill to the right is Basildon Park.
Basildon, Berkshire, on the right bank, a small village, nearly midway between Streatley and Pangbourne, and standing a little distance back from the river.
Population about 700.
On the hill above, and somewhat to the south-west,, is Basildon Park, with the mansion of Charles Morrison, Esq., which contains a fine collection of pictures and works of art.
On the river-side, just above the railway bridge, is the house known as the "Grotto".
The church of St.Bartholomew, supposed to have been built in the time of Edward II., consists of chancel and nave, with a square tower and Gothic porch.
Postal Arrangements:
Letters via Reading.
(Nearest money order and telegraph office, Goring.)
Nearest Railway Station: Goring, distant about 2 miles (which see).

Hartswood Reach

At this point a fine stretch of water runs almost in a straight line for a considerable distance; the banks on either hand are well wooded, and the view up or down is one of the most sylvan on the river. Just before making the bend before Pangbourne Reach, is Coombe Lodge, with its beautiful park,

The Swan Inn at Pangbourne

and at the end of the chalk ridge on the right is Pangbourne.
Pangbourne, from London 80 ¾ miles, from Oxford 30 ¾ miles.
A stay may conveniently be made here, and boats left at the "Swan", close to the lasher.
Pangbourne, Berkshire, on the right bank.
A station on the Great Western Railway 41½ miles from Padding ton; fast trains take about 85 minutes.
The station is three minutes' walk from the river at the Swan Hotel; from London 80¾ miles, from Oxford 30¾ miles.
Population, 757. Soil, gravel and chalk.
Pangbourne is a small village not particularly noticeable in itself but charmingly situated, and one of the most favourite angling resorts on the river.
The view from the path below the "Swan" along the weir is very characteristic, vying even with the peculiarly Thames-like scenery at Streatley, and the reaches both above and below are full of tranquil beauty.
A long wooden bridge of much the same character as that which connects Goring and Streatley crosses the river just below Pangbourne to Whitchurch, and hence again the pleasant up-river scenery is seen at its best.
Pangbourne has something of a history of its own, although there is now little in the way of antiquities as evidence of it.
It is mentioned in Domesday Book as having been held by one Miles Crispin, and the manor and church subsequently came into the possession of the Abbey of Reading.
After passing through several hands it was granted by Queen Elizabeth to the cofferer of her household.
Bere Court, the manor-house of Pangbourne, is mentioned by Leland as "a fair manor place" that had belonged to the abbots of Reading.
It is now the property of the Breedon family, many of whose monuments are to be seen in the parish church, which is dedicated to St.James the Less.
In 1865 the old church was in so sad a state of dilapidation that it was taken down, and the present church erected on its site.
The red brick tower, of date 1718, which contains six first-rate bells, was left standing.
The present building is of some architectural pretensions, and is remarkable for a fine arch, springing from clustered columns which divides the nave and chancel, and for an extremely good oak pulpit carved in arabesques, and said to be of the time of Elizabeth.
In the south aisle is a mural monument, date 1658, to three sisters, the daughters of Sir John Suckling, controller to the household of Charles I.The finest monument in the church will be found near the organ, and is that of Sir John Davis, at one time the occupant of Bere Court, who was knighted at the taking of Cales, in Spain, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and who died in 1625.
The monument is of considerable size, and exhibits the full-length recumbent figure of the knight with his two wives beneath an elaborate canopy surmounted by a skull.
In niches below are too odd little kneeling figures.
The effigies of Sir John and the two ladies are in good preservation, but the rest of the monument, which is of chalk, is, unfortunately, in a somewhat cracked and chippy state.
The registers date from the middle of the 16th century, and in the tower room hangs a decaying parchment, apparently a will of one of the early benefactors of the parish.
In 1685, John Breedon bequeathed "for the encouragement of the inhabitants of the parish Pangbourne aforesaid, especially those of a poorer sort of them to bring up and educate their children in good learning", half an acre of land and a building" 100 feet in length and 15 feet in breadth" for a school-house and habitation for schoolmaster.
A sum of £40 per annum was also left as an endowment, of which £25 per annum were to be paid "for the livelihood and support of a good schoolmaster to live and inhabit in the said house ... which schoolmaster shall, from time to time be obliged diligently to teach and instruct freely and without charge the youth, male children or boys of the parish of Pangbourne, especially of the poorer sort of them, not exceeding 12 in number at one time".
the remaining £15 per annum were ordered to be employed towards apprenticing "once in every two or three years such and so many of the said youth or boys so taught as aforesaid".
The pools at Pangbourne used to be famous for their trout, supposed to be bred in the little river Pang close by; but this is of the past.
There are shoals of other freshwater fish.
Hotels: "Elephant and Castle" and " George", both in village; "Swan", by the river.
Places of Worship: St.James the Great, and a Congregational Church.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office in village, six minutes from river (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance).
Mails from London, 7am, 12 noon, 5.10pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails for London, 9.50am, 3 and 7pm; Sunday, 7pm
Nearest Bridges: Whitchurch; up, Streatley 4 miles; down, Caversham 6¼ miles.
Locks: Whitchurch; up, Goring about 4 miles; down, Mapledurham 2¼ miles.
Ferry: Basildon.
Railway Station: Pangbourne G.W.R. [?]
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 7/4, 13/-; 2nd, 5/6, 9/6; 3rd, 3/5½

Whitchurch Lock

On the opposite side of the river is Whitchurch Lock, average fall 4 ft.
This lock requires some care on entering from this side, as it is inconveniently situated in an unexpected corner with an awkward mill-stream.

Whitchurch Bridge

Below the lock a wooden bridge connects the villages of Whitchurch and Pangbourne, and at its foot is the pretty house known as Thames Bank.
The tow-path keeps to right bank.
From here the scenery continues very pretty, the river running through richly-wooded country.
Whitchurch, Oxfordshire, on the left bank opposite Pangbourne, a station on the Great Western Railway, 41 miles from Paddington, to which it is united by a long wooden bridge. [What a long bridge!]
From London 80 ¾ miles, from Oxford 30 ¾ miles.
Population, 836. Soil, chalk.
A straggling village of considerable size, with a good church, with a curious wooden steeple, close to the river.
The church is dedicated to St.Mary, and has been greatly restored and rebuilt, showing, however, still many signs of its early Norman character.
It contains several good brasses; in the chancel on the north side is that of Roger Geary, 1450, attired in cope, &c.
; and within the altar rails is that of Thomas Walich, with figures of a knight in armour, and his wife, 1420.
In another part of the church is the brass in memory of Peter Winder, once curate of the parish, who died 1610, and is represented kneeling, in his robes.

All the windows are of stained glass, and are mostly memorials.
The Powys and Gardiner families figure largely in every part of the church.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Money order office.
Nearest telegraph and insurance office, Pangbourne.
Mails from London, 6.40am, 1.15pm;
for London, 1.15 and 6.40pm
Nearest Bridges: Pangbourne; up, Streatley 4 miles; down, Caversham 6¼ miles.
Locks: Whitchurch; up, Goring 4 miles; down, Mapledurham 2¼ miles.
Ferry: Basildon;
Railway Station: Pangbourne {which see for Fares).

Hardwick House

[Part of this section moved from Whitchurch above]

The bold range of chalk downs on the left are succeeded by the woods above Hardwick House, the seat of the Lybbe family.
Just above Mapledurham is another singularly fine mansion - Hardwick House - where it is said that Charles I. frequently indulged in his favourite pastime of bowls, and if the royal martyr had been as judicious in all matters as he undoubtedly was when he selected Hardwick for a playground, the course of English history might have been considerably changed.
In the north aisle [of Whitchurch Church] is a mural monument to Richard Lybbe, lord of the manor of Hardwick, and his wife Joanna, 1599.
The two figures, both curiously painted and gilded, kneel at a prie dieu, he in armour, she in ruff and quaint head-dress.
A most elaborate coat-of-arms and crest crown the monument.
Here also is a tablet:

To Richard Lybbe, of Hardwick, Esq., and Anne Blagrave,
united in sacred wedlock 50 years, are here againe made one by death.
she yielded to yt change Jan. 17, 1651,
which he embracied July 14, 1658.
He, whose Renowne, for what completeth Man,
Speaks louder, better things, than Marble can:
She, whose Religious Deeds makes Hardwick's Fame
Breathe as the Balme of Lybbe's Immortall Name,
Are once more joyned within this Peacefull Bed;
Where Honour (not Arabian-Gummes) is spred,
Then grudge not (Friends) who next succeed 'em must
Y'are Happy, that shall mingle with such Dust.

[Otter] Island

the best view of the house being obtained from below a little eyot, a couple of hundred yards beyond it.

Mapledurham Lock

Mapledurham House & Mill

A long row of poplars on the left, and of chestnuts and limes on the right, in the midst of perfect views, lead to Mapledurham.
Mapledurham, Oxfordshire, on the left bank; from London 78½ miles, from Oxford 33 miles.
Population: 479. Soil: chalk.
The chief glory of this village is the grand old Elizabethan Mapledurham House, belonging to the Blount family, of which Pope's Martha Blount was a member.
The house, from the river, has a somewhat conventual or monastic appearance, and the principal front, facing the park and not the river, is approached by a magnificent avenue of ancient elms.
A great old-fashioned pair of iron gates afford access from Mapledurham House to the churchyard, in which, nestling amongst noble trees, is the church of St.Margaret, which has been extensively restored, and exhibits some remarkable combinations of colour, which might, perhaps, be described as the barber's-pole style of decoration.
The greater part of the church, as well as the roof of the chancel, is curiously picked out with every variety of brilliant colour, and the idea is still further carried out by the font, which is painted red, white, blue, and gold, and further exhibits the real barber's pole blue and gilt stripes.
There is a handsome reredos, and between the south aisle and the nave is a grand monument of Sir Richard Blount and his wife Elizabeth, with two recumbent life-sized figures, the one in armour, the other in ruff and farthingale.
A close inspection of this is difficult, as it is jealously enclosed with spiked iron railings.
Indeed, the whole of the south aisle presents the curious anomaly of being walled and railed off from the rest of the church.
It is claimed by the Blount family as a private mortuary chapel, and is kept rigidly locked and strictly private.
It is understood that the opinion of ecclesiastical lawyers has been found favourable to this exercise of power.
Just above Mapledurham is another singularly fine mansion - Hardwick House - where it is said that Charles I. frequently indulged in his favourite pastime of bowls, and if the royal martyr had been as judicious in all matters as he undoubtedly was when he selected Hardwick for a playground, the course of English history might have been considerably changed.
Mapledurham Reach is celebrated for its jack and perch, for the latter particularly.
The Caversham and Reading fishermen generally make for this district.
Inn: "the Roebuck", on the Berkshire bank, about a mile below the lock.
There is a ferry here.
Places of Worship: St.Margaret;
Catholic: attached to Mapledurham House.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Reading.
Letter-box in Vicarage wall cleared 6.30pm week-days, and noon on Sundays.
Nearest money order, telegraph, &c, offices: Caversham and Pangbourne.
Nearest Bridges: up, Whitchurch about 2 miles; down, Caversham 4 miles.
Locks: up, Whitchurch 2¼ miles; down: Caversham 4¼ miles.
Ferry: Purley.
Railway Station: Pangbourne.
Fares, Pangbourne to Paddington; 1st, 7/4, 13/-; 2nd, 5/6, 9/6; 3rd, 3/8d.


Purley, Berkshire, stands about half a mile from the river; the church, close to which is a ferry, being on the right bank; from London 78 miles, from Oxford 33½ miles, and most delightfully situated in a clearing among the fine trees of Purley Park, with a pretty avenue leading to the village.
Population, about 200. Soil, gravelly.
The church is modern, with the exception of the tower, and contains some good Norman remains.
The scutcheon on the south of the tower, with the date 1626, bears the arms of the Bolingbroke family.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Reading.
Mails from London, 6.15am,
Mails for London, 7.30pm
Pangbourne is the nearest money-order office and telegraph station.
Nearest Bridges: up, Pangbourne 2½ miles; down, Caversham 3¼ miles.
Locks: up, Mapledurham ½ mile; down, Caversham 4 miles.
Ferry: Purley.
Railway Station: Pangbourne, G.W.R.
Fares: Pangbourne to Paddington: 1st: 7/4, 13/-; 2nd, 5/6, 9/6; 3rd, 3/8.

Poplar Island and Appletree Eyot


Here are a ferry and a station of the Great Western Railway, between Caversham and Pangbourne.
Here also is the new "Roebuck" Hotel, which is very well spoken of, but of which the Editor has not had personal experience.

Norcot Scours

St Mary's Island

Reading Amateur Regatta takes place usually about the end of July, over the excellent course from the Fisheries, down stream to a point above Caversham Bridge, a distance of about a mile and one furlong.

Reading Rowing Club

Reading Rowing Club, Upper Ship Hotel.
Election by committee.
Entrance fee, 5s; subscription, rowing members, £1 1s; honorary members, 10s 6d.
Boat-house at Caversham Bridge. Colours, dark blue and white diagonal.

Reading Abbey Boating Club

Reading Abbey Boating Club: A branch of a large club for young men, founded in Reading in 1872. Subscription, 10s; for honorary members, 5s.
Boat-house at Caversham. Colours, red and blue, with arms of Reading Abbey.

Reading Slipway above Caversham Bridge

Caversham Bridge

[1924-6: After the building of Reading Bridge the "iron bridge" was removed and replaced by the current bridge]

Caversham, Oxfordshire, on the left bank; from London 74½ miles, from Oxford 37 miles.
Population, 2,500.
Soil, chalk.
Caversham is, to all intents and purposes, a suburb of Reading, with which it is connected by an iron bridge.
The village is unimportant, but there are many good houses in the neighbourhood.
Among the principal mansions is Caversham Park.
An omnibus runs to and from the "Elephant Inn", Reading, and the "Prince of Wales", Little End, via Grey Friar's-road, Caversham Bridge, and the New-road.
The Church of St.Peter has lately undergone extensive repairs and restorations.
It contains some fine Norman work.
There is also a Wesleyan Church at Lower Caversham.
Inns: "Crown", on the Oxfordshire side;
"White Hart", on the Berkshire side, where boats can be left,
as well as at Causton's under the bridge.
Police: Station, Prospect-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, telegraph, and savings bank).
Mails from London, 7am, 12 noon and 5pm; Sunday, 7am, Mails for London, 8.25am, 1.50 and 7.30pm; Sunday, 1 pm There is a pillar letter-box in the wall facing the bridge.
Nearest Bridge: Caversham;
up: Pangbourne 6¼ miles;
down: Sonning 3¼ miles.
Locks: up, Mapledurham 4 miles;
down, Caversham about ¾ mile.
Ferry: at "Roebuck".
Railway Station: Reading [which see for Fares).

Piper's Island Restaurant and Bar

Fry's Island (de Montfort island)

New foot & cycle bridge built 2015


Reading, Berkshire, a short distance from right bank of the Thames at its junction with the Kennet; a station on the Great Western Railway, main line, the junction of the Hungerford and Basingstoke branches of the Great Western Railway, and a terminus of the South Eastern (Reigate branch), and also of the South Western (Staines, Wokingham, and Reading branch).
The stations are about ten minutes' walk from the river at Caversham Bridge, and about five minutes' walk from the market-place.
Flys and omnibuses from the hotels meet the trains.
Distance from London 74½ miles, from Oxford 37 miles.
The trains on the Great Western Railway average about an hour from Paddington; from Waterloo about an hour and three quarters; and from Charing Cross three hours or more.
Population, 38,400.
Death rate, 18 per 1,000.
Soil, chalk and gravel.
There is a good and constant supply of water from the waterworks, and a system of main drainage with an irrigation farm about two miles from the borough.
Reading can lay claim to great antiquity, and is the most important and flourishing town in the county of Berkshire.
It is a parliamentary municipal borough returning two members - at present Mr.Shaw-Lefevre and Mr.George Palmer, both Liberals.
It is a well-built town with fine broad streets and many excellent shops, and is evidently well cared for, although it is understood that the various improvements which have been carried out by the corporation, and the general cost of local government, have raised the burdens on the ratepayers to an inconvenient if not excessive amount.
There are some very good houses in the Bath-road and near Coley-avenue.
Many descriptions of business flourish in Reading besides that which naturally arises from its being the chief town of a large agricultural district, and for the accommodation of which the town is provided with a spacious corn exchange connected by an arcade with the market-place.
There are extensive iron foundries and engine works, breweries, &c, but perhaps the staples of the town - Reading, it may be added, is said to have contained 140 clothiers in the 15th century - which are now best known are biscuits and seeds: the manufactory of Messrs.Huntley & Palmer, and the seed nurseries, &c, of Messrs.Sutton & Sons, being known all over the world.
The corporation consists of a high steward, mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen town councillors.
It is an assize town; the present recorder is J.O.Grifits, Esq., Q.C.
The municipal buildings face the east end of Friar-street, and date from 1875; a portion of the old building, renovated in 1780, is still standing.
Besides the offices of the town clerk, medical officer of health, public analyst, inspector of nuisances, &c., the building contains a public hall capable of seating 700, which can be hired for balls, concerts, &c, and a spacious and convenient council-chamber adorned with several curious and interesting portraits, amongst which the most noteworthy are those of Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London (1566); John Kendrick, a well-known benefactor of Reading (1624); Richard Aldworth, founder of the Blue Coat School here (1646); Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, a very fine head; Archbishop Laud, a native of the town, presented by Archdeacon Mews (1667); and an admirable full-length of Queen Elizabeth, which is hung above the mantelpiece over a shield in stone sculptured with the arms of the borough; the heads of good Queen Bess herself and of four of her maids of honour.
There is also a posthumous portrait of one of the most distinguished sons of Reading, Sir Thomas Noon Talfourd, in his judicial robes.

The town (which figured in Domesday Book as Readings) has been the scene of many memorable historical events.
So far back as 871 the Danes managed to bring their war-ships up the Thames as far as the Kennet, and made Reading their base of operations for their campaign in Wessex.
Parliament, driven from London by plague, down to Queen Elizabeth's time frequently sat at Reading, and the same cause drove the lawyers to the town in 1625, when all the law courts came here from Westminster.
Some of the most important events in its records occurred in 1643, when it suffered severely during the siege by the Parliamentary troops under the Earl of Essex, and later, in 1688, when the Prince of Orange defeated the king's troops.
Among the buildings which suffered most at the hands of the Roundheads was St. Giles's Church, but the chief sufferer was the famous old Benedictine Abbey, founded in 1121 by Henry I.
What was begun by Cromwell's cannon was completed by the ravages of time and of depredators, who carried away wholesale stone and other material to be used for building purposes elsewhere, until nothing now remains of this once magnificent building but a few half-ruined arches and enormous walls of flint and rubble.
There is no monument in or near the ruins to show that King Henry I. was buried there, or that Maude, daughter of Henry I., wife of Henry IV., Emperor of Germany, and mother of our Henry II., was also buried in the abbey grounds with great pomp.
Royal marriages of great importance took place in the abbey, John of Gaunt being there married to Blanche of the Plantagenets, and here also the marriage of Henry IV. to Lady Grey was announced.
Some part of the walls, which are said to have been eight feet thick, were used nearly a century ago by General Conway and employed in building a bridge between Henley and Wargrave, near the general's residence at Park Place.
The old gateway has been rebuilt, and serves as the headquarters of the Royal Berks Volunteers.
The abbey ruins are best approached from the prettily-laid-out Forbury Gardens, adjacent to which are the extensive assize courts, the county gaol being beyond the abbey ruins to the eastward.
A handsome esplanade, planted with trees, runs from the foot of the abbey along one face of the gaol wall which over- looks the Kennet.

Among the many churches in Reading, two at least are well worth a visit: those of St.Lawrence, corner of Friar-street, near the market-place, and of St.Mary, Minster-street.
The former is of the flint and stone so common in the architecture of this part of the country, and has a square tower with turrets, and is a handsome building in the perpendicular style.
Among the brasses are those of Edward Butler and his wife (1585), of John Kent and his wife, and of W.Barton (1538).
In the south aisle is a curious painted monument of John Blagrave, dressed in cloak and ruff, and holding a quadrant and globe.
Two skulls support the monument, and on each side of the tablet is a plump gilt cherub.
The inscription runs, "Johannes Blagravus totus mathematicus cum matre sepultus".
A figure in marble, kneeling at a prie-dieu, commemorates the death in 1636 of Martha, wife of Charles Hamley, and the ruff and extraordinarily large hat of the figure challenge attention.
Another interesting memorial is the stained-glass window in three compartments, situated in the south side of the chancel, and inscribed: "Memorial to Charles Lamb: Henry and Rachel, children of T.N.Talfourd: erected 1848."
The handsome church of St.Mary is remarkable for its curious chequered tower (1551), surmounted with pinnacles added in 1624 by John Kendrick, whose name occurs so frequently in the annals of Reading.
The church, which is said to have been originally built with portions of the abbey ruins, was carefully restored fifteen years ago.
It has a fine old oak roof, and contains many objects of interest.
Of these may be mentioned a black and gold monument to William Kendrick and his wife (1635), with a strange profusion of gilded skulls by way of ornament.
The ancient alms-box (1627) inscribed "Remember the poore, and God will bless thee and thy store", and a smaller box at the entrance to the vestry, are curious.
In the vestry itself are some 15th-century brasses of no very great importance, and an odd list of charitable gifts to the parish, beginning with a benefaction of alms houses and money from "John of the Larder".
In the choir-room is an oil picture which, before the restoration of the church, hung over the altar, and which is attributed to one of the Caracci. In the chancel hang the tattered colours of the 66th (Berkshire) Regiment.
The ancient screen of carved wood over the western entrance should not be overlooked.
One of the handsomest churches in Reading, recently restored, is that of St.Giles, Horn-street, which, however, contains now no brasses or monuments calling for special notice.
A curious epitaph which exists in the churchyard runs as follows:
He was -
But words are wanting to say what:
Say what is kind !
And he was that.

The parish registers date from 1564, the churchwardens' accounts from 1518.
Grey Friars' Church, Friar-street, is a stately 15th-century edifice with some fine windows.
It was originally built by the Grey Friars on the site granted by the Abbot of Reading.
Falling into decay, it stood roofless for 200 years, the side aisles being used as cells of the town Bridewell.
In 1861 it was restored by the late Archdeacon Phelps.

Reading is the headquarters of the 41st Infantry Brigade Depot, of the Royal Berks Militia, and of the 1st Berkshire Rifle Volunteers.
In Friar-street there is a theatre and an Athenaeum Institution, with reading room and library (subscription, £1 1s per annum; less for shorter periods).
The free library and reading-rooms, with subscription reading-room and library attached, and with an evening college in connection, are in West-street.
The terms for the subscription library are 2s 6d per quarter, for the subscription reading-room a like amount; for the two combined, 4s.
The Government School of Art and Science, in connection with South Kensington, is situated in Castle-street.
The classes meet morning and evening, and full particulars can be obtained of the honorary secretary.
The Victoria Hall seats 400 to 500 people, and may be hired for lectures, &c.
The Charity Organisation Society, established to investigate and report upon alleged cases of want, to dispense charity, and to repress mendicity and fraud, has its offices in Carey-street.
There is a Servants' Training Institution intended for girls of good character, who are admitted between the ages of 13 and 15, the payment for each being 10£ per annum.
The School of Industry was founded 1802 by Lady Cadogan for the education of 32 poor girls, who are partly clothed at the expense of the school.
Among the charitable institutions may be mentioned St.Mary's Home for Girls, Baker-street, a penitentiary receiving 20 inmates.
Two lodges of craft masons (Union 414, Grey Friars 1101), and one of mark master masons (Leopold 235), as well as a Royal Arch Chapter, are held in the Masonic Hall, which is used solely for masonic purposes.

There are numerous schools in Reading, the most important of which is that known as the Reading School, which has succeeded the old grammar school, formerly so well known in connection with Dr.Valpy, and the buildings of which were opened in 1871.
The subjects of instruction are divided into the classical and modern sides.
The school-fees are, for boys under fourteen, £10 per annum; between fourteen and sixteen, £15 per annum; above sixteen, £20 per annum.
An inclusive fee of £4 4s for instruction in French, German, and drawing, and for the use of gymnasium and library, is paid by all boys.
Boarders are received by the head master, and by two other masters; boys under fourteen pay £67 4s; above fourteen, £78 15s, including board, laundress, and the school-fees above set forth .
There are certain entrance scholarships both for day pupils and boarders, and three Appleton Scholarships for day pupils.
Ten scholarships at St.John's College, Oxford, each of the value of £100 per annum, and tenable for five years, will, as soon as vacated by the present holders of fellowships into which they have for the time been converted, be awarded to boys from Reading School.
The Blue Coat School, Reading, was founded by Richard Aldworth, late of the parish of St.Mary Magdalen, in Milk-street, London, Esquire, and a native of Reading.
By his will dated 1646 he bequeathed money and other property in trust, the income from which was to be spent yearly for certain pious and charitable uses, one of which was to pay for the education and bringing up of twenty poor male children, being the children of honest, religious poor men of the town of Reading, to and for their meat, drink, and clothing.
These twenty children were to be boarded and lodged in the master's dwelling-house, and to be dieted and clothed similarly to the children in Christ's Hospital in London.
Since the above date several other bequests have been made for the purpose of increasing the number of boys to be maintained in Mr.Aldworth's School.
The number of boys at present maintained in the school is forty-four.
The boys are elected by the trustees every year in the month of January; the successful candidates remain in the school about three years.
The education is such as is given in English commercial schools.
The boys, on leaving the school, are generally apprenticed.
The school appears to be greatly valued, and the candidates for election every year far exceed the number of vacancies.
The present school premises were purchased about the year 1852, and are situated in one of the most healthy parts of the town.

An omnibus runs at intervals to Caversham, fare 2d.
The tramway starts from the barracks, Oxford-road, and runs through Broad-street, King-street, and King's-road, to the cemetery at Erleigh; distance about 2¼ miles; fare, any distance, 2d.
Cars run about every twelve minutes.
Being situated on so many lines of rail, as well as on the river, Reading affords excellent headquarters for the excursionist.
It is surrounded in all directions by a beautiful country.
Down the river are Sonning, 3½ miles, and Henley, 9½ miles, the latter of which also is easily reached by railway; and up stream are the delightful reaches of Mapledurham, 3½ miles, and Pangbourne, 5½ miles (also on the Great Western Railway).
Inland, within easy reach, are Bradfield; Whiteknights; Strathfieldsaye; Englefield; Three Mile Cross, on the Basingstoke-road - the "Our Village" of Miss Mitford - near Swallowfield, the seat of Sir George Russell; Shinfleld; Aldermaston; and, in another direction, Windsor.
Banks: London and County, Market-place; J. and C.Simmonds & Co., King-street, and Market-place; Stephens, Blandy, & Co., Market-place.
Fairs: February 2, May 1, July 25, September 21, October 21.
Fire: (Volunteer) Engine-house, Friar-street; (Police) Star-lane; (County) Mill-lane.
Hospital: Royal Berkshire Hospital, London-road.
Hotels: "Great Western", close to station; "Queen's", Friar-street; "Ship", Duke-street.
Market Day: Saturday. Monday for cattle.
Places of Worship: All Saints; Christ Church, Whitley; Grey Friars, Friar-street; Grey Friars, North-street; St.Giles's, Southampton-street; St. John's; St.Lawrence, Market-place; St.Luke's, Erleigh-road; St.Mary's, Minster-street; St.Saviour's; and St. Stephen's.
The Roman Catholic Church of St.James, Abbey Ruins; the Episcopalian Church of St.Mary; Friends' Meeting House; numerous chapels of the Baptist, Congregational, Indepen- dent, Methodist, and Wesleyan Bodies; the Unitarian (Free) Church, London-road, and Presbyterian (Church of England); Church of St.Andrew, London-road.
Police: Borough Police-station, High-bridge, London-street; County Police-station, Abbey-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, tele- graph, insurance), 99, Broad-street.
Town receiving offices: Brunswick-hill, Castle-street, Duke-street, London-road, London-street, New-town, Oxford-read, Queen's-road, Redlands, Spring-gardens, the Barracks.
These are all insurance offices, and there is a telegraph office at the London-street branch.
Mails from London, 7 and 8.30am, 3 and 6.45pm; Sundays, 7am,
Mails for London, 2, 9.30, and 10.30am, 12.45, 2.30, 3.30, 4, 7.30, and 8.30pm; Sundays, 2am
Nearest Bridges: Caversham; up, Pangbourne 6¼ miles; down, Sonning 3¾ miles.
Locks: Caversham: up, Whitchurch, 6¼ miles; down, Sonning 3½ miles.
Railway Station: Reading.
Fares to Paddington, Waterloo, or Charing Cross: 1st, 6/3, 11/8; 2nd, 4/8, 8/3; 3rd, 3/4

Reading and District Angling Association

Reading and District Angling Association, for the protection and improvement of that portion of the Thames between Goring Lock and Shiplake Lock.
Annual subscription not less than 10s 6d.
A reward of £1 is offered to any person who shall give information to any member of the committee, or bailiff, of any illegal netting or night poaching, provided that it be considered by the committee a fit case for prosecution; and that the person prosecuted be convicted by the magistrates.
A reward of pound;1 is offered for infringement of the "Upper Thames (Fishery) Bye-laws of 1869", or the Freshwater Fisheries Act of 1878, provided it lead to the conviction of the offender; and a similar reward for killing an otter within the district protected by the Association, or on the Kennet or Loddon within ten miles of the Thames.

Reading Bridge

[1923: Reading Bridge opened]

Caversham Lock

Caversham Lock, average fall about 3 ft 6 in, from London 74 m 3f [74 ⅜], from Oxford 37 m 3 f [37 ⅜].
This is a good brick lock, in approaching which great care is necessary.
The lock cut is extremely narrow and insignificant, and follows the right bank.
What appears to be the main stream on the left is in reality a very rapid and dangerous current leading to the weir.
There is a Thames Conservancy notice of danger, indicating the proper route, on the point of the island.
Boats going down, therefore, cannot keep too close to the right bank all the way from Caversham Bridge.

View Island public park;

Heron Island, houses

Kennet & Avon Canal

Three-quarters of a mile from the lock the Kennet enters the Thames and is crossed by the Great Western Railway-bridge at its mouth.

Dreadnought Reach, Reading

Breach's Ait

Nearly a mile farther on [from Caversham Lock] the river takes a sharp turn to the right, and passing an eyot we come to the woods of Holme Park, and to the umbrageous walk along the bank known as Thames Parade.
The right bank should here be closely followed, as the remarks already made in regard to Caversham Lock also apply to Sonning

Sonning Lock

Sonning Lock, a good lock of stone and wood with an average fall of 4 ft 6 in, from London 71 ½ miles, from Oxford 40 miles.
The floral tastes of the lock-keeper generally make Sonning Lock very bright and gay, and it is besides very prettily situated amongst trees.
The short distance from the lock to Sonning is also very pretty.

Sonning Bridge

French Horn @ Sonning

The Great House @ Sonning

The Mill Dinner Theatre @ Sonning

At Sonning are the "White Hart" on the right bank, the "French Horn" (rebuilt in 1882, and now one of the prettiest and most convenient of the river-side hotels), up the mill-stream under the wooden bridge, on the left, and the "Bull" just through the churchyard.
At Sonning Bridge the tow-path crosses.
Sonning, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 71¼ miles, from Oxford 40¼ miles.
Population, 465. Soil, gravel.
A pleasantly-situated village, with an ancient brick bridge across the river, from which two delightfully dissimilar views are to be enjoyed.
Looking up stream, the river which is here narrowed by islands covered with osiers and pollard willows, and shut in at the bend by the noble forest trees of Holme Park, presents the appearance of a placid lake.
The contrast of colour between the bright light greens of the foreground trees, the richer tints of the grassy meadow in the middle distance, and the dark, almost sombre masses of the towering chestnuts in the background, form a picture not easily forgotten.
Looking down stream, an entirely different scene presents itself.
The river takes its sinuous course between low banks, its passage through the long open plain being marked here and there with pollards and osier-beds, and the background filled with the amphitheatre of wooded heights above Henley.
Little indication of the character of the village is obtained from the river, but a few minutes' walk inland will disclose as pretty a little place as can well be desired, containing many excellent houses, evidently well looked after and cared for, and with good old-fashioned gardens.

Sonning is not without literary associations, as the "Peter Plymley Letters" of Sydney Smith were written in a cottage in the village.
The church, whose gray square embattled tower adds greatly to the charm of the up-river view from the bridge, is well worth a lengthened visit, containing as it does great wealth of interesting monuments and brasses, besides presenting in itself many notable architectural features.
On the north side is a good old porch of elaborate design, over which is an image of St.Andrew; and some curious iron clamps on the belfry door bear the old bell inscription: "Deum laudo, vivos voco, mortuos ploro"
The Sonning peal of bells has long been celebrated, and a curious entry in the archives of the Ancient Society of College Youths records their victory in a competition for a two handled silver cup, the inscription on which says: "This cup, the gift of Mr.Peter Bluck, of Sonning, in the county of Berks, was adjudged to the Society of College Youths for the superior style in which they rang ten hundred and eight bob major in a contest with the Oxford and Farnham Societies, at the above parish church, on Monday, Aug. 4th, 1783."
The church contains nave, chancel, and aisles; the north chancel aisle being specially remarkable for the beautiful carving with which it is enriched.
The handsome altar of recent date is also elaborately decorated with sculpture, the font is modern, as is its lofty carved oak tabernacle covering, both probably dating from the restoration of the church in 1853.
On the west wall of the south aisle is a handsome marble monument with brasses, to the memory of various members of the family of Palmer of Home Park.
In the south aisle is a painted marble monument, dated 1630, to Katharine, Lady Lidcott, who kneels at a prie-dieu, a good specimen of this kind of work, and in striking contrast to a pretentious and conventional monument hard by, the work of R. Westmacott, jun., and erected to the memory of W.Barker, who died 1758.
In a chapel divided from the south aisle by an oak screen, is a kind of mortuary chapel, almost entirely allotted to monuments of the Barker family, which is now, however, nearly wholly occupied by the organ.
It also contained a ponderous slab, supported by four chubby marble angels, and surmounted by two marble pickle-jars of colossal size, the whole being in honour of one Sir Thomas Rich and his son, who died respectively 1667 and 1613.
This now stands at the west end of the church under the tower.
Under the east window was a very old monument (now removed to the south wall, close to the Barker monument), depicting the kneeling figures of three knights in armour, and three ladies, with a certain grotesqueness in the character of the faces.
The inscription is unfortunately undecipherable, only sufficient remaining to show that it was of a poetical character.
Lord Stowell is among the celebrities who are buried at Sonning.
The brasses in this church comprise many full-length figures of members of the Barker family, dating from the middle of the 16th century, one of which, to Anne Staverton, daughter and "sole heire" of William Barker, who died 1585, has the following quaint inscrip- tion:
A frend unto the widdoo, fatherles, sycke and poore,
A comforte and a suckour contynened she ever more.

Hard by is an unusually good brass in memory of Laurentius Ffyton, who is represented in armour, each corner of the brass bearing an elaborate coat of arms: the date is 1434.

In the neighbourhood is a brass to William Barker and Anne his wife, with the following quaint inscription:
Here lyeth the corps of William Barker, Esquire in bowelle of this grave
Whose dayes by all mens doome deserve a longer life to have.
You widowes wayle his losse and orphanes, wythe his lyffe
You dearly want his wysdomes skyll, whose causes are at stryffe.
Nor you allone lament, your frynde's untymely ffate,
His Ann doth morne amonge the most, who least maye misse her mate
Ann, spronge of Stowghton's stocke, an ancient progeny
She wyth her chyldren wayle this chaunce, and doleffull destenye.
Yet this bothe we and all have mostlye to rejoice
His faithe and fraudles hart hathe wonne the people's voyce
His bodie in this soile and earthlye fear doth lye,
His ffame in ayre, his ghost for ay doth yve alofte the skye.

An odd epitaph on Elizabeth Chute, a child of the tenderest years, deserves quotation:
What Beauty wold have lovely stild
What manners sweete what nature mild,
What wonder perfect all were fild
Vpon Reccord in this one child
And till the comming of the Soule
To call the flesh, we keepe ye Roule.

There are two curious tablets in the wall by the vestry door, dated 1533 and 1605; and the vestry, which is screened from the north aisle by a somewhat similar oak screen to that on the opposite side of the church, contains a fine old carved oak chair and table, the latter much resembling that in the hall of Christ's Hospital at Abingdon.
There is a fine view from the top of the church tower.
Sir Thomas Rich, the lord of the manor, left some years ago £20 per annum for the free instruction of forty poor boys, and they were taught in the master's cottage until the erection of the new schoolroom by the late Robert Palmer, Esq., of Holme Park.
Here is a splendid stretch of jack water, well looked after. Barbel, roach, &c, plentiful.
An omnibus runs daily between Sonning and Reading, leaving the "Peacock" Inn, Broad-street, Reading, at 3am, 12 noon, and 4pm, returning from Sonning at 10am, 2 and 7pm; the journey occupies about an hour.
Hotels: The "French Horn" on the Oxfordshire side, rebuilt in 1883;
the "White Hart", on the Berkshire bank;
the "Bull", just through the churchyard.
Place of Worship: St.Andrew's.
Police: A constable lives in the village.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office, five minutes from river (money order, savings bank, and telegraph office).
Mails from London 7.10am, and 12.15pm; Sunday, 7.10am,
Mails for London, 6.50 and 10.30pm; Sunday, 12.30pm
Nearest Bridges: Sonning; up, Caversham, 3¼ miles; down, Henley 6¼ miles.
Locks: Sonning; up, Caversham about 3 miles; Shiplake 2½ miles.
Ferry: Wargrave.
Railway Station: Twyford, G.W.R.
Fares, Twyford to Padd: 1st, 5/6, 9/3; 2nd, 4/2, 7/-; 3rd, 2/9½.

OUTFLOW into St Patrick's Stream

Hallsmead Ait

Rather more than a mile from the [Sonning] bridge is an island.
Keep to the left bank, as the stream to the right goes to some eel-bucks.
Hereabouts the river winds considerably.
Approaching the white house among the trees on the hill (left bank) is an island, either side of which can be taken.

Shiplake College and Village

On the left of the next reach is a pretty bit of wooded chalk cliff,
Shiplake, Oxfordshire, on the left bank, from London 68¾ miles, from Oxford, 42¾ miles.
A station on the Henley branch of the Great Western Railway, about an hour to an hour and a half to Paddington by fast trains.
Population, 586. Soil, gravel and chalk.
Shiplake is a village pleasantly planted on the riverside, its prettiest portion being on the chalk hill which overhangs the river just above the lock.
The church is dedicated to St.Peter and St.Paul, and was re-opened in 1870, after restoration, during which a chancel was added, and the peal of bells completed.
The stained-glass windows are very ancient, having originally been in the Abbey of St.Bertin, at St.Omer.
Grainger, author of the "Biographical History of England", was vicar of Shiplake, and died in 1766, while officiating at the Holy Communion.
There is a fine bust of Mr. Plowden in the church over his memorial-stone.
Mr.Plowden formerly lived at Shiplake Court, which was pulled down in 1801; remains of its terraced garden sloping to the river are still to be seen near the chalkpit.
In this church Alfred Tennyson was married.
The fine old deer-park and mansion called Crowsley Park, the seat of Major Baskerville, lord of the manor, and The Coppice, the seat of the Rt.Hon.Sir Robert Phillimore, are in this parish; also Holmwood, and Shiplake House.
The vicarage was rebuilt by the present vicar in 1868.
The Loddon, Pope's Lodona, enters the Thames just below Shiplake Lock.
Place of Worship: St.Peter and St.Paul.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Henley.
Mails from London, 8am, in winter, and 7.30am, in summer.
The letter-box at Church Lane is cleared at 6.40pm, and on Sundays at 11.40am; that at Binfield Heath at 6.15pm, and on Sundays at 11.15am,
The nearest money-order, &c, office is at Henley.
Nearest Bridges: Up, Sonning, 2½ miles; down, Henley 3¾ miles.
Locks: Shiplake; up, Sonning 2¾ miles; down, Marsh 2¾ miles.
Ferries: Wargrave and Shiplake.
Railway Station: Shiplake.
Fares to Paddington, 1st, 6/-, 10/-; 2nd, 4/6, 7/6; 3rd, 2/10.

Phillimore's Island

and below is the picturesque clump of trees on Phillimore Island.
On the hills on the right past the island, the house known as Wargrave Hill appears in sight; and the house on the left bank opposite the island is known as The Coppice.

The Lynch (island)

Shiplake Lock

Shiplake Lock is a stone lock, average fall 5 ft 6 in, from London 68 m 5 f [68 ⅝], from Oxford 42 m 7 f [42 ⅞], just above the junction of the Loddon, right bank, with the Thames; Immediately below on the right is a series of lashers leading to Shiplake Lock, on the left of which is a mill-stream.

River Loddon and St Patricks Stream

Shiplake Railway Bridge

[1897: The old wooden bridge replaced in iron
1970s: reduced to single track]


The George and Dragon Inn

and a quarter of a mile beyond this point, after the railway bridge, is Wargrave, with its well-known "George and Dragon Inn".
Here is a ferry, but the tow-path remains on the left bank
Wargrave, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 68 ¼ miles, from Oxford 43 ¼ miles.
Population, 1,785. Soil, gravel and chalk.
A pleasant village on the road from Twyford to Henley, both stations on the Great Western Railway, in the middle of a first-rate fishing district, and highly popular amongst artists.
Public evidence of the latter fact is afforded by the sign of the principal inn of the village, the "George and Dragon".
Here Mr.G.D.Leslie, R.A., has depicted the terrific encounter between the saint and the reptile; and on the other side Mr.J.E.Hodgson, A.R.A., has limned St.George, his work concluded, his spear stuck in the ground, taking his pint of beer with a thoroughly comic air of complacent content.
There are many good houses in the village, especially on the river's bank, and the village, though quiet and retired, is an enjoyable place to put up at.
The church at Wargrave (St.Mary's) was originally of Norman date, but the only portion remaining of the old church is the north door.
The present church is built of flint and stone, and is beautifully situated on a green amidst very fine elm-trees.
The ivy- mantled square tower is of brick, and of the beginning of the 17th century; it contains a fine peal of six bells.
The interior of the church is in want of restoration.
On the south wall of the church is a monumental tablet to Mr.Day, the author of "Sandford and Merton", who lived, and was killed by a fall from his horse, in Wargrave parish.
The east window is a "Mary window", and was put up to the memory of a late vicar (the Rev.James Hitchings) by the parishioners.
The churchyard surrounds the church, and is very pretty and extremely well kept; in it is the Saxon font, once used in the church.
In the north aisle are many tablets and monuments to members of the Ximenes family over an old oak raised pew, with some curious carvings on the side.
On the north side of the chancel is a marble mural tablet to the memory of Richard Aldworth, who died in 1623, surmounted by a brig in full sail.
Inside the altar rails on the north side is a very large brass - "a token of love here placed" - to the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Raymond White, late of the 6th or Inniskilling Dragoons, by his brother officers in 1844.
There is a small but fine black oak tabernacle to the font.
Among the bequests is one by Mrs.Sarah Hill, who left £1 annually to be given at Easter in new crown pieces to two boys and two girls.
No boy is to have the reward who is undutiful to his parents, was ever heard to swear, to tell untruths, to steal, to break windows, or to do any kind of mischief.
Any boy who would have the courage to lay claim to this reward, and could conscientiously say that he had fulfilled all the necessary conditions, must, one would think, be a lineal descendant of the exasperating Master Sandford himself.
A large school in the village for the children of the parish is generally known as Piggott's School, a certain Mr. Piggott having about a century ago left a sum of money to clothe and educate 20 boys and 20 girls, these children being now educated with the others who attend the parish school.
There is capital fishing about Wargrave and Shiplake.
Hotel: "The George and Dragon".
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order and savings bank).
Mails from London, 7.30am, 1pm; Sunday, 7.30am
Mails for London, 8.40am, 7.05pm; Sunday, 10am
The nearest telegraph office is Twyford.
Nearest Bridges, up, Sonning 3 miles; down, Henley 3 ¼ miles.
Locks, up, Shiplake ½ mile; down, Marsh 2 ¼ miles.
Ferries: Wargrave and Shiplake.
Railway Stations: by ferry, Shiplake; by high-road, Twyford.
Fares from Twyford to Paddington: 1st, 5/6, 9/3; 2nd, 4/2, 7/-; 3rd, 2/9½.

Val Wyatt Marine at Wargrave

Henley Sailing Club

Lashbrook former ferry

until another ferry, about half a mile farther, opposite Shiplake station, where it crosses to the right bank.

Bolney Islands

On the hills to the right are Hennerton and Combe, and on the river bank to the left opposite a number of islands is Bolney Court.
Below the islands the tow-path again crosses by another ferry.

Hennerton Backwater

Park Place above Marsh Lock

On the right are the woods of Park Place, and half-way down the next reach is its pretty boat-house and fishing cottage, with its lawn and vista among the trees.
The road here is carried over a bridge made by General Conway, to whom the place formerly belonged, with materials from the ruins of Reading Abbey.

Marsh Lock

A long wooden bridge to the lock island leads to Marsh Lock in the centre, the stream past the pretty house and garden on the right running to the mill.
Marsh is an antiquated specimen of a wood lock, with an average fall of from 4 ft 6 in to 5 ft.
It is distant from London 66 miles, and from Oxford 45 ½ miles.
There is a strong stream below the lock,

Rod Eyot; Bird Island

Hobbs Boatyard

and the river diverges at an island; the left (tow-path) side should be taken by boats with ladies, the Henley bathing-sheds being on the right bank.

Henley Public Landing

A mile from Marsh Lock we come to Henley
Henley, Oxfordshire, on the left bank; from London 64½ miles, from Oxford 47 miles.
The terminus of a branch on the Great Western Railway, from an hour to an hour and a half from Paddington.
Flys and omnibuses meet the trains.
The station is close to the river, and about five minutes' walk from the bridge.
Population, 4523.
Henley, the Mecca of the rowing man and one of the most favourite places of pilgrimage for anglers, is a comfortable, prosperous-looking town, set down in a pleasant valley almost entirely surrounded by well-wooded heights, and is as good a place to stay at for the tourist who takes no interest either in oars or rods, punts or wager-boats, as can well be desired.
Both by river and by road there are almost innumerable excursions, and the walks either at the back of the town or on the road to Marlow across the river afford many charming glimpses of some of the prettiest of the Thames scenery.
The town itself is well built with good broad streets, the principal business centres being Hart-street, the Market-place, and Bell-street, all of which contain good shops.
The outskirts are noticeable for a number of handsome houses, especially towards the Fair Mile, a fine avenue of trees which leads from the north of the town.
Henley is under the government of a high steward, a mayor, ten aldermen, and sixteen burgesses.
The Town Hall is in the Market-place, and differs in no respect from the usual type of buildings of its class in the neighbourhood.
It contains two good portraits, presented to the town by the widow of Sir Godfrey Kneller; one of George I., by Sir Godfrey himself, and the other of the Earl of Macclesfield, the first high steward of the town.
Lady Kneller is buried with her parents at Henley in the church.
The church of St.Mary, whose lofty embattled tower is a prominent landmark, as well from the river as from the hills around, stands close to the bridge.
It is a fine building, with chancel, north chancel aisle, nave, and aisles, and in the tower hangs a remarkably good peal of bells.
A beautiful new west window and an entrance screen of carved oak have been added, and the space under the tower has been formed into a beautiful Baptistery.
Under the tower is the monument of Lady Elizabeth Periam: a semi-recumbent figure reclining on its right elbow, and dressed in a ruff, stomacher, and hood.
In the right hand is a Book of Hours.
Lady Elizabeth died in 1621.
Behind the organ is a mural monument, with a marble angel, in memory of certain members of the Elmes family from 1621 to 1720.
In the south wall is a tablet with a long inscription to the memory of General Dumouriez, who died near Henley in 1823.
In the churchyard is the grave of Richard Jennings, the master builder of St.Paul's Cathedral.
Along the sides of the churchyard stand almshouses: four built by Mrs.Messenger, 1669, and rebuilt 1846; ten due to Humphrey Newberry, 1664, rebuilt 1846; and twelve endowed by John Longland, Bishop of Lincoln (a native of Henley), in 1547; these were rebuilt in 1830.
The church of Holy Trinity is on the south side of the town in the parish of Rotherfield Grays.
The living is a vicarage, and the patron for the next turn is the Bishop of Oxford.

The Congregational chapel here originated in 1662.
The first preacher was the Rev.W.Brice, Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, rector of St.Mary's, Henley, ejected by the Act of Uniformity.
The first pastor was Rev.John Gyles, ejected from the vicarage of Lindridge.
The tablet of Mr.Gyles has the following quaint inscription:
Heaven's Pilgrim, pause you here,
And with many drop a teare
O'er John Gyles, from Heaven sent To preach to men Christ's commandment.
Whose learning, utterance, and parts
Meekness and grace did win all hearts.
Him now you see translated thus
A dying witness to Christ's truth
Both taught and practised from his youth.
His race is run, he's glorified
this stone you see his dust doth hide.
Deceased 26 Aprill, 1683.

Rev.Humphrey Gainsborough, brother of Gainsborough the painter, was a minister of the chapel for upwards of twenty-eight years.
He was a very ingenious man; is supposed to have been the discoverer of the separate condenser for steam engines; constructed a weighing-machine for the corporation in 1776; made the road to the town over White Hill; arranged and superintended the construction of the arch and ruins over Twyford-road, at the bottom of the Happy Valley; constructed the locks on the river near New Mills; and made many curious clocks, dials, &c.
He was offered very good preferment in the Established Church, but nothing would induce him to leave his own people, by whom he was greatly esteemed.
The Grammar School was founded in 1604 by James I., and is now managed under a scheme of the Endowed Schools Commissioners.
It prepares for the Universities, professions, and public service.
Day boys pay £11 per annum, no extras; boarders, £40 to £50, according to age.
The Blue Coat, or Lower Grammar School, was founded by Lady Elizabeth Periam in the reign of James I., for the purpose of educating, free of all cost, twenty boys of the town.
In the reign of George III. the school was united with the Upper Grammar School.
Three years ago it came under a new scheme, and is now called the "English School"; and although under the same governing body as the Upper, or Grammar School, is quite a separate establishment, under its own masters, &c.
Twenty boys are still educated free of cost, together with about forty others, who pay a fee of £3 per annum each.
It was on a window at the "Red Lion" at Henley, that Shenstone wrote the now hackneyed lines:
Whoe'er has travelled life's dull round,
Where'er his stages may have been,
May sigh to think he still has found
the warmest welcome at an inn.

Among the notable houses in the neighbourhood of Henley is Park Place, on the summit of the hill on the Berkshire side.
Stonor Park, Henley Park, Phyllis Court, Fawley Court, Greenlands, and many other county houses, are either in or near the parish.
Henley was once justly celebrated for its pike, but is now scarcely worth the trouble of fishing, except for roach and chub.
Banks: London and County, Market-place; Simonds and Co., Market-place.
Fairs: March 7, Holy Thursday, Trinity Thursday, and the Thursday after September 21.
Fire: Volunteer Fire Brigade; captain-lieutenant, two firemen, engineer, and twenty pioneers; three manual engines and one fire-escape.
Hotels: "Angel", at the foot of the bridge; "Catherine Wheel", Hart-street; "Red Lion", foot of the bridge; "Royal", facing the river near the railway-station.
Market Day: Thursday.
Places of Worship: Holy Trinity (Rutherford Greys) and St.Mary's; and Baptist, Congregational, and Wesleyan Chapels, and a Friends' Meeting House.
Police: Station, West-street, by the side of the Town Hall.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), Market-place.
Mails from London, 7 and 11.30am, 6.45pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 9.55am, 3.20, 7.50, and 8.15pm; Sunday, 8.15pm
Nearest Bridges: up, Sonning 6¼ miles; down, Marlow 8 miles.
Locks: up, Marsh 1 mile; down, Hambleden 2¼ miles.
Ferry: just below Bolney Court, ½ mile above Marsh Lock.
Railway Station: Henley.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 6/3, 10/9; 2nd, 4/8, 8/-; 3rd, 2/1 3/2

The Angel on the Bridge at Henley

Henley Bridge

Henley, with abundance of hotel accommodation, and one of the most favourite resorts on the river.
A handsome bridge spans the river here; the tow-path crosses to the right bank.
The counties of Oxfordshire and Berkshire are united at Henley by a handsome and convenient stone bridge of five arches with stone balustrades.
The key-stones of the centre arch represent respectively Thames and Isis.
The Thames, which looks down stream, is the conventional bearded old Father Thames crowned with bulrushes; and the Isis, looking up stream, is, in allusion to the fabled marriage of Thame and Isis, a female head adorned with water plants.
These works of art were executed by the Hon. Mrs. Damer, the daughter of General Conway, who lived at Park Place, near Henley.
They have, no doubt, considerable merit, but not so much as to warrant the excessive admiration they have sometimes evoked, and which probably would not have been expressed had it not been for the extravagant eulogium of Horace Walpole, the artist's cousin.

Henley Rowing Club

Henley Rowing Club: the usual amateur qualifications. Subscription, £1 1s.
Election is by ballot in committee, unless the captain, on private notice being given by a member who objects to a candidate, shall direct the secretary to call a general meeting.
If the committee proceed to election, one black ball in three excludes.
The club was established in 1830.
Colour, blue. Boat house, near the bridge.

The Red Lion at Henley

The Leander Club, Henley

[1897: The Leander Club moved here from Biffen's Hammersmith]

Henley Slipway

Phyllis Court private club

Thames Traditional Boat Festival

Olympic Rowing at Henley 1908 & 1948

Henley Royal Regatta - General Page

The next mile and a quarter down to the island with the temple is the Henley Regatta Course.

[NB start above Temple Island and finish at Bridge, 1885]

Henley Royal Regatta Events

Subjoined is a list of winners of the above prizes from the commencement of the regatta to the present year: {these images 1882}

Henley Royal Regatta: this, the most important gathering of amateur oarsmen in England, takes place usually about the beginning of July, and almost ranks with Ascot among the favourite fashionable meetings of the season.
A grand stand is provided, but the accommodation for visitors is not of the best.
One of the favourite points of view is the "Red Lion" lawn, where, at the conclusion of the regatta on the second day, the prizes are distributed, but by far the most popular resort is the river itself.
Indeed, of late years, this has become so much the case, and the river is so inconveniently crowded with steam launches, house boats, skiffs, gigs, punts, dingeys, canoes, and every other conceivable and inconceivable variety of craft, that the racing boats have sometimes the greatest difficulty in threading a way through the crowd.
In this connection some astonishment may be expressed at the supineness of the executive, in regard to the important matter of regulating this annually increasing picnic traffic.
As it was years ago, so it seems to be now.
The racing boats are always hampered to a more or less inconvenient degree - sometimes even to the point of disaster.
No doubt it is extremely difficult to keep the course clear, but certainly much more might be done than at present.
As in the case with all boat races, only a very small part of the struggle can properly be seen, except by the fortunate few in the umpire's boat, or by the enthusiastic friends of the competitors who run up the tow-path with the boats.
The course is a little over a mile and a quarter in length, and the races are rowed from Regatta Island, just below Remenham, against the stream, to a point opposite the "Red Lion", and just below the bridge.
For the first mile the course is very fair, but the river taking a somewhat sharp turn at what is called Poplar Point, gives a great advantage to the boat with the inside or Berks station.
The only chance of equalising the stations is when a high wind blows from the other bank.
Under these circumstances men on the Bucks station have the advantage of being sheltered by the bushes, while their opponents out in the open are struggling with the full force of wind and wave.
The lead that the Bucks boat is thus enabled to obtain, not unfrequently neutralises the effect of the dreaded corner.
Many attempts have been made to improve matters by buoying and by staking out the river with the object of keeping the Berks boat well out in the stream, but hitherto these ingenious arrangements have met with but a very moderate means of success.
It has even been suggested that the race should be started below the island, and that the finish should be at Poplar Point.
But as this would disestablish the bridge and the lawn, its adoption is, to say the least of it, doubtful.

The principal races in the programme are:
the Grand Challenge Cup for eights,
and the Stewards' Challenge Cup for fours,
both of which, subject to the regulations of the Regatta Committee, are open to all amateurs, and up to twenty years ago, were frequently competed for by University crews.
The Thames Challenge Cup for eights,
the Wyfold Challenge Cup for fours,
the Silver Goblets for pairs,
the Diamond Challenge Sculls for scullers (the latter the oldest race in the programme),
are also open races.
The Ladies' Challenge Plate for eights,
and the Visitors' Challenge Cup for fours
are confined to college and public school crews.

Enjoy Henley Royal Regatta; Henley Royal Regatta Umpires Launches;
Henley Royal Regatta 2020s; 2010s; 2000s; 1990s; 1980s; 1970s; 1960s; 1950s; 1940s; 1930s; 1920s; 1910s; 1900s;
Short Story 1899;
1890s; 1880s; 1870s; 1860s; 1850s; 1840s; 1839 and before


Remenham, Berkshire, on the right bank, is connected with Oxfordshire by Henley Bridge.
Population, 533. Soil, loam; sub-soil, gravel and chalk.
Remenham extends for some distance along the river.
Park Place, which is so conspicuous a feature in the scenery above Henley, is in the parish of Remenham Hill, and the church is almost opposite Fawley Court, about a mile down the river from Henley.
Remenham Farm, close to the church, is one of the first landmarks in the Henley Regatta course.
The church, which is close to the river, has been recently restored; but the chancel apse, which is both ancient and curious, remains in very much its pristine state.
The windows are all of stained glass, and are mostly memorials of recent date, and two good brasses are preserved on the west wall: the one of Thomas Maryet, of "Remneham", 1591, has the figure of a man in armour, the face of which has been destroyed, and the other of John Newman, "hujus ecclesiæ quondam pastorus", who died in 1622, represents the reverend gentleman in full canonicals.
A niche in the vestry contains an antique decapitated stone statuette.
Lord Palmerston resided during many of his early days at Woodlands in this parish.
Place of Worship: St.Nicholas.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Henley at 7am, Letters for London, through Henley, at 6.30pm; Sundays at noon.
The nearest money order, telegraph, &c., office: is Henley.
Nearest Bridges from Remenham Farm - up, Henley about 1 mile; down, Marlow 7 miles.
Locks: up, Marsh 2 miles; down, Hambledon 1¼ mile.
Ferry: Aston.
Railway Station: Henley, G.W.R.
Fares, Henley to Paddington: 1st, 6/3, 10/9; 2nd, 4/8, 8/-; 3rd, 2/11½

Fawley Court

At Fawley Court, the large white house on the left, opposite Remenham, is the boundary between the counties of Oxford and Bucks,

Ghost Story about Temple Island by Charles Dickens Senior!

Temple Island, Henley [called "Regatta Island" by Charles Dickens]


and about half a mile below [Temple] island on the left is Greenlands.

In Hambleden parish, a little distance up the river, and with lawns extending to its bank, is Greenlands, the seat of the Right Hon.W.H.Smith, M.P., concerning which Langley gives the following account:
"the earliest deeds relative to this estate are from George Chowne to Robert Shipwath, of an ancient family here, as appears from several memorials in the Church; from them it passed to a younger branch of the Doyley family, who resided here many years, as appears from various evidences.
It was the jointure of Lady Periam, wife of Sir Robert Doyley, afterwards married to Sir Henry Neville, and lastly to Sir William Periam, knights.
She died May 3rd, 1621, and was buried at Henley.
By her will it appears that the bouse was of great extent and richly furnished.
Among many other charitable bequests, her ladyship left a farm called the Borough, in this parish, to Archbishop Laud, in trust, to be applied to some college in Oxford, at his discretion.
His Grace in consequence founded a fellowship and two scholarships in Balliol College, but without any preference to the Grammar School at Henley, also endowed by Lady Periam, or to the county of Bucks, in which the estate is situated.
After Lady Periam's decease the estate came to John, brother of Sir Robert Doyley, and descended to his son, Sir Cope Doyley, to whom there is a monument in Hambleden Church.
His eldest son and heir, John Doyley, who resided at Greenlands during the commencement of the Great Rebellion, and was firmly attached to the royal cause, had the misfortune to have his house converted into a garrison.
In 1644 the house underwent a long siege at the hands of the Parliamentary forces under Lord Essex.
He was succeeded by General Brown, who planted batteries on the opposite side of the river, which "made many shot and much battered" the house, and almost "beat it about the ears of the garrison."
The garrison eventually surrendered to General Brown, but marched out with all the honours of war.
The present house bears little resemblance to the former one; the situation is extremely beautiful.
Thomas Chaucer, son of Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet, died at an estate here in 1434.

Hambleden Mill

Hambleden Lock

A short half-mile farther on the right is Hambleden Lock, once enjoying an evil reputation, now a good brick lock and altogether much improved.
It has an average fall of 4 ft, and is from London 62 ¾ miles, and from Oxford 48 ¾ miles.

Hambleden, Bucks, on the left bank.
Population, 1,550. Soil, chalky.
The diminutive village of Hambleden stands some distance from the river, its waterside suburb, so to speak, being Mill End, close to Hambleden Lock; from London 62¾ miles, from Oxford 48¾ miles.
There is little inducement to walk the mile or so, which separates this retired hamlet from the river, although it is easy to understand the attraction that Hambleden and its neighbourhood have for the landscape painter.
The handsome old church, approached through a good lychgate with two dormers, contains in the north aisle an alabaster monument of Sir Cope and Lady D'Oyley and their ten children.
They are all in the usual kneeling posture, elaborately painted and gilded, the sons with the father, the daughters with the mother.
Some of the figures bear skulls in their hands, probably to intimate that they had died before the erection of the monument.
Lady D'Oyley was the sister of Quarles, of the "Emblems", to whom probably the epitaph to his sister is to be attributed.
It runs thus:

Would'st thou reader draw to life
the perfect copy of a wife,
Read on, then redeeme from shame
that lost that honourable name.
This dust was once in spirit a Jael,
Rebecca in grace, in heart an Abigail;
In works a Dorcas, to ye Church a Hanna
And to her spouse Susanna.
Prudently simple, providently wary
To th' world a Martha, and to Heaven a Mary.

the inscription to the memory of Sir Cope, who died in 1633, fifteen years after his wife, is still more gushing:

Cope D'Oyley, died 1633.
Ask not me who's buried here;
Goe ask the Commons, ask ye Sheire,
Goe ask ye Church; they'll tell thee who
As well as blubbered eyes can doe;
Goe ask ye Heraulds; Ask ye poore;
thine eares shall heare enough to ask no more
then, if thine eye bedewe this sacred urne
Each drop a pearle will turn
T' adorne his Tombe; or, if thou canst not vent
thou bringst more marble to his monument.

It is further recorded that "they lived together in inviolated bands of holy wedlocke 22 yeares and multiplied themselves into 5 sonnes and 5 daughters".

Close by the D'Oyley tomb is a very old stone coffin of unusual size, and in the vestry is a magnificent - restored - old oak press very richly carved with coats-of-arms, dragons, figures, and devices innumerable.

Hambleden Inns: "Flower Pot", Aston, across the river; "Stag and Huntsman", in the village.
Places of Worship: St.Mary's, and Congregational Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph office).
Mails from London, 7.30am,
Mails for London, 6pm; Sunday, 10.45am,
Nearest Bridges, up, Henley 2¼ miles; down, Marlow, 6 miles.
Locks, Hambleden; up, Marsh 3¼ miles; down, Hurley 3¾ miles.
Ferry: Aston.
Railway Station, Henley.
Fares from Henley to Paddington, 1st, 6/3, 10/9; 2nd, 4/8, 8/-; 3rd, 2/1 3/2[?]

Aston Slipway (both sides)

Half a mile beyond is a ferry, the tow-path crossing, and close by on the right is the "Flower Pot Inn", at Aston, a well-known haunt of artists.

Culham Court

At the next bend in the river the red brick house on the right is Culham Court, and here the view up the river to the poplars and wooded hills above Hambleden is very charming.

Magpie Eyot

Passing Culham keep to the left bank, leaving the island known as Magpie Island on the right.
Half a mile farther, on the top of the high-wooded hill on the left, is a farmhouse, on a site where has been a farm since Domesday Book was compiled.

Medmenham slipway, former ferry

[1899: Medmenham Ferry declared public. It ceased shortly afterwards]

Medmenham Abbey

Two miles from the lock is Medmenham Abbey, with the "Ferry Boat Hotel", a well-known and convenient place for water-parties.
On the opposite bank among the trees on the top of the hill is Rose Hill; and on the hill to the north-westward of Medmenham is Danesfield, the seat of the Scott-Murray family.
At Medmenham is a ferry, and the tow-path crosses.

Medmenham, Buckinghamshire, on the left bank; a small village of about 350 inhabitants, from London 60½ miles, from Oxford 51 miles, from Marlow, the nearest railway-station, 3 miles by road; chiefly notorious from its connection with the Medmenham Monks of Francis Dashwood and John Wilkes.
there seems to be no doubt that considerable "high jinks" were indulged in by this fraternity, and that they were not altogether what is generally known as respectable society.
But it is probable that exaggeration has had much to do with the records, or rather legends, of its proceedings, as is always the case where an affectation of mystery and secrecy is maintained.
The monks of Medmenham, sometimes politely called the Hell Fire Club, lived at a time when drunkenness and profanity were considered to be amongst the gentlemanly virtues, and probably, as a matter of fact, they were not very much worse than other people.
The audacious motto of the club may, perhaps, have- had something to do with the holy horror which it excited.
"Fay ce que voudras" was not a good motto at a time when doing as you pleased was about the last thing that good old-fashioned Toryism was likely to tolerate; and when amongst the people who were to do as they liked was the hated Wilkes, the prejudices of respectability were certain to be even further outraged.
"Fay ce que voudras", as it appears over a doorway at the abbey, has in these times quite a hospitable look, and the invitation is readily accepted by the scores and scores of picnic parties who resort to Medmenham in the summer, and whose innocent merrymaking is, at all events, an improvement on Wilkes and his monks, however much they may have been libelled.
Medmenham Abbey, as it stands at present, is, architecturally, but a bogus affair, and, except an ancient archway and a single pillar of the church, there is little of the ancient abbey to be found in the present edifice, but it stands in so beautiful a position, and commands such lovely views, that its artificial appearance will be readily forgiven.

Once upon a time there was indeed a very important monastery here, founded by Hugh de Bolebec, to whom a charter was given by King John in 1201.
The monastery was originally colonised from the Cistercian Abbey of Woburn in 1204, but the Woburn monks did not seem able to make much of it, and very shortly afterwards returned whence they had come.
In 1212 a second colonisation was effected by Cistercian monks from Cisteaux in the bishopric of Chalons, in France.
Their rules certainly would not have suited Wilkes and his friends.
"They neither wore skins, nor shirts, nor even eat flesh, except in sickness; and abstained from fish, eggs, milk, and cheese; they lay upon straw beds in tunics and cowls; they rose at midnight to prayers; they spent the day in labour, reading, and prayer; and in all their exercises observed a continual silence."
This cheerful community held possession of the abbey for several hundred years.
In the beginning of the 16th century it was annexed to the Abbey of Bristleham or Bisham, on the opposite side of the river, and so remained until the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII.; and from the report of the commissioners at that time, the institution seems to have fallen upon very evil days.
The clear value was returned at £20 6s 2d.
"Monks", continues the report, "there are two; and both desyring to go to houses of religion; servants, none; bells, &c, &c, worth £2 6s 2d; the house wholly in ruin; the value of the moveable goods, £1 3s 8d; woods, none; debts, none."
Whether the last item is due to the care of the monks or to the caution of the local tradespeople, may remain an open question.
The most distinguished of the real monks of Medmenham was John, who was elected Abbot of Chertsey in 1261, and of whom there is an interesting memorial in the British Museum in the shape of his seal.
At one time the Abbot of Medmenham was, ex officio, epistolar of the Order of the Garter, and it was his duty to read the epistle in the morning service on St. George's Day at Windsor.

The church has been considerably restored, but still presents traces of its Norman origin.
There are more considerable portions Early English, but the church must have been nearly rebuilt in the days of the perpendicular style.
It has chancel, nave, and square embattled tower, and a good old carved oak pulpit.
Tthere are not many ancient monuments in the church, but a brass remains in memory of Richard Levyng and Alicia his wife, bearing dates 1415 and 1419.
The church and post-office are five or six minutes' walk from the river.
The principal mansion in the neighbourhood is Danesfield, the seat of C.R.Scott-Murray, Esq., which owes its name to the time when the Danes, after seizing and fortifying Shoebury, marched along the river until they came to Boddington in Gloucestershire.
The encampment called the "Danes' Ditches" and the "Horse-shoe Entrenchment", date, no doubt, from this campaign.
Attached to the house is a fine chapel built by the Pugins, containing some good pictures.
There are fine roach swims all the way up this reach.
Hotel: the "Ferry Boat", adjoining the abbey.
Place of Worship: St.Peter's.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Marlow.
Nearest savings bank, telegraph office, &c: Marlow.
Mails from London, 7.40am, week-days and Sundays;
mails to London: 6.15pm; Sunday, 9.25am
Nearest Bridges: up, Henley 4½ miles; down, Marlow 3½ miles.
Locks: up, Hambleden 2 miles; down, Hurley 1½ mile.
Ferry: Medmenham.
Railway Station: Marlow.
Fares, Marlow to Paddington: 1st, 6/-, 9/11; 2nd, 4/6, 7/6; 3rd, 2/9½

Blackboy Island

At the island below Medmenham the left bank should be followed, as it is a shorter journey.

Frogmill Ayt

Commercial Campsite 1 mile above Hurley Lock

Ancient winch above Hurley Lock

Slipway above Hurley Lock

Hurley Lock Cut Upper Footbridge

Hurley Lock

After passing the island [Blackboy Island] a charming reach is opened, with the Danesfield and Harleyford woods clothing a chalk cliff to the water's edge, the centre of the background being occupied by the long stretch of falling water at the Tumbling Bay of New Lock, carefully avoiding which, and keeping to the right bank, we enter the cut leading to Hurley Lock, a wooden lock with an average fall of 3ft 6 in, from London 59 m 3 f [59 ⅜], from Oxford 52 m 3 f [52 ⅜]
On the right bank is the village of Hurley with Lady Place, so well known in connection with Lord Lovelace in the revolution of 1688;

Camping at Hurley Lock

Silly Footbridge -Hurley Lock Cut Lower Footbridge

Hurley Weir for Canoists

Seven Hurley Lock Islands

Hurley Village

On the right bank is the village of Hurley with Lady Place, so well known in connection with Lord Lovelace in the revolution of 1688;
Hurley, Berkshire, on the right bank; from London 59 miles, from Oxford 52½ miles.
Population, 193.
Soil, chalk and gravel.
A small village beautifully situated in a charming country, but retiring so coyly from the river as to afford little or no indication of its existence to the casual passer-by.
But the famous Lady Place at Hurley made for itself a name in history; and, although but little of the building now remains it is not likely to be forgotten so long as the graphic description of Macaulay remains in evidence.
The church, dedicated to St.Mary the Virgin, was consecrated in 1086, by Osmund "the Good", Bishop of Sarum.
It was once the chapel of a Benedictine monastery.
The old refectory of the monastery still exists on the north side of the church, and the monastic quadrangle is on the same side.
There are several plates on the north wall of the quadrangle behind the church.
One runs as follows:
"the priory of St.Mary, Hurley, founded in the reign of William the Conqueror by Geoffrey de Mandeville and his wife Lecelina, A.D. 1086. A cell to Westminster Abbey."
On another:
"King Edward the Confessor, principal founder of Westminster Abbey, after the times of King Sebert and King Offa."
The church contains an antique stone font, and in the vestry are two half-length stone figures.
Above the one is a scutcheon, under which is an inscription:
"Richard Lovelace, sone of John Lovelace, Esquire, 1601."
Under the scutcheon which surmounts the other is the inscription:
"Sir Richd. Lovelace, Knighted in ye Warrs."
No date is filled in.
There are also in the vestry paintings of Moses and Aaron.
On the floor of the nave are the remains of some early brasses.
The principal fish at Hurley are pike and chub, and there are perch in the deep weir pool.
Places of Worship:-St.Mary the Virgin, and a school-chapel at Birchet's Green.
Postal Arrangements: Letters through Marlow.
Pillar letter-box: cleared 10am, 6.30pm Sunday 9.30 am.
Nearest money order, telegraph, &c, office: Marlow.
Nearest Bridges:, up, Henley about 5¾ miles; down, Marlow 2¼ miles.
Locks: up, Hambleden 3¼ miles; down, Temple about ½ mile.
Ferry: Temple.
Railway Station: Marlow; but as Marlow is on a branch line, Maidenhead is generally preferred.
Fares from Marlow to Paddington 1st, 6/-, 9/1 1; 2nd, 4/6, 7/6; 3rd, 2/7J.
From Maidenhead to Paddington: 1st, 4/4, 7/6; 2nd, 3/3, 5/9; 3rd, 2/2½.

Harleyford Manor

on the backwater on the Bucks side is Harleyford House, the seat of Sir William Clayton, about two miles up the river [from Marlow].

Harleyford Marina

Temple Footbridge

Nearly half a mile lower down is a ferry, at which the tow-path crosses

Temple Lock

a little farther on the left is Temple Lock, much in want of repair, average fall 4 ft 6 in; from London 58 ½ miles, from Oxford 53 miles.
On the right bank is Temple House, the seat of Colonel Owen Williams.

Temple Mill Island

Leaving the lock, and passing Temple Mills on the right

Bisham Abbey

about half a mile brings us to Bisham Grange, and, a little retired from the river, Bisham Abbey, the seat of G.Vansittart, Esq.

Bisham, Berkshire, on the right bank, within the Parliamentary borough of Marlow, from London 57½ miles, from Oxford 54 miles.
Population, 652.
Soil, gravel and chalk.
Bisham is chiefly celebrated for its abbey, the seat of G.H.Vansittart, Esq., which dates from the time of King Stephen.
In 1338 it became a priory.
Subsequently it was given by Henry VIII. to Anne of Cleves.
Queen Elizabeth once resided here, under the charge of the Hobys, and appears to have had a "good time".
In the abbey were buried a great number of distinguished people- among them that Earl of Salisbury who fought at Poictiers, and Richard Nevile, the Kingmaker.
The porch and great hall, which are portions of the oldest part of the building, are exceedingly fine; and the drawing-room, which contains a bay-window built specially for the Princess Elizabeth, is remarkable for some very good old stained glass.
There is a remarkable tapestry bed-chamber, with an entrance to a peculiarly constructed secret room high up in the wall; and on the ground-floor is a very satisfactory ghost-room, which is said to be haunted by the apparition of one of the Ladies Hoby, who beat her little boy to death for inking his copies, and is now condemned to continual vain attempts to wash her own hands in a ghostly basin, which goes before her as she walks.
Unfortunately it is not clear whether anybody has actually seen the ghost, but it is said that, during a period of repairing, a number of blotted copy-books of the time to which the legend refers were found secreted in the room - evidence which, as ghost stories go, is quite enough for all practical purposes.
In Bisham Abbey are several interesting portraits of the Hoby family, to whom the house belonged from the time of Henry VIII. to rather later than the middle of the eighteenth century, and, of these, one, which represents the Lady Hoby of the legend with a deathly white face and a head-dress very like that of the kneeling female figure in the church, which is described lower down, is a remarkably fine work.
Also, in the dining- room is a very jovial portrait of a certain Rev.Peregrine Hoby, who appears from his complexion to have thoroughly enjoyed the good things of this life.
This, and its companion portrait of the Rev. gentleman's wife, both by Burslee, are capital pictures.
A portrait of Sir Francis Walsingham, over one of the doors, will also repay inspection; and the gem of the collection will be found over the mantelpiece in the shape of a brilliant portrait of Henrietta Maria, by Van Dyck.
The church, the original name of which is in doubt, is now called All Saints.
Almost all architectural features of interest were utterly destroyed, with the exception of the Norman Tower, about the beginning of the century.
The chancel and south burial chapel were restored in early decorated style in 1849; the north aisle was the gift of Colonel Owen Williams, of Temple House, in 1878.
The church is most picturesquely situated immediately on the bank of the river, and should certainly be visited on account of its remarkable group of magnificent tombs.
These are in the south aisle.
The first and most elaborate is that of a noble countess, who kneels in the act of prayer, attired in ruff, stomacher, and a most extraordinary head-dress surmounted by a coronet.
Opposite to her, kneeling on a lower stool, is another female coroneted figure, and behind are five other kneeling figures, three female and two male; the whole group is under a canopy, supported by pillars, and the monument is set forth with elaborate carving and coloured coats-of-arms.
Beyond this is a less gorgeous, but much more artistic monument to the brothers Hoby.
They lie upon an altar-tomb, two knightly figures with peaked beards and in full armour.
They both recline upon their left arms, and the one nearest the spectator has his legs crossed crusader-wise.
The date is 1566.
On the tomb are several inscriptions.
Of these may be quoted one which gives concisely the history of the Hobys.

Two worthie knightes and Hobies both by name
Enclosed within this marble stone do rest
Philip the first in Cæsar's court hathe fame;
Such as tofore fewe legates like possest
A diepe discoursing heed, a noble breast
A courties passing, and a curteis knight
Zealous to God whose gospel he profest
When gretest stormes can dim the sacred light.
A happie man whom death hath nowe redeem'd
From care to loye that can not be esteem'd.
Thomas in Fraunce possest the Legate's place
And with such wisdome grew to guide the same,
As had increast great honour to his race
Ye sudein fate had not envied his fame,
Firme in God's truth, gentle, a faithful frend
Wel lern'd and languaged nature beside
Gave comely shape which made rueful his end
Since in his floure in Paris towne he died
Leaving with child behind his woful wief,
In forein land opprest with heapes of grief.
From part of which when she discharged was
By fall of teares that faithful wieves do sheed
The corpse with honour brought she to this place
Performing here all due unto the dead.
That doon this noble tombe she caused to make
And both these brethren closed within the same
A memory left here for vertue's sake
In spite of death to honour them with fame
Thus live they dead, and we lerne wel thereby
That ye and we and all the world must die. T.B.

Beyond the brothers Hoby is the tomb of Margaret, wife of Sir Edward Hoby, who died in 1605, oddly surmounted by an obelisk with a swan at each of the base angles.
The stained glass window, with coats-of-arms of the Hoby family, in the east of the south aisle is very curious.
In the nave is a fine brass with three full length figures to the memory of "John Brinckhorst, sometime citizen and mercer of London, and marchaunt adventurar", and his two wives; only one date is given, that of the death of one of the ladies in 1581.
A smaller brass has a single figure, and is dated 1517; and one with inscription only, and dated 1525, records the decease of one Gray "and Wylmott hys wyffe".
Hotel: "The Complete Angler", by Marlow Bridge.
Place of Worship: All Saints.
Postal Arrangements: Nearest money order, telegraph, &c, office, Marlow.
Letters through Marlow.
Mails from London, 6.30am, 12.30pm.
Mails for London, 10.35am, 3.15 and 7.15pm.
Nearest Bridges, down, Marlow ½ mile; up, Henley 7½ miles.
Locks, down, Marlow ½ mile; up, Temple, 1 mile.
Ferry, Temple.
Rail: Station, Marlow.
Fares: Marlow to Paddington, 1st, 6/-, 9/11; 2nd, 4/6, 7/6; 3rd, 2/9½

Bisham Church

Bisham Church is prettily situated at the water's edge on the right bank, and is well worth a visit.

Marlow Suspension Bridge

About half a mile farther is Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, on the left bank of the river, a terminus on the Bourne End and Marlow branch of the Great Western Railway, 35½ miles from Paddington, the trains averaging a little over an hour.
The station is about five minutes' walk from the bridge.
Fly and omnibus meet the trains.
The distance from London is 57 miles, from Oxford 54½ miles.
Population, 4,701. Soil: flint, chalk, gravel, and loam.
The name Marlow, or, as it is called in Domesday Book, Merelaw, is derived by Camden from "the chalk commonly called marle", which he asserts to be very plentiful here; a piece of etymology derided by Langley in his Hundred of Desborough, who derives the name from a mere, or piece of standing water, which he supposes to have been here in ancient times.
Langley, who has strong and usually common sense views on these matters, derives the name of Desborough Hundred from duo burgi - Wycomb and Marlow - quite repudiating Danesborough.
Marlow is a very ancient manor, and appears from its earliest history to have been connected with royalty.
Before the Conquest it was held by Algar, Earl of Mercia, from whose son it was taken by William the Conqueror, and bestowed upon Queen Matilda.
Later on it became, through his wife, the property of Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, the king-maker, who was slain at Barnet, and is buried in Bisham Abbey; later still it was granted by Philip and Mary to Lord Paget of Beaudesert, an extraordinary statesman, who enjoyed the confidence of four succeeding sovereigns: an unusual tenure he possibly owed to the practice of the following precepts discovered in his commonplace book:
Fly the courte,
Speke little,
Care less.
Devise nothing.
Never earnest,
In answer cold.
Lerne to spare;
Spend with measure,
Care for home.
Pray often.
Live better.
And die well.

Court Garden, which is on the left just above the bridge, the last part of the estate remaining in the Paget family, was sold by Lord Uxbridge in 1758.
Marlow is a parliamentary constituency, and returns one member to Parliament, the present member being Major-Gen.Owen Williams, of Temple, a Conservative.
The borough was first summoned to return burgesses by Edward I. in 1299, the first two burgesses whose names are recorded being Richard le Mouner and Richard le Veel; but from 1308 until 1622, when the privilege was restored by Parliament, no members were returned on "account of the expence".
Since the time the Knight Templars were at Bisham, the counties of Berks and Bucks have been here united by various bridges, the present suspension bridge, which cost £20,000, having been erected in 1835.
There is still in existence a writ for the repairs of the bridge dated 27 Edward III., 1352, directed probis hominibus villæ de Merlawe.

The bridge in more modern times has acquired a certain notoriety in connection with a "puppy pie", concerning which succulent pastry there are various traditions: and "Who ate the puppy pie under Marlow Bridge?" is popularly supposed to be a crushing retort to any bargee impertinence.
From Marlow Bridge, the view up or down the river is hardly to be surpassed on the Thames.
Indeed, whether for fishing, boating, holiday, or sketching purposes, there is no more fascinating spot on the river than Marlow.
From Bourne End to New Lock - the backwater by Harleford Manor House - the river teems at various points with trout, pike, barbel, roach, chub, perch, and gudgeon, a result greatly attributable to the constant care of the Marlow Angling Association, and the liberality of some of its individual members, who have at their own expense turned large numbers of trout and other fish into the river.
For boating purposes, the reaches from Cookham to Marlow and from Marlow to Temple Hurley and Medmenham, are excellently adapted, and for camping-out purposes there is no more favourite spot on the river than the Quarry Woods below Marlow.
As to its attractions for the artist, the numerous pictures that yearly appear on the walls of the Academy and the Water Colour Societies abundantly testify.
Boats are taken care of by Haynes and R. Shaw, under the bridge, and the numerous hotels in the town afford excellent accommodation for tourists of all classes.
Ordinary boating parties will do well to remember that it is unwise to rely upon obtaining quarters at the well-known "Complete Angler", near the bridge, without considerable previous notice; but great improvement has recently taken place in the management here, and much more space than of old has been made available for dinners, etc.
The "Crown", at the end of the main street, and five minutes' walk from the river, is a comfortable, old-fashioned house, with a first-rate billiard-room.

In the town itself there is little of interest; the old quaint houses have nearly all given place to staring brick or vulgar stucco erections; the only really ancient remains being a portion of a house in St.Peter's-street, known as the Deanery, with fine old mullioned windows.
There are two principal streets: High-street, leading up from the river; and West-street, at right angles to it.
In the latter is the house, on which is now a tablet, in which Shelley lived and was visited by Lord Byron.
Of this period Mrs.Shelley says: "During the year 1817 we were established at Marlow, in Buckinghamshire.
Shelley's choice of abode was fixed chiefly by this town being at no great distance from London, and its neighbourhood of the Thames.
The poem, 'the Revolt of Islam', was written in his boat, as it floated under the beech groves of Bisham, or during wanderings in the neighbouring country."
At Remnantz, a house nearly opposite to Shelley's, was for thirteen or fourteen years the Royal Military College, before it was removed to Sandhurst.
Seymour Court, Mr.Wethered's resi dence, is asserted to have been the birth-place of Henry VIII.'s Jane Seymour, but the honour is disputed by the family seat of the Seymours in Wiltshire.
Harleyford House, the seat of Sir William Clayton, is about two miles up the river.
The church, a modern structure of a style of architecture variously described as Late English or Modern Gothic, is ugly without and bald within, although it must at one time have been rich in brasses and monuments, some of the former dating from the latter end of the fourteenth century.
Langley records several curious entries in the church books, commencing with one in 1592: "Paid for mendynge the bells when the queen came to Bysham, 1s."
The loyalty of the bellringers appears to have outrun their discretion.
There are many entries for payments to bellringers when the kings passed through the town, in 1604, 1605, 1612, 1617, and 1647.
In 1608, among the church goods are catalogued: Five pair of garters and bells, Five coats and a fool's coat.
In 1650 appears the significant entry, "For defacing of the king's arms, 1s";
and in 1651, "Paid to the painter for setting up the State's arms, 16s."

The Catholic church, in St.Peter's-street, one of the elder Pugin's last works, was opened in 1846; but, together with Holy Trinity, a chapel of ease to the parish church, will scarcely repay a visit.
Marlow has a literary and scientific institution, with a library and reading-room, well supplied with books and newspapers.
Subscription: 1st class members, £1 1s per annum: 2nd, 10s; 3rd, 5s.
It also possesses a Lawn-Tennis Club, a Choral Society, and Cricket and Football Clubs.
A Cottager's Horticultural Show is held every year, and there is a Lecture or Music Room in St.Peter's-street.
The Maidenhead and Marlow Regatta is held alternately at Marlow and Maidenhead, and there is in addition an annual town regatta.
The town is also privileged to possess a Constitutional Association, established for the modest purpose of securing on an income of £76 per annum, "the proper registration, as voters, of all persons within the several parishes of the borough who hold constitutional principles; of resisting any movement directed against the institutions of the country; of defending the rights and privileges of the people; and of promoting beneficial legislation in the spirit of the Constitution."

The walks and excursions from Marlow are varied and numerous.
Within easy walking distance are Henley, Maidenhead, and the quaint and interesting towns of High or Chipping Wycombe, and Cookham.
Hurley and Medmenham are, as it were, next door.
Wycombe is well worth a visit, and its church, All Saints, which dates from 1273, restored by Mr.Street at a cost of £10,000, is one of the finest in the county, and contains many brasses and memorials.
The Quarry Woods are within a ten minutes' saunter of Marlow Bridge, and offer in every direction the pleasantest and most picturesque walks by the riverside, or across the hill to Cookham Dene.
From Winter Hill, the extremity of the woods in the Cookham direction, a view as magnificent as it is extensive is to be obtained, and includes the course of the Thames from Henley to Maidenhead.
Bisbam Abbey and Church are close at hand, and Mr.Borgnis's grounds at Highfield are a short mile from the town on the Henley road.

Borlase's School, or, as it is more generally denominated, the Blue Coat School, was founded by Sir William Borlase in 1624 for the education of twenty-four boys - of whom three are chosen from Medenham, three from Little Marlow, and eighteen from Great Marlow.
They are each allowed £2 to apprentice them, but this at the present day being insufficient for the purpose is generally added to by contribution of £8 or £12 from Loftin's Charity - bequeathed by Benjamin Loftin in 1759.
The education comprised reading, writing, and casting accounts.
Sir William Borlase also made bequests for founding a school for teaching twenty-four girls to knit, spin, or make bone lace, and for establishing a house of correction.
The income being found insufficient for its purpose the girls' school was some years ago merged in the National and Infants' Schools.
In order to increase the public usefulness of Borlase's boys' school, negotiations have been opened by the feoffees with the Charity Commissioners, who propounded a scheme on the following lines: Tuition fees are to be not less than £3 or more than £5 per year.
School to be unsectarian.
Education to comprise reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, history, English grammar, composition, and literature, mathematics, Latin, at least one foreign European language, natural science, drawing, drill, and vocal music.
This scheme has since been elaborated, and the school is of considerable importance as a middle-class Grammar School.

Bank: Stephens, Blandy, & Co.
Fair: October 29.
Fire: Volunteer Brigade: Superintendent, foreman, engineer, sub-engineer, hon.Treasurer, 9 firemen, and 5 reserve, Manual engine, next the "Crown".
Hotels and Inns: "Complete Angler" (by the river, in Bisham parish); "Crown", up the town; "Fisherman's Retreat", "George and Dragon", "Railway".
Places of Worship: All Saints and Holy Trinity; the Roman Catholic Church of St.Peter's; and Congregational, Baptist, and Primitive Methodist Chapels.
Police: Station in the town.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), West-street.
Mails from London, 7.30 and 10.45am, 6.45pm; Sunday, 7.30am,
Mails for London, 9.40am, noon, and 3.40 and 7.50pm; Sunday, 7.50pm
Wall letter-box opposite the church, cleared 10.50am, 3.30 and 7.40pm; Sunday, 7.40pm; Station wall box cleared 10.40am, and 7.40pm; Thames Lawn wall box cleared 8.25am, 10.45am, and 7.35pm
Nearest Bridges: up, Henley 8 miles; down, Cookham 3¾ miles.
Locks: up, Temple 1½ mile; down, Cookham 4 miles.
Ferry: Temple.
Railway Station: Marlow.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 6/-, 9/11; 2nd, 4/6, 7/6; 3rd, 2/9½

Great Marlow Amateur Rowing Club

Marlow (Great) Amateur Rowing Club:
Usual amateur qualification.
Donors of £10 10s and upwards are life members, and all life members and annual subscribers of £2 2s and upwards are vice-presidents. No subscription is less than 10s.
Election by ballot in committee, two black balls in five to exclude.
The monthly challenge cup is competed for the last Wednesday in every month.
The club, established in 1871, now numbers about ninety members.
Boat-house, Haynes's, Marlow Bridge; Club colours, cardinal.

Marlow Regatta - Maidenhead and Marlow Regatta

[ Alternate years at Maidenhead and Marlow. In 1883 Dickens gave the 1882 Marlow results; In 1885, the 1884 Marlow results.
Here are shown the 1882 results which appeared under "Maidenhead and Marlow Regatta".

Maidenhead and Marlow Regatta - Races in 1882, at Marlow July 8th.

Marlow Thames Angling Association

Great Marlow Thames Angling Association:
the water held by the association reaches from Temple Mills to the "Shrubbery".
The annual subscription is £1 1s.
A head water-bailiff, assistant bailiffs, and sub-assistant bailiffs are appointed by the committee, who are required to provide live bait for the members free of charge.
A reward of 10s is offered to any one who shall give information of any poaching or illegal fishing to the water-bailiff, provided that it be considered by the committee a fit case for prosecution; if the person prosecuted be convicted the reward is doubled.
A reward of ios.
is offered for every dead otter proved to have been caught between the top of the reach immediately above Temple Lock and the "Shrubbery".
The association has turned a very large number of fish, more especially trout, into the river, and to it Marlow owes much of the enhanced reputation it now enjoys among anglers.

Compleat Angler

Marlow, with its graceful suspension bridge and ugly church.
Marlow is a good halting-place, and there are two comfortable hotels, the "Complete Angler" on the right bank of the river, and the "Crown" at the top of the High-street, five minutes' walk.
The latter is to be recommended for casual visitors, as considerable notice is generally required to ensure rooms at the "Complete Angler".
Boats are taken care of by Haynes, under the bridge, and by Shaw.

Marlow Slipway

Marlow Lock

Marlow Weir

Three hundred yards below the bridge is Marlow Lock, a wooden lock with an average fall of 5 ½ ft, from London 56 ¾ miles, from Oxford 54 ¾ miles.
It is on the right-hand side after passing the long weir, where the navigation must be carefully attended to, as the weir on the right, and the mill-stream on the left, both closely approach the lock.
Past the lock there always is a strong stream to the point.
The tow-path continues on the left bank,

A404 Bridge, Marlow

[1972: A404, Marlow Bisham Bypass Bridge built]

Taylor Island crossed by A404

Quarry Woods below Marlow

Quarry Woods below Marlow

a fine stretch of water through a country which becomes less interesting as we leave Quarry Woods

Gibraltar Island between Bourne End and Marlow

Spade Oak PH

Spade Oak Ferry, rather more than two miles from Marlow Lock, where the tow-path crosses.

Bourne End Sailing Club

Bourne End

Bourne End Railway and footbridge

About half a mile farther the railway crosses the river, and on the left bank is Bourne End, a favourite fishing-station.
After passing the mill with the towering chimney, Hedsor, the seat of Lord Boston, becomes visible on the heights on the left bank.

Bourne End, Bucks, on the left bank, from London 53½ miles, from Oxford 58 miles, one of the scattered villages making up the parish of Wooburn.
The little river Wye, Wick, or Wyke, as it is variously written, enters the Thames here.
Bourne End is a place of no importance, except that it is a station on a branch of the great Western Railway, 32 miles from London, trains averaging about an hour.
It is the junction for Marlow.
Inns: "Railway" and "Old Red Lion".
Nearest Bridges: up, Marlow 3¼ miles; down, Cookham 1¾ mile.
Locks: up, Marlow 3 miles; down, Cookham 1¼ miles.
Ferry: Spade Oak.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 5/3, 8/9; 2nd, 4/-, 6/9; 3rd, 2/6½.

Cookham Bridge

Another three-quarters of a mile brings us to Cookham

Cookham, Berkshire, on the right bank; from London 53 miles, from Oxford 58½ miles.
A station on a branch line of the Great Western Railway, about an hour from Paddington.
An omnibus meets the trains; the station is about eight minutes from the river.
Population (of village), 872.
Soil, chalk and gravel.
Cookham stands at the end of what is popularly supposed to be the best part of the Thames, and, together with Maidenhead, is probably better known to picnickers and London excursionists than almost any other place on the river.
It is immediately opposite the woods of Hedsor, the seat of Lord Boston, and just below the lock is the pretty Formosa island on the right; and the magnificent hanging woods of Cliveden on the left.
In the neighbourhood are many noble mansions, Dropmore being immediately behind Hedsor; White Place, formerly the property of the Duke of Buckingham, is in the meadow opposite Cliveden; with many others still farther removed from the river.
The grounds of both Hedsor and (during the absence of the family) of Cliveden are shown on application.
The conifers at Dropmore are renowned, and the view from the ridge, on which stands "Cliveden's proud alcove", is superb.
The church of Holy Trinity - an ancient building with chancel, nave, aisles, and a square tower (about 1500), contains some modern stained glass windows, and an alabaster monument of the 16th century to the memory of Arthor Babham and wife with a quaint inscription.
There are also some good brasses.
That to George Welder, dated 1616, is in the south aisle; there is one dated 1615 in the north aisle with a curious epitaph; another, mutilated, to Richard Babham and wife (1527) on the north wall of the north aisle; and under an altar tomb in the chancel are the figures of Robert Peck (an official of Henry VI.) and wife, 1510.
In the north aisle a brass with three full-length figures has the inscription, "Pray for the souls of William Andrew and John Monkeden and Margaret; which William deceased 1506"; also in the north aisle is a brass with full-length figure of John Babham - the companion figure of his wife being missing - with date 1458.
On the north wall is a very good mural tablet to Sir Isaac Pocock, by Flaxman (1808).
The most interesting monument, however, to many visitors to Cookham Church will be that to the late lamented Frederick Walker, A.R.A.
The marble mural monument which records his untimely death, and which is placed on the west wall of the south aisle, bears a medallion bust, a most admirable likeness.
Cookham Reach, when not searched by the wind, is a safe resort for roach, for which the swims are many about Spade Oak, Bourne End, Hedsor, Cliveden, &c.
Fairs: May 16 and October 11.
Hotels: "Bell and the Dragon";
the "Ferry", on the river;
the "King's Arms.
' Places of Worship: Holy Trinity, and a Wesleyan chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, insurance).
Mails from London, 7am, 12.30pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails to London, 12.30 and 7.30p.m; Sunday, 7.15pm
Nearest Bridge, Lock, Ferry, and Railway Station: Cookham.
Nearest Bridges: up, Marlow 4 miles; down, Maidenhead 3 miles.
Locks: up, Marlow 3¼ miles; down, Boulter's 2½ miles.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 5/-, 8/6; 2nd, 3/8, 6/3; 3rd, 2/3.

The Ferry Inn and Slipway, Cookham

A bridge crosses the river here, and at the "Ferry Hotel" the tow-path crosses by two ferries to the lock island, and thence to the Bucks shore under the Cliveden woods, only to recross by another ferry a quarter of a mile lower down.
At Cookham Bridge the river diverges into several channels.
On the left is the broadest stream, which is blocked by a weir at the private fishing waters of Hedsor; the two on the right are backwaters made by Formosa Island.
Cookham Lock is the most beautifully situated on the river, just under the woods of Hedsor and Cliveden.
It is of wood, and the average fall is 3 ft 6 in.
From London 52 ½ miles, from Oxford 59 miles.
On the right is Formosa Island

Formosa island

Formosa: the largest island on the upper Thames, said to be about 50 acres in extent; beautifully situated just below Cookham Lock, opposite the Hedsor and Cliveden woods.
On it stands a handsome house, built by the late Sir George Young, with well laid out gardens and pleasure grounds.
Nearest Railway Station, Lock, and Bridge at Cookham.

Cookham Lock

The entrance to the lock is along a very narrow cut, crossed by a wooden bridge, which also crosses what is known as Odney Weir, a good bathing-place in ordinary seasons, but requiring caution when the river is flooded.

Hedsor (above Cookham Lock)

Cliveden House

In the parish [of Taplow] is Cliveden, the splendid seat of the Duke of Westminster.
The house dates from 1851, two previous mansions on the same site having been destroyed by fire.
The Grosvenor art treasures are not to be found at Cliveden, but the pavement of Staffordshire tiles in the entrance-hall deserves notice.
It was the gift of Mr.Herbert Minton to the late Duchess of Sutherland, in gratitude for the interest and trouble she took in encouraging the potteries, and in procuring them patterns.

Cliveden Deep

on the left the fishing cottage at Cliveden.
A little below the ferry is the spring and cottage, and farther yet is a magnificent view of Cliveden, the seat of the Duke of Westminster.
The mansion dates only from 1851.
Two houses which previously occupied the site were burnt down, one in 1795 and one in 1849.

Bavins Gulls or Slow Grove Islands, Picnic Island

The scenery down the next reach and past the islands is exceedingly beautiful, and is generally considered the finest on the river.
The flatness of the right bank, however, somewhat detracts from its claims to be considered a perfect landscape.

Jubilee River flood channel

Boulters Lock

Not quite 2 ½ miles from Cookham Lock is Boulters Lock Boulter's Lock, from London 50 m 3 f [50 ⅜], from Oxford 61 m 1 f [61 ⅛]
This, a good stone lock, with an average fall of about 6 ft, is approached from above by a long narrow cut on the right.
The stream on the left is dangerous, but the Conservancy danger-signal on the point of the eyot is of ample dimensions, and easily to be distinguished.

Boulters Restaurant & Bar

Below [Boulters] lock there is at all times plenty and to spare of stream for some distance.
On the right bank, between here and Maidenhead Bridge, are the "Ray Mead" and "Thames" Hotels.

at Boulters Lock

below Boulters Lock


on the hill above, embedded in trees, is Taplow Court, the seat of W.H.Grenfell, Esq.
Taplow, Buckinghamshire, so to speak a suburb of Maidenhead - at all events to the frequenters of "The Orkney Arms" - although the village itself stands some distance from the river on the opposite bank.
Taplow Court, now the property of Mr.W.H.Grenfell, was entirely rebuilt in 1851 by Mr.C.P.Grenfell, M.P., under the superintendence of Mr, Burne, the architect.
The collection of pictures includes a Marriage of St.Catherine, by Titian; a Holy Family, by Giulio Romano; and examples of Schiavone, Gaspard Poussin, Canaletto, Jan Steen, Van de Heyden, Reinagle, Varley, and Turner.
There are some curious brasses in Taplow Church, a modern building at some distance from Taplow Court.
The old parish church was close to the house, in the old churchyard, where the ancient mound and the yew tree are still to be seen.
A stone cross has been erected to mark the original situation of the church.
Railway Station, Taplow.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 4/-, 7/-; 2nd, 3/-, 5/3; 3rd, 1/10½

Grass Eyot

On the island on the left is a new and handsome house of Sir Roger Palmer.
Below that is the comfortable mill-house,

Bridge Eyot


Maidenhead Bridge

Maidenhead, a convenient stopping place, with two excellent hotels: Skindle's on the Taplow side of the bridge, and the "Bear" in the town.
The "Ray Mead" is nearer Boulter's Lock.
Maidenhead, Berkshire, on the right bank; from London 50 miles, from Oxford 61½ miles; a station on the Great Western Railway 25 miles from Paddington; trains take from 35 to 80 minutes.
The station is twenty minutes' walk from Bond's boat-house at the bridge, and about five minutes from the town-hall.
Flys and omnibuses meet the trains.
For boating purposes or for visitors to the Orkney Arms Hotel, Taplow station is somewhat nearer and more convenient than Maidenhead.
The counties of Berks and Bucks are here connected by a stone bridge of thirteen arches, and the Great Western Railway crosses the river a little below on a brick bridge of two arches, designed by the late Sir Isambard Brunei, and being remarkable as exhibiting the greatest span of brick extant, as also for its acoustic peculiarities.
Population, 6,473.
Maidenhead is a corporate town, governed by a high steward, mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors.
It consists mainly of two Streets, High-street and Queen-street, and is not very important or in itself attractive.
There are, however, many good houses in the outskirts, more particularly along the bank of the river between Maidenhead Bridge and the Great Western Railway bridge, and between the bridge and Boulter's Lock, in which direction a little inland, a new suburb of Maidenhead, known as Ray Park, has sprung into existence.
The Town Hall is in the High-street, as is also the post-office.

The Church of Saints Andrew and Mary is in the High-street, occupying the site of two older churches, dates from 1826, and was finished in 1878.
It affords in itself no points of attraction.
Part of the vicar's income is a Crown payment of "seven marks" (£4 13s 4d), dating from the time of Philip and Mary, in compliance with the prayer of the inhabitants, who base their application on the fact that their chapel is distant from the mother churches
"too myles or nere thereaboutes, to which yr sede subjects cannot at sundry tymes in the yere, cum and make ther repaire, to here the divine service of Allmyghty God, and to serve God there, as of duty they are bounde to doe, by- cause manie tymes thereof letted through visytacion of sicknesse, women labringe and travelinge in childbedd; and also by cause the seid toune of Maydenhedd is scituat in a loo contree, and very nere adjoininge to the river Thamys, so that the seid contre is, divers times in the yere, so surrounded and overflowen with water that yr Highnes seid subjects cannot passe goe nor travell to their seid churches; by reson whereof the dutie of yr seid subjects towards Allmyghtye God hath been many times, agenst ther will, left undon."
Allusion is then made to the endowment, by John Husbonde,
"in the time of Kinge Edward the thirde, oon of yr Grace's noble progenitors, and of whose worthie stock and most noble lineage yr Maiesties bothe are discended and linially comen", and to the loss of this revenue by "ye dissolucion of ye Priorye of Hurley", the petitioners plaintively adding, "Sithen wiche dissolucion the pore inh'itants of the towne of Maydenhedd have not hadd ther divine service celebrated in the seyd chapell, as accustomably heretofore they have hadd, by cause they be not able to finde and maintain a convenient prest to say divine service in the seid chapell, to the greete decay and hindraunce of Godd's service and to the discoragement of yr faythfull subjects dwelling in the seid toune."
Finally, coming to the point, they implore their majesties "to graunt an ordinarye pencion and livinge to on honest and secular prest, to celebrate divine service in the seid chapell of Maydenhedd, for the ease of ye pore inh'itants."
This petition is thought by the Rev.C.G.Gorham (whose full and learned account of this church will be found in Vol. VI. of the "Collectanea Typographica et Genealogica") to have been written in 1557.
The patronage of the church was in the hands of the prior of Hurley until the dissolution of the monasteries, when it seems to have been assumed by the inhabitants of the town, until the Charter of Incorporation, granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1582, when the corporation assumed the right.
The advowson was sold by the corporation under the compulsory clause of the Act for municipal reform, and purchased by Mr.Fuller Maitland in 1838.

Mr.Gorham's opinion as to the etymology of the name of the town is very clear.
He derives it from "Maiden Hythe", "the New Wharf", rejecting as absurd all connection with the head of "one of St.Ursula's virgins", or any other holy person.
The present name first appears about A.D.1300, previous to which date the place is called Elington, Elyngton, or South Elington.
The Sacrament plate dates chiefly from 1657.
There are a number of charitable funds in connection with the church.
On the road to the river are the almshouses, founded in 1659 by James Smyth, citizen and salter.
The Hambletonian Hall seats 2,000, and may be hired at a cost of £2 2s.
per night, including gas, piano, &c.
There is a large swimming-bath attached.
Although Maidenhead itself has few charms for the visitor, the country about it, more particularly the woods of Cliveden and Hedsor, a short distance up the river on the Bucks side, is charming indeed.
Between Maidenhead and Marlow is, perhaps, the best known and the most popular part of the river.
And its popularity is well deserved; for whether for the angler, the artist, the oarsman, or the simple tourist; whether for fishing, picnicking, and it has been even whispered "spooning", to say nothing of camping-out, there are few places in England to beat the Cliveden Reach at Maidenhead or Quarry Woods at Marlow.
The interests of anglers in Maidenhead, Cookham, and Bray waters are attended to by the Maidenhead, Cookham, and Bray Angling Association [which see).
There are many and pleasant walks and drives about Maidenhead to supplement the river excursions.
Among them may be mentioned Burnham Beeches (4 miles), one of the grandest collection of trees in England, and remarkably interesting for the varied growth of ferns and mosses.
The Corporation of the City of London has recently saved Burnham Beeches from the hands of the brick and mortar spoilers,continuing here the good work commenced at Epping-Forest.

Hurley and Bisham are each about 4½ miles from Maidenhead by road, and Great Marlow is about 6 miles.
In the other direction Windsor is also about 6 miles distant.
From Winter Hill, near Cookham Dene, a distance of about 4 miles, a grand view may be obtained on a clear day.
Shorter walks are those to Maidenhead Thicket, Cookham, and Bray.
Banks: London and County, High-street; Stephens, Blandy, and Co., High-street.
Fairs: Whit Wednesday, September 29, November 30.
Fire: Volunteer Brigade, Strength: Captain, deputy-captain, 3 first lieutenants, 3 second lieutenants, 2 engineers, 1 deputy-engineer, 18 pioneers, secretary, foreman of fire-escape, 3 manual-engines.
HOTELS: the "Bear", High-street; the "Ray Mead", near the river, above bridge; "Skindle's", across the Bridge, in Bucks; the "Thames", Ray Park; the "White Hart", High-street.
Market Day: Wednesday.
Places of Worship: All Saints, Boyn Hill; St.Andrew and St, Mary, High-street; St.Luke's; the Roman Catholic Church of St.Mary the Immaculate; and Baptist, Congregational, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Borough police-station, Queen-street: county police - station, South-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), High-street.
Mails from London: 7 and 10.30am, 6.30pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails to London: 10.30am, 12.45, 4.30 and 9.45pm; Sunday, 9.30pm
Nearest Bridges: Maidenhead; up, Cookham 3 miles; down, Windsor 7 miles.
Locks: up, Boulter's ½ mile; down, Bray 1¾ mile.
Railway Station: Maidenhead.
Fares to Paddington: 1st, 4/4d, 7/6d; 2nd, 3/4d, 5/9d; 3rd 2/2d.

Blue River cafe, Maidenhead Bridge

Maidenhead Rowing Club

Maidenhead Rowing Club: Election by committee of thirteen: three black balls exclude.
Subscription, £1 1s. Members subscribing £l 1s and upwards may introduce a friend to the privileges of the club, free for one week, and for one month on payment of 5s; such friend not being resident in or within five miles of Maidenhead.
There is a challenge cup for monthly competition. Colours, dark blue and primrose.

Maidenhead, Cookham, and Bray Thames Angling Association

Maidenhead, Cookham, and Bray Thames Angling Association - the object of this association is the improvement of the fishery from the Shrubbery to Monkey Island.
The annual subscription is £1 1s.
Water-bailiffs and watchers are appointed at the discretion of the committee.
A large number of fish, more especially trout, have been turned into the river by the association.
The water-bailiffs are required to keep live baits for the accommodation of members free of charge (lob worms and other baits to be paid for).
A reward of 10s is offered to anyone who shall give sufficient information to any member of the committee of any illegal fishing, or of being in unlawful possession of fish during the close season, provided that it be considered by the committee a fit case for prosecution, and that if the persons so prosecuted be convicted by the magistrates, the amount shall be doubled.
A reward of £1 is offered to anyone capturing an otter in the waters under the supervision of the association.

Guards Club Island or Bucks Ait

Maidenhead Railway Bridge

Below Maidenhead Bridge is the Great Western Railway-bridge, supposed to be the largest brick bridge in the world, with a singular echo lurking in its enormous span, and on the left is the pretty dwelling, known as Orkney Cottage.

Bray Slipway

A mile from Maidenhead is the pleasant village of Bray, where there is a convenient hotel on the river bank, and where the church and Jesus Hospital deserve more than passing attention.

Bray, Berkshire, a small village on the right bank, about a mile from Maidenhead, 62¾ miles from Oxford, 48¾ miles from London.
Population, 2,717.
The most prominent object in the village from the river is the fine old church, close to which stands the vicarage, with trim gardens, and smooth shaven lawns running down to the river.
A profusion of fine trees adds to the beauty of the view, and the place is very happily situated at a beautiful bend of the river.
It is not surprising that the ancient vicar, so celebrated in song, should have persistently determined to live and die vicar of Bray.
For a secluded and quietly beautiful place of residence few more agreeable spots can be found.
Visitors from the river can land at the "George Inn", and travellers walking down the bank on the Bucks side can be ferried over to the same point on hailing the opposite shore.
It would seem at first sight that there was not much for the visitor to see in the village of Bray, but in fact the church, which is as handsome within as it is without, will well repay careful inspection; and Jesus Hospital is also well worthy a visit, though, as it lies a few minutes' walk inland, it is generally overlooked by boating parties.
The church, dedicated to St.Michael, dates back to the time of the first Edward, and is a fine example of the early English perpendicular style, with a fine square flint tower.
It was entirely restored about 1860, and the ancient monuments and brasses, in which it is unusually rich, have been treated with reverent care.
Several of the new corbels in the nave and chancel are portraits: two very noticeable ones on the right and left of the chancel are those of the Rev.
Austen Leigh, the late vicar, and the late Samuel Wilberforce, bishop of Winchester, the latter an excellent likeness.
There are many curious tablets on the walls, and the floor of the church is almost entirely paved with similar memorials.
One of the most curious monuments is that of William Goddard, founder of Jesus Hospital, of Philliberts who died 1609, and of Joyce Maunsell his wife, died 1622.
This consists of two painted half-length figures under canopied niches, showing very vividly the costumes of the period.
William's hands are crossed upon the skull, which so frequently occurs in the monumental art of this part of Berkshire, and his epitaph is worth quoting.
It runs thus:
If what I was thou seekst to knowe,
Theis lynes my character shal showe;
Those benifitts that God me lent
With thanks I tooke and freely spent.
I scorned what plainesse could not gett,
And next to treason hated debt;
I loved not those thet stird up strife;
True to my freinde and to my wife:
The latter here by me I have;
We had one bed and have one grave
My honesty was such that I
When death came feard not to die.

Another odd epitaph inscribed on the memorial brass of an old vicar of Bray and his wife, probably of the time of James I., runs:
When Oxford gave thee two degrees in art,
And love possest thee master of my heart;
Thy colledge fellowshipp thou lefst for mine,
And nought but deathe could seprate me fro thine.
Thirty-five yeares we livd'e in wedlocke bands,
Conjoined in our hearts as well as handes;
But death the bodies of best friendes divides,
And in the earth's close wombe their relyckes hides;
Yet here they are not lost but sowen, that they
May rise more glorious at the Judgment day.

Among the brasses are those of Arthur Page, died 1610, and his wife Sessely, died 1598; and that of William Laken, a judge, dated 1475, on the south wall, which was found obliterated by plaster when the church was last restored.
There is a curious brass with coloured coat-of-arms of William Smithe, 1594; and on the floor of the south aisle is another, without date, on which are the figures of one Will.Smyth, and his wives Agneta and Matilda.
It would seem from the similarity of the heraldic devices that, notwithstanding the difference of spelling, both these gentlemen belonged to the same branch of the great family of Smith.
On the south wall is the brass of Clement Kelke, a cytycen of London, "a marchant ventuer", 1593.
The crowning glory of the Bray brasses is the well-known memorial of the Foxley family.
This depicts Sir John Foxley and his two wives early in the 14th century.
The figures are under a triple canopy, a great part of which has unfortunately disappeared.
The knight is in armour, with his feet on a lion couchant, and the whole rests on a column issuing from the back of a fox.
In its pristine perfection this must have been a singularly fine example, even now it is a somewhat unique specimen.
Another curious tablet is that to William Norreys, of "Fifild in Bray" who died 1591.
The brass represents Norreys, his wife, and numerous progeny, with his arms and motto, "Faithfully serve"; and the inscription informs us that he was "Usher of the Parliament House and of the most noble Order of the Garter, controller of the works of Windesor Castle and parks there".
A curious little altar-table is extant, used in the church in 1646, and the carved stone font is of about the same period.
In the vestry is preserved a tattered, torn, and dog's-eared black letter copy of Foxe's Book of Martyrs, which was originally chained for public perusal to a pillar in the church about the time of Elizabeth, and was found when the tower was restored.
Jesus Hospital - almshouses for forty poor persons - with chapel and house for resident parson, is a queer red-brick quadrangle with yews and cypresses trimmed in ancient style along its road frontage, and surrounding an old-world well-kept garden and an ancient pump, which latter institution is apparently held in great veneration by the alms-people.
Over the porch is a full-length statue of the pious founder, on either side of which are shields with the arms, on the left, of William Goddard; on the right, of the Fishmongers' Company, by whom the charity is administered.
The erection of the hospital commenced in 1623, and it was completed in 1628.
The curious alms-box, which stands in the porch, dates back to 1635.
Hotel: "The George", by the river.
Place of Worship: St.Michael's.
Postal Arrangements: Money order office and savings bank.
Nearest telegraph office: Maidenhead.
Mails from London: 6.30 and 11.30am;
Sunday: 6.30am
Mails for London: 9.40 and 11.36am and 7.40pm; Sunday: 11.40am.
Nearest Bridges: up, Maidenhead 1¼ mile;
down: Windsor 5¾miles.
Locks:Bray; up, Boulter's 1¾ mile;
down: Boveney 3¾ miles.
Ferry: Bray.
Railway Station: Maidenhead.
Fares Maid, to Padd: 1st, 4/4, 7/6; 2nd, 3/4, 5/9; 3rd, 2/2½

Bray - though the distinction has been questioned on behalf of another Bray near Dublin - is generally believed to have been the abode of the renowned Vicar, who changed his religion from the Roman Catholic to the Protestant, and from the Protestant back again to the Catholic, and was prepared to do so any number of times upon the sole condition, that, come what might, and do what he might, he should continue to be Vicar of Bray; or, in the words of the well-known chorus:
And this is law I will maintain
Unto my dying day, sir,
That whatsoever king shail reign
I'll still be Vicar of Bray, sir.

Only doubtful tradition has preserved the name of the time-serving ecclesiastic, who loved his revenue so much better than his convictions; but the fine-stirring old English melody to which the shameless confession is sung, and which has since been wedded to many other songs more worthy of its beauty, will preserve his reputation, though his name has long since sunk into hopeless oblivion.

Headpile Eyot

Bray Lock

Rather more than a quarter of a mile on the left is Bray Lock, distant from London 48 ¼ miles, from Oxford 63 ¼ miles.
{1883: a wooden lock with so slight a fall that it is generally open when there is much water in the river.}
{1885: For many years this was a rotten and dangerous structure, but was rebuilt in 1884-5.}

Pigeonhill Eyot below Bray Lock

New Thames Bridge

Monkey Island, Hotel, Restaurant, Cafe

Half a mile farther is Monkey Island, and here for a little distance there is a good stream.

Monkey Island is about half a mile below Bray Lock, and owes its name to a number of pictures of monkeys, engaged in various human occupations, with which the third Duke of Marlborough adorned a fishing-lodge which he built upon the island.
The pictures are sometimes attributed to a French artist named Clermont, but in truth they are not sufficiently remarkable to make the question of their authorship a matter of any importance.
Mrs.S.C.Hall's "Book of the Thames" thus describes them:
"Although clever in design they are of no great merit in execution.
One of the best of these groups represents two of the animals awkwardly carrying home fish, the eels escaping from the basket.
The most ludicrous scene occupies the centre of the ceiling, and is a burlesque on the triumph of Galatea; even the Cupid attending her is represented as a winged monkey with fluttering drapery, strewing flowers on the nymph, who, with her attendant Tritons and sea-nymphs, are also represented as monkeys."
The house is now converted into an inn, which is considerably used by anglers, oarsmen, and camping parties.
An outbuilding - a sort of pavilion - which is sometimes used as a billiard-room, has a carved ceiling, which it is to be regretted is being allowed to fall into decay.
The accommodation is primitive and cheap.
There is excellent fishing all about this neighbourhood, and an extremely rapid stream runs past the island at all times.
There is a ferry from the island to the Bucks bank.
Nearest Post Office, Bray [which see); Telegraph Office, Taplow Station; Railway Station, Taplow.
Fares from Taplow to Paddington: 1st, 4/1, 7/-; 2nd, 3/1, 5/3; 3rd 2/-

Summerleaze Footbridge

[1992: Summerleaze Footbridge (and gravel conveyor)]

York Cut (waterways around Maidenhead)

Bray Marina and Riverside Brasserie

Queens Eyot, Eton College

After the next island, on the right, are the following houses: Down Place, Oakley Court, and The Fishery.

Windsor Marina

Ruddles Pool, Surly Hall, The Willows

Surly Hall

[1901: Closed and removed]

Two miles and a half from Bray Lock, on the right bank, is Surly Hall, an inn well known to all oarsmen, and especially dear to every Etonian.
It is on the Berks bank, about half a mile above Boveney Lock.
The house has recently been renovated, and affords reasonably good accommodation.
During the summer season the Eights of the Eton Boat Club pay periodical visits to Surly, on which occasions great havoc is wrought amongst the ducks and green peas.
In a meadow opposite are laid out the tables for the feast at the annual celebration of the birthday of George III., the 4th of June, the great event, since the abolition of Montem and Election Saturday, in the Eton boy's year.

Dorney Lake, Eton College Olympic Rowing Course

[2000s: Hosted Olympic Rowing in 2012]

Boveney Lock

About another half-mile brings us to Boveney Lock, on the left.
The weir stream is wide and strong, and when there is much water in the river, very dangerous.
The lock is of wood, with an average fall of about 3 ft 6 in, and the distance from London is 45 m 1 f [45 ⅛], and from Oxford 66 m 3 f [66 ⅜]

Windsor Racecourse Marina on Clewer Millstream

On the right is Windsor racecourse,


three-quarters of a mile down is Athens, the bathing place of the senior Eton boys.
Opposite the point, at Upper Hope, is a backwater on the left called Cuckoo Weir, also an Eton bathing-place.
A wide berth must be given to the point at the bottom of the short reach here, which is known as Lower Hope, as a sandbank has formed just under it.
The creek on the right is Clewer.
A bathing-place of the Eton boys, rather more than half-a-mile below Boveney Lock, railed off and provided with ladders, &c.
The high ground is known as Acropolis, and is used for the purpose of taking running headers, in which the Eton boys excel.


Clewer, Berkshire, a village standing on a creek of the Thames, just above Windsor railway-bridge, and close to Windsor race-course, which is in the parish.
Clewer is notable for the number of important mansions and seats in and about it, and for the religious institutions which have grown up around the churches, principally under the auspices of the Rev.T.T.Carter.
The institutions attached to St.Andrew's, the parish church, are independent of the parish.
They are the House of Mercy, in connection with the London Church Penitentiary Association (32, Sackville-street, W.), where about 80 female penitents are maintained under the care of sisters of mercy, headed by a warden.
Under the charge of the sisters are also a Convalescent Hospital with nearly 100 beds; an Orphanage; and St.Andrew's Cottage, for ladies needing rest.
Attached to St.Stephen's Church is the Ladies' College, &c.
The parish church is interesting, some parts of it being very old, and dating back to Saxon times.
It has a tablet to the memory of Field Marshal Earl Harcourt.
The churchyard is made unusually pleasant, great care being taken of the graves, Her Majesty the Queen setting an example in bringing flowers.
Places of Worship: St.Andrew's and St.Stephen's.
Postal Arrangements: Mails from London, 7.10am, and 12.30pm
For London, 10.15am, and 5.45pm

Elizabeth Bridge, Windsor

[1999: Elizabeth Bridge, A322 built]

Windsor Slipway just below Elizabeth Bridge Windsor

Right bank Island crossed by Elizabeth Bridge

Cuckoo Weir.

Cuckoo Weir: A bathing-place for the junior boys of Eton College, the water being of a convenient depth with but little stream.
It leaves the river at Upper Hope, a little distance below Athens, and re-enters it again above the Great Western Railway-bridge opposite Clewer.
During the vacation the Royal Humane Society of Eton and Windsor keep a waterman here for the safety of the bathing public.

Left bank Island crossed by Windsor railway Bridge

Windsor Railway Bridge

The Great Western Railway-bridge and the Brocas clump on the left are next passed

Windsor Bridge

Windsor on the right bank, and Eton on the left.
From London 43 m 3 f [43 ⅜], from Oxford 68 m 3 f [68 ⅜].
Boats can be left either at Goodman's or Parkins's, or at the "Bridge House Hotel".
The river is here crossed by a stone bridge of three arches.
The South Western Railway-station is close to the river, the Great Western and the "Castle" and "White Hart" Hotels a few minutes' walk up Thames-street.


Windsor, Berkshire, on the right bank, from London 43 miles, from Oxford 68 ½ miles, a terminus on branches of the Great Western and South Western Railways.
From Paddington 21 miles, trains taking from 35 minutes to an hour; the Great Western Railway-station being about 8 minutes' walk from the bridge.
From Waterloo the distance is 25 miles, the time occupied in transit about an hour; the South Western Railway-station is four minutes' walk from the river.
The time occupied in transit from the Mansion House by the best trains is from an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half.
Flys meet the trains at both stations.
Population, about 12,000.
The counties of Berks and Bucks are here joined by a handsome stone bridge of three arches.
Windsor was originally called Windleshore, presumably from the numerous bends in the river hereabouts, and was given by King Edward the Confessor to the monks at Westminster.
It first rose into importance when William the Conqueror, getting rid of the monks by persuading them in the gentle Norman fashion to exchange their land here for other estates in Essex, built the first castle.
Being built on the side of a hill Windsor presents a very picturesque appearance from the water, and consists of several good streets, with excellent shops and numerous pleasant private residences.
The principal business thoroughfares are Thames-street, leading from the river; High-street, a continuation of Thames-street; Park-street, leading to the Long Walk; the Castle-hill, Peascod-street, and Sheet-street.
From Thames-street "The Hundred Steps" lead to the Castle, the main entrance of which is in Castle-hill just off the High-street, and nearly opposite the Great Western Railway-station.
Since 1276 Windsor has returned members to Parliament, the number, formerly two, having been reduced in 1867 to one.
The borough, which has a constituency of 2054, is now represented by R. Richardson Gardner, Esq., a Conservative.
It is under the government of a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors, with a high steward - at present H.R.H. Prince Christian - recorder, treasurer, and town-clerk.
There are infantry barracks in Sheet-street and Victoria-street, and cavalry barracks at Spital, some half-mile from the town.
The D Company of the 1st Berkshire Volunteers have their headquarters in Church-lane.
There is a theatre in Thames-street, a convenient building enough, but it is generally understood that Windsor is not what is called a good theatrical "pitch".
The so-called Bachelor's Acre is a piece of land belonging to the Corporation, in which the inhabitants have the right of disporting themselves, and is the centre of rejoicings on public festivals.
The Town Hall is in High-street, and is the work of Sir Christopher Wren.
It is said that when the hall was finished the Corporation, doubting the strength of the floor, insisted upon its being made additionally secure by the support of stone pillars.
These Sir Christopher added to please the worthy burgesses; but being himself quite satisfied with his work as it originally stood, took very good care that the capitals of the pillars should not touch the beams, as may be seen at the present day.
Thus everybody was satisfied, and as the floor has remained and supported great weights ever since with no more than a fair amount of deflection, Sir Christopher conclusively proved his case.
Outside the hall on the north side is an extremely commonplace statue of that very commonplace queen, Anne the Good, for which a courtly poet has provided the following inscription:
Arte tua sculptor non est imitabilis Anna
Annae vis similea sculpere sculpe Deam.

This is pretty strong, but is to be matched on the south side where the Statue of George of Denmark, half dressed in periwig and Roman costume, and grasping the inevitable truncheon, is declared to be dedicated
Serenissimo Georgia Principi Daniæ Heroi Omni Sæculo Venerando.
Windsor being a royal borough is a capital place for toadying of this kind, and within the precincts of the castle stands an equestrian statue of Charles II., on the pedestal of which Old Rowley is described as "best of kings", beyond which, in the way of adulation, it would be difficult to go.
It was erected at the cost of Tobias Rustat, Yeoman of the Robes.

The Town Hall contains some good portraits, as well as some copies, which are well worth inspection.
The custodian will generally be found at any time between 11 and 1, and 3 and 6, somewhere about the premises.
The pictures, mostly full lengths, comprise George IV. in the robes of the Garter, by Sir Thomas Lawrence; George III. and Queen Charlotte, after Sir Joshua Reynolds; Queen and Prince George (with more truncheon and more armour), by Clostermann; Charles I., by "Old Stone"; Queen Mary II. and William III. (this latter a remarkably good portrait), by J.Riley; and portraits of the late Prince Consort and of her present Majesty, presented by herself.
In the Council Chamber are portraits of Archbishop Laud, after Vandyck; James II., by Sir Godfrey Kneller; Prince Rupert, by D'Agar; William Pitt, by Gainsborough; James I., by Miravelt.
Two very curious portraits: one of Queen Elizabeth, after Lucas de Heere; the other of Charles, Earl of Nottingham, once Constable of the Castle, and High Steward of Windsor, by Zucchero, also hang in this room.
Here also is the marble bust, by the late Joseph Durham, A.R.A., of Charles Knight, who was well known in connection with Windsor, which was his native town, and which saw the beginning of his long and useful literary career.
The bust is an admirable likeness.
The carved oak mayoral chair taken from the old parish church, which also is in the Council Chamber, is curious.

The parish church is in the High street, and is dedicated to St.John the Baptist.
It is externally a somewhat plain building, with a large embattled square tower with pinnacles at the angles.
Within it is handsome, though rather heavy in its general effect, with open chancel, nave, aisles, and galleries.
The peal of bells is said to date from the time of Queen Elizabeth.
The chancel is rather garishly decorated in the Salviati mosaic style, with five panels representing angels and objects symbolical of the Crucifixion, such as the crown of thorns, the soldiers' dice, the nails, hammer, St. Veronica's handkerchief, &c.
The screen is surmounted by carved figures of angels, and the roofs of the chancel and apse spring from similar statues.
The centre window of the apse is a memorial to the late Mrs. Ellison, and represents the visitation of the sick, &c.
On the south side of the chancel facing the organ is a spacious royal pew, with a separate entrance from the churchyard, chiefly remarkable for its fine carved railings, the work of Grinling Gibbons.
On the wall of the north-west vestibule are two ancient black-letter inscriptions, almost illegible, of which one appears to be to the memory of William Canon and "Elizabeth his wyfe, and all their chyldrene", and to be of the time of Henry VIII.
Here also is the tomb of Chief Justice Reeve, with the busts of himself and wife, supported by two marble figures of children, the one with inverted torch, the other with a medallion representing justice.
On the stairs is a large and extremely florid monument, well stocked with angels, statues, and cherubim.
In the north aisle is a quaint monument without date, but apparently of the 16th century, with kneeling figures of father, mother, and children, and bearing the following inscription:
"In Happie memorie of Edward Jobson and Elynor his wyfe, by whom the sayd Edward had issue VI sonnes, vidz Edward, Frances, Humfrie, James, William, Richard, and IIII daughters, Elizabeth, Elizabeth, Catharine, Sara."
In the west gallery is a large picture representing the Last Supper, which is apparently of some importance, and may or may not possess merit; but as it is at present hung it is impossible to make anything of it except that it is of prodigious size.
All Saints' Church is a chapelry of the parish church, and is situated in the Frances-road.
Holy Trinity Church, near the Clarence-road, is the garrison church in Windsor, and contains a memorial to the Brigade of Guards, and has, on an illumination running round the entire face of the gallery, the name of every officer and man of the three battalions of Foot Guards that fell in the Crimea, 2,129 names in all.
The texts which surmount the memorial were chosen and paid for by the Queen.
There are also many beautiful monuments to officers of the Household Brigade, notably those to Sir Thomas Biddulph, Lord Rossmore, Sir Algernon Peyton, and Earl Ranfurley.
There is also a beautiful painted window at the east end, given by the Grenadier Guards; as well as windows in the south and west by the Coldstream Guards; a very handsome stone pulpit by the Scots Guards; and a stone font by the non-commissioned officers and privates of the 2nd Battalion of the Grenadier Guards.
The reredos was painted by Mrs. Robins, the wife of the rector.
The Church of the Saviour, in Bier-lane, is a chapel of ease attached to Holy Trinity.
The Chapel Royal, All Saints, is in Windsor Great Park, near Cumberland Lodge.

Among the public institutions of Windsor may be mentioned the Literary, Scientific, and Mechanics' Institution in Sheet-street, which was established in 1835, and now numbers nearly 200 members.
It has a reading-room and library, and a lecture-hall, which is used for the purposes of gymnastic and other classes, as well as for the delivery of lectures.
The present building was inaugurated by the Prince of Wales in 1880, and is called the Albert Institute, in memory of the late Prince Consort, who took great interest in the success of the institution.
Intimately connected too with the Prince Consort is the Windsor Association for Improving the Condition of the Working Classes, Park-street.
It is expressly stated that this is not an eleemosynary institution, nor does it purpose to relieve the distressed; its object is to stimulate and cherish the spirit of industry, and thus to raise the social condition of the labouring classes, and it gives rewards for past and encouragement to future exertions.
The association arose from a desire expressed by H.R.H. The Prince Consort to bestow some mark of favour on cottagers in and around Windsor, who were diligent in keeping their homes tidy.
The design enlarged as it grew, and eventually it embraced every kind of industrial occupation.
Neat cottages; well-cultivated gardens or allotments; the bringing up of families honestly; long service of labourers, artisans, or domestics, especially of young persons in their first situations, are the objects sought out and rewarded.
Special notice is taken whether children have been duly sent to school; whether payments have been made to sick clubs, savings banks, or other provident institutions; or assistance given to poorer relatives.
The association also provides encouragement for the cultivation of any honest skill or useful talent.
For this purpose an exhibition is held at the meetings for garden produce of every kind, and handicraft, whether in works of taste or usefulness, executed by cottagers in their leisure hours, and prizes are awarded for the best specimens.
Care is taken to secure the selection of well-deserving persons.
Besides these objects the committee has at various times taken up important questions, such as allotments, model dwelling-houses, &c.

The Naval Knights of Windsor, who were endowed by Mr. Samuel Travers in 1728, inhabit a house in Datchet-lane.
They are seven in number, and must be, on appointment, superannuated or disabled lieutenants of the Royal Navy.
Promotion subsequent to appointment does not now, as was formerly the case, involve resignation; and, indeed, the present knights all appear to have attained the rank of commander.
The Masonic Hall in St.Alban's-street is the work of Sir Christopher Wren, and is devoted entirely to masonic purposes.
It is the freehold of the Windsor Castle Lodge, No. 771.
The Etonian Lodge, No. 209, and the Windsor Castle Chapter of the Royal Arch also hold their meetings here.
The Eton and Windsor Royal Humane Society was established in 1835.
Its headquarters are at the "King's Arms", Eton, and it consists of about 40 working members and about 100 honorary members with subscription of 6s per annum.
The main drags are kept in constant readiness at Mr. Norwood's, coach-builder, Eton, close to the river.
Drags are also kept at various places up the river as far as Surly Hall, and down as far as Datchet, and a waterman is kept for the safety of the public during college vacation at Cuckoo Weir bathing-place.
A regatta is held here annually, when challenge and presentation prizes are offered for competition: (See Windsor and Eton Regatta.
) There is also a racecourse, at which meetings are held at different periods of the year.
It is a flat course with a straight 6 furlongs, and is about a mile from the town, on Ray's Island, above Clewer.

Windsor offers many attractions to the excursionist.
Maidenhead and Cookham with their beautiful scenery are within a convenient distance by water, and inland there is an almost endless succession of interesting and pleasant excursions from which to choose; Ascot, Sunninghill, Winkfield, Warfield, Binfield, St.Ann's Hill, near Chertsey, are all within six or eight miles from Windsor, and are reached through a charming country.
Virginia Water, which is about six miles from Windsor, and is approached through the forest, should on no account be missed.
This was a favourite retreat of George IV., who caused the country on its banks to be laid out with all the resources of the landscape gardener's art.
The scenery is consequently charmingly diversified, and as much as possible is made of the lake, which is upwards of a mile and a half long and of varying width.
There is a good hotel here, the "Wheatsheaf".
Windsor is favoured with an abundance of freshwater fish of all kinds, and it is seldom that an angler returns without some sport, more often with a heavy bag than otherwise.
Very fine trout are taken every season in the weir at the back of the "New Inn", Eton, a favourite resort of anglers.
Barbel, perch, roach, and gudgeon are in abundance.
Banks :London and County, High-street; Nevile Reid and Co., Thames-street.
Fairs: Easter Tuesday, July 5, October 24.
Fire: Volunteer Fire Brigade (Captain, foreman, engineer, sub-foreman, sub-engineer, hon.Treasurer, hon.surgeon, hon.secretary, and twenty pioneers); Headquarters and steam fire-engine; station, Acre House, Bachelor's Acre; manual-engine station: Police-station, Sheet-street; fire-escape station, St. Alban's-slreet.
Hotels: "Castle", High-street; "White Hart", High-street.
The comfortable and reasonable "Bridge House Hotel", though on the Eton side of the bridge, is also convenient for visitors to Windsor.
Market Day: Saturday.
Places of Worship: Chapel Royal, All Saints, Windsor Great Park; Chapel Royal, St.George's; All Saints, Frances-road; Holy Trinity Church; St.John the Baptist (parish church), High-street; St.Stephen's, Oxford-road; and the Church of the Saviour, Bier-lane; the Roman Catholic Church of St.Edward; and Baptist, Congregational, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Station, Sheet-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), Park-street, just beyond the parish church.
Mails from London: 7 and 10.30am, 2.30 and 6.30pm; Sunday, 7am, by letter carrier, over counter from 7 to 10am,
Mails for London: 10 and 11.10am, 2.00, 4.20, and 10pm; Sunday, 10pm
Nearest Bridges: Windsor; up, Maidenhead 7 miles; down, Victoria 1½ mile.
Locks, up, Boveney 2 miles; down, Romney ¼ mile.
Railway Stations: Windsor (L. & S.W.R., G.W.R., and District).
Fares to Paddington or Waterloo: !st, 3/9, 5/6; 2nd, 2/10, 4/3; 3rd, 1/11.
To Mansion House, 1st, 4/4, 6/6; 2nd, 3/3, 5/-; 3rd, 2/3, 4/1.

A first-class carriage shall mean every full-sized carriage drawn by more than one horse, and constructed to carry six adult persons; a second-class carriage shall mean every carriage drawn by one horse, and constructed to carry four adult persons.
The following fares shall be charged by the drivers of all carriages:
Fares for Time, to commence from the time of leaving the stand:
For every hour or any less time, 1st class, 4/-; 2nd, 3/-.
For every additional quarter of an hour or any less time, 1st, 9d; 2nd, 6d.
Fares for Distance, to commence from leaving the stand:
For any distance not exceeding one mile, 1st, 2/-; 2nd, 1/-.
For every additional half-mile or any less distance, 1st, 9d ; 2nd, 6d.
The above fares shall include any charge for the personal luggage of the hirer not exceeding fifty-six pounds, and where the quantity of luggage carried shall exceed such weight, the person hiring the carriage shall pay twopence for each package in excess.
Any person hiring a carriage for conveyance to any distance within eight miles of the Guildhall of New Windsor shall be charged according to distance, unless at the time of the hiring he shall declare that such hiring is to be by time; and if the passenger is brought back from the place of his destination to the place from which he started, or to some place short thereof, he shall, in addition to the fare for the outward journey, pay as the fare for the return journey half the amount chargeable in respect of the distance so travelled on the return journey.
If he be carried back beyond the point of starting, he shall be charged from such point as for a new hiring.
Every carriage hired for a distance may be detained to take up the fare ten minutes without any extra charge, but if kept beyond that time, the person hiring the same shall pay a proportion of the fare as allowed for time for so long as the same shall be detained.
When any carriage shall be called and shall proceed to a place to take up the fare, and shall be sent away without such fare, the driver shall be entitled to demand and receive one shilling.
Driver is bound to give a ticket and produce if required a copy of the bye-laws; is also bound to have a check-string.

Windsor and Eton Amateur Regatta

The course is under a mile, down stream, starting from Clewer Point and finishing at Goodman's Raft.

Windsor and Eton Angling Preservation Association

Windsor and Eton Angling Preservation Association has for its object the improvement and preservation of the fishery from the City Stone, Staines, to Monkey Island.
The annual subscription is £1 1s.
; annual subscribers are also admitted at 10s 6d.
A reward of 10s 6d is offered "to any one who shall give sufficient information to any member of the committee of any illegal fishing, or being in unlawful possession of fish during the close season, provided that it be considered by the committee a fit case for prosecution; and if the person so prosecuted be convicted by the magistrates, the amount shall be doubled."
A reward of £1 is offered to any one capturing an otter in the water under the supervision of the association.
Some thousands of recently hatched trout were presented to the association in 1878, and again in 1880, by the late Mr.F.Buckland, and placed in the Thames near Cuckoo Weir.
It is satisfactory to be able to add, on the authority of Mr.Charles Layton, the hon.secretary, that "poaching is getting a thing of the past in this neighbourhood".

Windsor Castle

To see Windsor "aright" is not quite so simple a matter as that of "Fair Melrose".
Granted the moonlight, and the absence of that peculiarly diabolical kind of Scotch mist known as an "easterly haar", there is no special difficulty about seeing Melrose Abbey.
There it is, beautiful enough, what there is left of it; but no very great amount of time or exertion is required to see all that is to be seen.
At Windsor it is far otherwise: the things to be seen are so numerous, and are spread over such a vast area, that Fontainebleau itself shrinks into insignificance when compared with it.
Not merely an appreciative eye, swiftly perceptive withal, and some artistic taste, are necessary to take away a clear and distinct impression of the finest royal residence in Europe, dating from the most remote antiquity, but well-seasoned thews and sinews trained to climb innumerable stairs and traverse spaces of unconscionable magnitude.
Nor can any part of the show be set aside as mere vanity.
All is well worth seeing - from Henry II.'s Tower to the leaden monument of George III.
But to see everything is quite another matter.
To begin with, it must be explained that Windsor is shown to the public during the absences of the royal family.
The "close" times, so to speak, at Windsor are few and far between; but the arrangement of the hours given to sightseers is so peculiar, as almost to suggest the idea that the Grand Steward of Windsor, or the Constable of Windsor Castle, on whichever of those amiable German princes the duty of making such arrangements may devolve, has been running a match against the trustees of Sir John Soane's Museum for a puzzle prize.
Mark the subtlety of that arrangement by which the public are permitted to view the Round Tower on any day from 11 to 3 in winter and from 11 to 4 in summer; while to see the Curfew Tower application must be made to the belfry-keeper; and to contemplate the Royal Mews, the proper official at the Castle-hill entrance must be interviewed between the hours of 1 and 3.
Still these objects of interest are open on any day.
Now, the Albert Chapel is open every Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday from 12 to 3, without tickets; while St. George's Chapel may be viewed every day except Wednesday, between the hours of 12.30 and 4.
This is not all, however, for if we go to Windsor we must see the state apartments.
These are open to the public, during the absence of the Queen and the court, on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, on production of tickets, to be had at Mitchell's Library, Old Bond-street, of Mr.James Sheldon, 126, Strand, and of Messrs. Keith, Prowse and Co., Cheapside, as well as at Collier's Library at Windsor.
The private apartments can only be seen by special order granted rarely by the Lord Chamberlain.
But setting that august functionary aside for a moment, let us see how we stand as members of the public.
Having ascertained that the Queen and the court are absent from Windsor, we struggle to arrange a table of days.
The first fact we realise is, that we had better not go to Windsor on a Saturday.
On Wednesday we could see the Albert Chapel, but would be shut out of St.George's and the state apartments; while if we went on Monday or Tuesday we should be shut out of the Albert Chapel.
We therefore fall back upon Thursday or Friday, with the reflection that persons in authority might just as well have said so at once, and saved us the mental agony of working out the puzzle for ourselves.
On Thursday and Friday, then, all that is visible at any time is visible - royalty always being absent - save and except the east terrace or grand parterre opposite the private apartments of the sovereign, open in her absence on Saturday and Sunday afternoons only.
But the day, however happy it may be, will not be a long one, for on the longest summer day all is closed at 4 o'clock, and nothing is open before 11.
Wherefore there is no need to rise at un-English hours, and the best part of the summer day is gone before we can begin to inspect Windsor Castle.

On leaving the railway-station we make for the Castle-hill entrance, not forgetting Collier's Library and the slip of yellow paper which will be required of us on passing into the state apartments, and we are moreover armed with the coveted pass for the private apartments, in which the privileged to wear the Windsor uniform, as it is called, and the happy guests invited to visit royalty, are permitted to penetrate.
All the energy of Windsor officialism is directed towards the maintenance of the "privacy" coveted by royalty.
During the royal residence no soul but the officers, equerries, and others on duty may venture to cross the grand quadrangle or the antechamber wherein the royal pages, as they are called, keep watch and ward over the corridor on which the private apartments open.

Beginning to see Windsor Castle systematically it is well to begin with the lower ward, as it is called, and attack the Winchester Tower, built by William of Wykeham, and described by him, "Hoc fecit Wykeham;" Henry III.'s Tower; and glance at rather than inspect the Garter, the Salisbury, and the Curfew Towers.
Grandly picturesque in their exterior aspect, these edifices have no minute beauties to engage the hasty sight-seer, although we cannot help showing some interest in the military knights, as they are called - the elderly gentlemen one sees about Windsor on festive occasions, in uniform with black belts as if they were all surgeons.

Windsor Castle - St.George's Chapel

There is, however, no time to spare, and we determine to begin with St.George's Chapel, famous as the central rallying spot of the Knights of the Garter, as the Elizabeth Church at Marburg was that of the Teutonic Knights.
It is hardly necessary for the modern sight-seer to trouble himself any more with Henry I.'s Chapel than with the ancient hill-fort, which doubtless preceded the round tower of the Plantagenets.
This much is certain, that Edward III., called Edward of Windsor, who was born in the great Norman stronghold, founded a chapel on the ruins of whatever preceded it, shortly after the institution of the Order of the Garter, and dedicated it to St.George, the patron saint of that order.
The chapel proved less durable than the order of knighthood, and became radically unsafe before it was a hundred years old, and was completely demolished by Edward IV., during whose reign the existing chapel was constructed.
It is easy to see that, like most buildings of its class, St.George's Chapel was not finished in one reign.
The grand flight of steps, for instance, by which we approach the west entrance of the nave, was only made the other day, and the roof of the nave and choir were added respectively by Henry of Richmond and his son, to replace the wooden structure which topped the edifice of the Sun of York.
Edward's walls, however, remain intact, a fine example of the "perpendicular" period.
The more recent ceilings of the two last Henrys are of course more florid in style, the ribs of the columns spreading over the roof in rich tracery adorned with the blazon of dead and gone Knights of the Garter, and the "Rose en Soleil", the well-known cognisance of the Sun of York.
The great west window at the end of the nave is a patchwork made up of odds and ends of ancient stained glass collected from various parts of the chapel, and eked out with modern work.
Despite its defects, this window throws down a mass of rich hues which adds vastly to the splendour of the nave.
The Beaufort Chapel has been emptied of some of its monuments, removed within a few years to Badminton, and it may be added generally that the minor chapels are only worth a hurried glance.
A similar remark will apply to the Kent monument, erected in memory of the Queen's father, and to the cenotaph of the Princess Charlotte, a much-talked-of but tasteless production.
Far more time should be given to the choir - devoted, as a matter of course, to the celebration of divine service, and also to the ceremony of installing the Knights of the Garter.
This part of the chapel is magnificent, and loses nothing of its splendour by being of a size convenient for the eye to take in from a favourable standpoint.
The stalls of the knights are on either side of the choir, and those of the sovereign and the princes of the blood-royal under the organ gallery.
Over each stall, but beneath the banner, a canopy of beautiful carved work supports the sword, mantle, and crest of each knight.
The banner, of course, is emblazoned with his armorial bearings, repeated with his name, style, and titles on the brass plate at the back of the stall.
When death removes a knight from that sublime order - one wearer of which said, " I like the Garter, for there is no merit or confounded humbug of that sort connected with it." - his sword, banner, and other insignias are taken down saving only the brass-plate, which remains as a record of the distinguished honour he has borne.
A genial antiquary with a taste for heraldry might find a pleasant task in writing and illustrating the records of the most illustrious Order of the Garter, as exemplified in the stalls of its several knights and their curious succession ot noble tenants, among whom may be found Sigismund, Emperor of Germany (Mr.Carlyle's Sigismund '"super-grammaticam "); Casimir IV., King of Poland; the Duke of Buckingham (Richard III.'s Buckingham); Lords Hastings, Lovel, and Stanley; the unfortunate Earl of Surrey; Charles V.; Francis I.; Sir Robert Dudley (otherwise Earl of Leicester); and Lord Burleigh (not Mr.Tennyson's, but Queen Elizabeth's).
The stall of the Sovereign glows with purple and gold.
On the pedestals of the knights' stalls the life of our Saviour is represented in very rich carved work, and on those of the royal family the adventures of St.George.
On the north side of the choir, near the altar, are carved the attempt of Margaret Nicholson to assassinate George III.; the procession of that king to St. Paul's to return thanksgiving for his recovery in 1789; the scene in the interior of the cathedral; and a representation of Queen Charlotte's Charity School.

The stained glass windows on either side of the choir afford a rich display of colour and heraldic lore, containing the arms of the Sovereign and various Knights Companions of the Order of the Garter; the arms of each knight are encompassed by the cognizance of the order and surmounted with his crest and coronet.
The large window over the altar is a recent addition.
Its place was formerly occupied by Sir Benjamin West's "Resurrection" window; but this work was replaced by the Albert Memorial Window, designed by Sir Gilbert Scott, and executed by Messrs. Clayton and Bell.
Beneath this richly-tinted window is an alabaster reredos beautifully sculptured.
In the centre of the choir, near the eleventh stall on the Sovereign's side, is the royal vault, in which repose the remains of Henry VIII., his queen Jane Seymour, Charles I., and an infant daughter of Queen Anne.
On opening the vault for the interment of the latter the other coffins were discovered, but no further research was made till 1813, when the Prince Regent caused it to be again opened, in order that a controversy as to the burying-place of Charles I. should be finally set at rest.
The accuracy of the previous investigations was amply vindicated, the head and body of Charles being found in a plain leaden coffin.
The skeleton only of Henry VIII. was found.
Perhaps ho exhumation was ever immortalised as was that of 1813, the subject of Lord Byron's epigram entitled "Windsor Poetics", first called "The Vault", pronounced by its author too farouche, an opinion in which the majority will probably concur.
Another noteworthy tomb in St.George's Chapel is that of Edward IV. in the north aisle.
Before studying it, however, the visitor must mark the gallery or Queen's closet fitted up for the accommodation of Her Majesty when attending divine service, and also occupied by her at the marriages of the Prince of Wales and the Princess Louise (Marchioness of Lome).
Beneath this are the iron gates said to have been made by Quentin Matsys, the painter-blacksmith of Antwerp .
These gates were formerly placed on the tomb of Edward IV., together with his armour and surcoat of crimson velvet embroidered with rubies, pearls, and gold; but during the civil war the Parliamentary forces made short work of the finery, and all that is left of the tomb now is a black marble slab with Edward's name in raised brass letters.
On a flat stone at the base is inscribed: "King Edward IV., and his Queen, Elizabeth Widvile."
The skeleton of the king was found to justify the report of his kingly stature.
The handsomest man, and incomparably the greatest warrior of his time, must have been at least six feet two in his stockings.
Queen Elizabeth Widvile's remains were discovered when the present royal cemetery was constructed, together with a coffin containing the remains of Prince George, her third son.
Farther on lie George, Duke of Bedford, and Mary, fifth daughter of Edward IV.
The windows in the north aisle commemorate the "Sun of York", his Queen, the Rutland family, and the Hanoverian Sovereigns of the Order of the Garter.
The Albert Chapel, adjoining the east end of St.George's Chapel, was built originally by Henry of Richmond as a royal mausoleum for himself; but upon his final choice of Westminster Abbey it stood neglected until Cardinal Wolsey obtained a grant of it from Henry VIII.
From that time it was called Wolsey's Tomb House, and Benedetto, a Florentine sculptor, was employed in 1524 to erect a costly monument.
He was paid 4,250 ducats for that part of the design which he erected, and £380 13s sterling was paid for gilding about half of it.
It was destined never to hold the corpse of the magnificent prelate who planned it.
Charles I. is said to have intended to make of it a royal tomb-house for himself and his successors, but ship-money and the Long Parliament and Oliver Cromwell overturned this - like many other designs of the king.
During the occupation of Windsor by the soldiers of the Parliament the tomb was dismantled, the images of gilt copper taken away and sold for;£600.
Nothing was left of the tomb but a sarcophagus of black marble.
In 1805 this was used for the sepulture of Nelson in the crypt of St.Paul's

When James II.Turned towards the Church of Rome he resolved to fit up the forlorn chapel for the celebration of the rites of the ancient faith, and Verrio, whose saints and heroes "sprawl", as Pope has it, on the ceilings of the castle, went to work on its decoration; but when Romish services were held, and the Pope's nuncio received in St.George's Hall, the people arose, broke the windows, and otherwise defaced the building.
For nearly a century Wolsey's Tomb House lay neglected, until George III. determined to construct a royal vault beneath it, since when the members of the royal family have been interred there.
It was not, however, till after the death of the late Prince Consort that the present scheme of decoration was commenced.
By the desire of the Queen this historic building was completely restored in honour of her husband.
Sir Gilbert Scott was the architect, Messrs. Clayton and Bell the designers, Baron Triqueti the sculptor, and Dr. Salviati the decorator in mosaic; Miss Susan Durant, a pupil of Baron Triqueti, being the sculpturess of the marble busts on each scriptural tablet.
The roof literally blazes with the Salviati mosaics, and the light entering through the stained glass windows is enriched with gorgeous dyes.
Baron Triqueti's "Pictures in Marble" cover the wall under the windows, and Messrs. Poole's marble flooring is also a fine piece of work.
The general effect of the Albert Chapel, which is only 68 feet in length, and is very elegantly proportioned, is of almost overpowering richness.
At the entrance to the chancel is the cenotaph.
Its base is of black and gold Tuscan marble, and the sculptured figure of the late Prince Consort of the purest Carrara.
The effigy of the Prince is recumbent, in the armour of a knight of the 14th century, wearing the Order of the Garter, and in the act of sheathing his sword.
The reredos is also a very finely executed work in the costliest marbles, and the communion-table is of one splendid slab.
The actual place in which the body of the late Prince Consort lies is the mausoleum at Frogmore, on the left-hand side of the Long Walk at a short distance from the castle.
This magnificent tomb, erected at the sole expense of the Queen, the cost amount- ing to £200,000, is not one of the sights of Windsor, being only thrown open on one day of the year - that of the anniversary service - and then only to a limited number of the residents of Windsor.
Near the Prince's mausoleum is that of the Duchess of Kent, the Queen's mother.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments

After the Chapel of St.George the state apartments are the chief objects of a visitor to Windsor.
These are very handsome, although the modern educated eye turns aside at times from the somewhat garish splendour of the style of the first French empire, which, with that of Louis XVI., prevails in the majority of the rooms.
The paintings, however, are alone worth a visit to Windsor.
In pictures the Castle is rich, and in china and costly furniture wonderfully so.
There is, indeed, no finer storehouse of good and beautiful work than Windsor Castle, It is a mine from which a dozen magnificent collections might easily be quarried, and, unlike Hampton Court, contains little or no rubbish.
There is thus none of the boredom in going over Windsor that one experiences in numerous show-places, where the corn is in slender proportion to the chaff.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Queen's Audience Chamber

The order in which the state apartments are usually shown commences with the Queen's Audience Chamber.
Verrio has covered the ceiling with a subject oddly chosen for the time at which it was painted.
Amid a wild crowd of heathen gods and goddesses very scantily clad, Catharine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II., is discovered, personified as Britannia, and proceeding in a car drawn by swans towards the temple of virtue.
The contemplation of this really very gorgeous work of art raises a suspicion in the ribald mind that perhaps court painters, like Signor Verrio, were sometimes sharp satirists.
She is making off, this poor ill-used queen, apparently from the English court, where she was quite out of place, attended, however, by a choice bevy of the brazen beauties of the period.
She is the wrong Britannia, too.
There is only one form of the wave-ruler in which the writer believes, and that is her image as impressed upon the coinage of this realm.
The original Britannia was not the virtuous, ill-used queen, but the pert baggage known as La belle Stuart, afterwards married to the Earl of Richmond.
Magnificent Gobelins tapestry decorates the walls of the audience chamber.
The subject is the story of Esther and Vashti.
The tapestry is beautifully fresh and vivid in colour.
Three somewhat remarkable pictures are hung in this room - two Honthorsts - one of the father and one of the grandfather of William III., and a picture of Mary Queen of Scots, by Janet.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the old ball-room, the vandyke Room

The old ball-room, now called the Van dyck Room, is of handsome proportion, but is in no respect profusely decorated, unless the matchless Van Dycks on the walls be considered as decorative.
A lengthy critical or descriptive notice of those fine works is hardly necessary.
There is the famous picture in which appear Charles I., his Queen, Henrietta Maria, and family, Charles II., and James II.
Several replicas of this picture exist, some of which are certainly painted by Vandyck and his pupils.
Another remarkable portrait of Charles is that in which he is seen from three points of view.
It was painted for Bernini, the sculptor, and sent to him at Rome in order that he might execute the bust which was destroyed by fire at Whitehall in 1697.
Bernini, on receiving the picture, is said to have been struck with the "fey" look of the face, and expressed his opinion openly that his royal client had an evil future before him.
Charles was so well pleased with the bust, that he sent the sculptor a ring worth 6,000 crowns.
The equestrian portrait of Charles is also in this room, and is the picture engraved by Lombart, and which was sold after the king's death for £200.
After the Restoration Lombart, who after engraving it had erased the face of Charles and substituted that of Cromwell, put in the face of Charles II. and demanded 1,500 guineas for the picture, but was compelled to relinquish it for 1,000.
In this Vandyck Room are many other pictures by that great master - portraits of Killigrew and Carew; of Queen Henrietta Maria; of Lady Venetia Digby; of the second George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who died at Kirkby Moorside "in the worst inn's worst room"; of the celebrated Prince de Carignan, the military commander; of that "busy states-woman, the Countess of Carlisle"; of Mary, Countess of Dorset; and of Sir Anthony Vandyck himself.
In this room are some magnificent cabinets, among which is one by Gouthier of the perfect ormolu of the best period of Louis XVI., a marvel of metal work, undercut and chiselled with all the delicacy of the daintiest specimens of the goldsmith's art - a very perfect and beautiful piece of furniture, which would probably fetch j£10,000 at Christie's.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Queen's State Drawing Room

The Queen's State Drawing-room, or Zuccarelli Room, contains some fine pictures by Zuccarelli and an interesting portrait of Henry, Duke of Gloucester, son of Charles I., who died at Cologne in 1660; as well as portraits of the three first Georges, and of Frederick, Prince of Wales -
"Fred, who is dead",
and of whom no more could be said
in the opinion of the epigrammatist.
Posterity, however, is inclined to reverse the verdict of contemporaries in the case of this prince as in that of "Butcher" Cumberland.
"Fred, who was alive and now is dead",
was a prince of infinitely higher culture than either his brave little father or his half-witted son.
"Fred" it was who collected many of the finest pictures now at Windsor to prove that he by no means abhorred "boets and bainters" as his father did.
Lovers of Grinling Gibbons should mark in the so-called state ante-room the delightful carvings of this master.
The apartment, it should be borne in mind, was in Charles II.'s time "the king's public dining-room"; the apartment, in fact, in which the king and royal family dined - in imitation of the ceremonial observed at Versailles - before the whole court.
Its original purpose explains the edible birds, beasts, and fishes which "sprawl" all over the ceiling, and the exquisite carvings by Gibbons of fish, game, flowers, and fruit.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - The Waterloo Chamber

The Waterloo Chamber has been greatly laughed at on account of its resemblance to the cabin of a ship.
It was constructed in the time of King William IV., and its peculiar shape is said to have been suggested eventually by that nautical monarch, who lay in state in its midst.
It is nevertheless a fine, lofty room, looking very handsome when lit up, and occupied by the officers of the Queen's household, who dine there on grand occasions.
The walls are covered with pictures, all of which are interesting either as works of art or as the representations of historic personages.
A large number are by Lawrence, others by Sir Martin Arthur Shee, Sir David Wilkie, Sir W. Beechey, &c.
This Waterloo Gallery forms part of a splendid series of apartments, including the Throne Room, St.Georges Hall, and the Grand Reception Room.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Grand Reception Room

The latter is 90 ft long, nearly as long as the Waterloo Gallery, and is splendidly furnished in the style of Louis XIV.
At one end is the great green malachite vase presented to Queen Victoria by the Czar Nicholas.
Beautiful tapestry adorns this sumptuous if rather overpowering apartment, and the chandeliers are as wonderful as those at Versailles.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - St.George's Hall

The St.George's Hall- where the very great banquets are held- is in the so-called Gothic style, and very long and narrow.
It may be called disproportionately narrow with perfect justice, for although 200 ft long it is only 34 ft broad.
In recesses opposite the windows are portraits of the Sovereigns of England from James I. to George IV.
Above wave the banners of the original companionship of the Knights of the Garter.
As a show place St.George's Hall suffers from its want of proportion, and has a gloomy look when shorn of its proper decorations; but nothing can be more magnificent than this gallery on the rare occasions when a foreign crowned head is entertained at a grand banquet.
Comparisons are frequently made between Fontainebleau and Windsor, but such parallels are hardly worth while making.
There is, of course, a tragic interest, fresh and recent, attached to Fontainebleau and happily absent from Windsor, and there is this much to be said for the delightful French chateau, that it is a school of the decorative art of the last three centuries, and that its Galerie de Henri Quatre - imitated, but, of course, longo intervallo, in the library of the Reform Club - is peerless; but on the other hand Windsor has the advantage of size and of every adjunct of splendour.
Interesting and beautiful Fontainebleau cannot be made magnificent, while Windsor always can at a few days' notice.
St. George's Hall, when filled with guests in toilettes and glowing uniforms; when lit up by the gay sheen of pearls and the glitter of diamonds around a table covered with that wonderful service of gold plate, which cannot be stolen because it would require a special train to carry it away, is as superb a banqueting hall as any in Europe.
Then the advantage of the dark oaken lining of the room is seen.
It is not intended to form a picture in itself.
It is only the frame for one.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Private Apartments

The private apartments are open to comparatively few persons.
They are cut off from the public state apartments by the Grand Corridor and very badly lighted parts of the castle.
The corridor is of immense length, extending round two sides of the quadrangle, and a subterranean system extends all round it for those of meaner sort, who may not be permitted to cross the sacred parallelogram.
The corridor at Windsor is a marvel.
It is absolutely full, throughout its five hundred and twenty feet of length, of such cabinets as drive collectors frantic, and of such old Oriental work that the Japanese Ambassadors - fine connoisseurs in such matters - stood aghast the first time they were privileged to witness them.
Distributed in these cabinets and cases, all of rare workmanship, is a museum of china, Chelsea, Oriental, and Sevres - the magnificent Sevres collected by the "old Marquis of Hertford" for his master, King Florizel.
It would be ridiculous to say that such Sevres as can be seen in the Queen's private apartments at Windsor was ever cheap; but, considering its enormous cost of production, it went at low prices at the time the Windsor collection was formed.
There is some good china at Buckingham Palace in the rooms through which Her Majesty's lieges pass before reaching the royal presence, but nothing there will give more than a very slight idea of the ceramic wealth of Windsor Castle.
There is any quantity of rose pompadour, and œil de perdrix, vert pomme, and bleu du roi in the form of the almost priceless vaisseaux à mat (the cognizance of the city of Paris) and in every other shape peculiar to the best period of pâte tendre.
Magnificent pictures hang on the wall of the corridor - choice specimens of Canaletto, Romney, Reynolds, and Gainsborough - and bronzes of faultless execution appear between the fine cabinets and superb Oriental vases.
In the north corridor, fitted up as an armoury, is the wonderful tiger's head of solid gold studded with gems, taken from Tippoo Sahib at the storming of Seringapatam, and said to be worth £30,000.
It is an amusing as well as valuable trophy, for as the golden tongue of the animal is seen lolling out of its mouth, it is almost impossible to resist the temptation to make it wag.
It seems to weigh at least a pound, and permits itself to be wagged freely.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the White Drawing Room

From the main artery of the corridor the various drawing and other rooms open out.
The three drawing-rooms are all interesting.
The White Drawing-room is not yellow, like that terrible trial to the complexion at Buckingham Palace, but actually white and gold in the later style of Louis XVI. , with rich carvings heavily gilt standing out from the white ground.
The doors of this room close without the slightest noise, and with that perfect fit which characterises the finest cabinet work.
Pictures of the royal family, by Winterhalter and others, and of no particular merit, look down from the walls.
Gouthier's finest cabinets are in this room, not only beautiful in their own unrivalled work, but inlaid with superb mosaics and porcelain plaques.
Everything is good in the White Drawing-room except the pictures and the carpet, the latter of which is absolutely maddening with its rosebushes and hollyhocks.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Green Drawing Room

The Green Drawing-room, so called from its walls of green satin, is a beautiful apartment; but its hangings and furniture are almost lost sight of in the interest excited by the celebrated service of Sevres made for Louis XVI., which afterwards became the property of George IV.
No rival exists to this famous set of Sevres.
The hue of the bleu du roi is perfect, and the paintings, mostly of sylvan and marine subjects, are by the "most eminent hands" ever employed at the royal manufactory.
There is little of the rich heavy gilding by which Sevres is sometimes marked.
There is, indeed, a zone of pure white between the gilt rim and the picture, which, therefore, is not toned down by its surroundings, but appears in its pristine beauty.
With the exception of a couple of plates this famous service is complete.
Other grand pieces of Sevres are distributed about the Green Drawing-room, the ceramic contents of which have been valued at £200,000.
This room is the most distant apartment generally visited by the Queen, except on the occasion of a state dinner in the Royal Dining-room, when the Crimson Drawing-room is crossed.
On other occasions this gorgeous apartment is occupied by the ladies and gentlemen of the Queen's household.
In one corner is the grand pianoforte on which Her Majesty received her first lessons.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - The Royal Dining-room

The Royal Dining-room is very plain.
Its only and too conspicuous ornament is the wine-cooler, designed by Flaxman for George IV. when Prince Regent.
It is in the style of Capo di Monte porcelain, but is silver gilt.
It is several feet long, and has been derisively termed the "royal font" and the "King's pap-boat".

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - The Rubens Room

The Rubens Room is another interesting room, used on state occasions, and contains, among other fine specimens of the great Flemish master, his own portrait; one of Helena Forman, his second wife; and the celebrated "St.Martin sharing his cloak with the Beggar".
The Throne Room has also its interest as the theatre of the installations of the Knights of the Garter.
Everything is of Garter blue, and the cognizance of the order meets the eye in every direction.
Perhaps the most beautiful object in the room is the carved ivory throne of Indian workmanship which was exhibited in 1851.

Windsor Castle - the State Apartments - the Queen's Private Sitting Room

The Queen's private sitting-room looks over the Long Walk, and is decorated with a bust of the late Prince Consort by Theed, and Landseer's picture, "The Return from Deerstalking".
In the Oak Room -an octagonal apartment just over the Sovereign's entrance to the castle - in which the Queen takes luncheon and dines, there is the wonderful portrait of herself by the Baron von Angeli, probably the most realistic portrait in the world.

Windsor Castle, so closely associated with the lives and fortunes, the loves, the sorrows, and the deaths of the sovereigns of England, was the scene of a romantic incident, not recorded in English history, in the career of a King of Scotland, the first of the Stuart line who bore the name of James, who was not only an enlightened sovereign, but an amiable and accomplished man, and a poet of no mean order.
His history in connection with Windsor Castle is a romance of true love - and of a true love, whose course ran smoothly to its close - a contradiction, possibly rare, to the authoritative judgment of Shakespeare in a contrary sense.
His old and sorrow-stricken father, King Robert III., grieving for the loss of one son, the Duke of Rothsay, whose sad fate is so final) told by Sir Walter Scott in his "Fair Maid of Perth", and dreading that his youngest darling, and only surviving son, James, then eleven years old, might share a similar fate, thought it advisable to send him out of Scotland.
A governor being provided, the young prince was sent to finish his education in France; but the vessel in which the heir of Scotland was embarked had sailed no farther than Flamborough Head when it was attacked by an English cruiser, and all on board were taken prisoners.
Some say that the capture was made when the young prince and suite landed to refresh themselves at Flamborough, where they had been driven by stress of weather.
However this may be, Henry IV. of England, although a truce subsisted at the time between England and Scotland, resolved to detain the royal child as a hostage for the future good behaviour of his troublesome neighbour.
So overjoyed was that grim warrior at his good fortune, that he relaxed so far as to give utterance to a pleasantry.
"His father was sending him to learn French", quoth he; "by my troth he might as well have sent him to me! I am an excellent French scholar myself, and will see to his instruction."
And he kept his word.
The young prince was provided with the best masters and made rapid progress in every polite accomplishment; but his loss broke his father's heart.
It needed not that last calamity to embitter the days of King Robert: he never held up his head again, but pined away and died about a year afterwards.
But the captive himself, with the exception of the loss of liberty, had nothing to complain of.
Every luxury was his, and every indulgence.
He became well versed in all the literature of his age, and grew up an excellent musician, a sweet poet, and expert in all the manly accomplishments that befitted a prince.
He studied Chaucer, then recently deceased, and made him his model, and produced poems little inferior to those of his master.
In the "Quair", or "book", written shortly before his return to Scotland, he informs the world in elegant rhymes how he passed his time in captivity, and how he fell in love with the beautiful Lady Jane Beaufort as she was walking with her maid in the gardens of Windsor Castle.
The royal poet, after pathetically lamenting that he was doomed to be a captive while the birds were free, continues:

And therewith cast I down my eyes again
Whereas I saw, walking under the tower
Full secretly, new coning her to pleyne
The fairest and the freshest younge flower
That ever I saw, methought, before that hour,
At which sudden abate, anon astart,
The blood of all my body to my heart !
My wittis all
Were so o'ercome with pleasure and delight;
And then eft soon I leaned it out again,
And saw her walk, that very womanlie
With no wight more, but only women twaine,
Then 'gan I study in myself and sayn,
"Ah, sweet! are ye a worldly creature,
Or heavenly thing in likeness of our nature?"

He then describes, in elegant, though partly obsolete, language, her golden hair and rich attire, adorned with fretwork of "perlis white" with many a diamond, emerald, and sapphire:

And on her head a chaplet fresh of hue,
With plumes partly red and white and blue;
And above all, ...
... as well he wot
Beauty enough to make a world to doat !

This fair creature was the daughter of John, Earl of Somerset, and grand daughter of John of Gaunt; and although we have no record of their courtship, there is every reason to believe that she looked with a favourable eye upon the handsome and accomplished prince, then doubly a captive.
In the year 1428 negotiations were commenced by Murdoch, Regent of Scotland, for the liberation of the king, and Henry V. agreed with but little difficulty.
The sum of £40,000 was stipulated to be paid by Scotland, not as a ransom - it was a disagreeable word- but as compensation for the maintenance and education of the prince; and it was further agreed that he should marry some lady of the royal blood of England, as a bond of peace and goodwill between the two countries.
The heart of James must have leaped for joy within him at the latter proposal.
He accepted it with eagerness, and named the Lady Jane Beaufort as the object of his choice.
The lady on her part was quite as willing, and their nuptials were celebrated with great pomp, first at Windsor, and afterwards at London, the bride receiving for her portion a sum of £10,000.
She was a most faithful and attached wife, and during the many cares, anxieties, and troubles that beset the path of her royal partner on his return into his own disturbed dominions, was always the affectionate friend, the kind adviser, and chief comfort of her lord.
The king was himself murdered by a conspiracy of noblemen - noble by title, but not by nature, Overwhelmed by superior numbers he took refuge with his wife in an inner apartment of the palace, and when the assailants, thirsting for his blood, battered at the closed door, she placed her arm in the place of the bolt which had snapped under their heavy blows, and with that beautiful weak limb managed to keep them at bay for a few moments.
Her heroism was in vain: the tender and loving arm was shattered, and her husband and lover was slaughtered at her feet.

Windsor Park

Windsor Park has one great poetical association, that of Heme the Hunter, in "The Merry Wives of Windsor"; and the old tree, still standing and cared for in its decrepitude, and which is known by the name of Heme's Oak, is the supposed scene of one of the tricks played off on Sir John Falstaff in Shakespeare's immortal comedy.

Windsor Park and Virginia Water

Windsor Park and Virginia Water are almost beyond the limit of an average visit to the royal borough, and equally beyond that of the physical power of most one day excursionists.
It is, however, possible to see all in a long summer's day by driving to Virginia Water, after seeing the Castle and the Long Walk.
Anyone who can remain over night at Virginia Water should do so.
The lake, albeit artificial - the work of "Butcher" Cumberland - is singularly beautiful, and will amply repay exploration.
At sunset myriads of rabbits come down to feed on the sweet grass near the water's edge, and a whistle will cause a stampede affording one of the prettiest sights in the world - a welcome change to the eye weary of bright colours and cunning workmanship.

Eton College


Eton, Bucks, on the left bank, from Oxford 68½ miles, from London 43 miles.
Population, 3,500.
But for its connection with the greatest public school in England, Eton is a place of but little importance.
In 1800, Mark Antony Porney bequeathed funds for the education of 45 boys and 45 girls.
Porney's Institution is now combined with the National School for the children of the parish of Eton and Eton Wick.
There is also a charity called the Eton Poor Estate, for apprenticing seven or eight boys from the Free School in each year.

Eton College should by all means be seen.
The oldest portion of the buildings dates from 1523, and com- prises two quadrangles and the cloisters.
What is known as Upper School is on the west, on an arcade by Sir Christopher Wren; on the south is the chapel, a beautiful building in the perpendicular style, greatly resembling that at King's College, Cambridge, to which Eton College was affiliated by its founder, King Henry VI.
The chapel and ante-chapel contain the tombs of many celebrated personages; a marble statue of the founder, by Bacon; and monuments to Provosts Goodall and Sir Thomas Murray.
The glass in the east window is by Willement.
There are two memorial windows to Etonians who perished in the Crimea.
There are also a few brasses dating from 1489.
The College Library contains over 20,000 volumes, and is strong in ancient MSS.
North of the college are the extensive playing- fields divided by Poet's Walk, and bordered by the Thames.
To describe the manners and customs of Eton boys pro- perly would occupy much more space than could here be afforded.
Any one desirous of knowing all about Eton College should turn to the pages of Mr.Maxwell Lyte's admirable history published by Messrs.Macmillan.
A bright little book, called "A Day of My Life at Eton", will also be found amusing and instructive.

The following statement of fees, &c, is given on the authority of "Cassell's Educational Year Book", but with reference to collegers, it may be observed that, in answer to a question, one of the officials of the college writes: "The cost to the parent of a colleger would be for school expenses under £30.
The other expenses are optional, and consist of tradesmen's accounts for clothing, washing, &c.
At an average, these expenses amount to about £30, making about £60 in all."
As modified by recent statutes, the College Foundation will consist of provost, head master, lower master, not under seventy scholars and two chaplains.
The endowment is said to be over £20,000 a year.
Foundationers or "Collegers": about twelve vacancies a year.
Election on last Monday in July.
Candidates must be between twelve and fifteen.
For permission to compete apply to the clerk to the Governing Body.
Competitive examination of candidates.
A Foundation Scholarship is tenable till election next following scholar's nineteenth birthday.
Foundation scholars are educated and lodged in college during term at the expense of the college; other expenses are purely personal.
Oppidans ("Town Boys"): admission, ten to fourteen.
Entrance examination determining boys' places in school.
By fifteen, an Oppidan must have reached the fourth form, and by sixteen and a half the fifth form, except for reasons satisfactory to the head master, and an Oppidan may remain in school after nineteen, except for similar special reasons.
Board and Fees: Oppidans may live with parents or guardians; or they may, with special permission of the Governing Body, obtained on written application to the head master, lodge with other persons.
Otherwise, they are lodged and boarded in masters' houses, where each boy is provided with a separate room; two brothers may, on request of parents or guardians, share the same room.
Entrance fee (on admission to the school) £10 10s.
Annual payment to the School Fund, £24.
Board and lodging in most houses, 100 guineas; in a few £90 or 90 guineas.
Use of furniture, £2, a term.
Private classical tuition, 20 guineas a year.
These charges include books, stationery, and the usual subscriptions.
Boys learning German or Italian before reaching mid-division of the fifth form pay £3 10s a term extra.
Other expenses are purely personal.
Scholarships and Exhibition:
I. Tenable at School.
As soon as funds permit, exhibitions worth £50 a year will be offered to the competition of boys between fourteen and sixteen.
Tenable till election to foundation or till nineteen.
II. Tenable after leaving: "Newcastle" Scholarship, £50 for three years, tenable at either University.
Two "Chamberlayne" Exhibitions, £50 for four years.
"Reynolds" Exhibitions, £48 for four years at Exeter College, Oxford.
"Berriman" Exhibition, and several others, with two postmasterships at Merton College, Oxford, tenable for four years.
Vacant scholarships and exhibitions are decided annually in July, by an examination of the hundred highest boys in the school.
Three or four scholarships at King's College, Cambridge, are open yearly to competition of Foundationers and Oppidans alike.

Hotels: "Bridge House", "Christopher", and "Crown and Cushion".
Place of Worship: St.John the Evangelist.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph).
Week-day mails from London, 7 and 10.30am, 2.30 and 6pm
Mails for London, 8.35 and 10.50am, 1.35, 3.50, 9.25pm; Sunday, 9.30pm
Nearest [Station]: (See Windsor).
Fares: (See Windsor).

Eton College Boat Club

Eton College Boat Club consists of 92 members.
The Monarch, ten oar, Victory, and Prince of Wales, compose the Upper boats; Britannia, Dreadnought, Thetis, Hibernia, St.George, Alexandra, and Defiance the Lower boats.
The Eton eight is chosen from the best oars amongst these boats, and enters at Henley for the Ladies' Plate, and sometimes for the Grand Challenge Cup.
Eton has won the Ladies' Plate eight times.
The boating season commences with the 1st of March, and ends with the end of the summer half.
Mr.C.Barclay is Captain of the Eton College Boat Club for 1885.
Boat-houses just above Windsor Bridge.
Colours of the eight, light blue, white cap.

Eton Excelsior Boat Club

Eton Excelsior Boat Club.
Election is in general meeting; three black balls in five exclude.
Entrance fee, 5s; subscription, £1 10s, in three monthly instalments; hon. members, 10s 6d.
Boat-house: Goodman's.
Colours, dark blue and amber.

Cutler's Ait

After passing through Windsor Bridge the right bank, on which is the tow-path, should be kept.
The rapid and dangerous stream to the left runs to the weir, and the neighbourhood of the Cobbler, as the long projection from the island is called, is undesirable when there is much water in the river.

Romney Island

Romney Island, a narrow island rather more than half a mile long, just below Windsor Bridge, and extending to the playing fields of Eton College.
At its upper extremity is The Cobbler, a long point projecting into the stream.
The cut to Romney Lock is on the right; the weir, where there is a bathing place of the Eton masters, is on the left.

Romney Lock

Not half a mile below Windsor Bridge is Romney Lock, a good stone lock with an average fall of 5 ft 9 in, from London 42 ¾ miles, from Oxford 68 ¾ miles.
After passing through the lock beautiful views of Eton College, the playing-fields, and Poet's Walk are obtained on the left, and on the right is Windsor Castle and the Home Park.

Black Potts Railway Bridge

A quarter of a mile from the lock the river is crossed by the railway bridge.
The house on the left immediately below is Black Potts, the residence of the Rev.Dr.Hornby, Provost of Eton.

Black Potts Islands

Jubilee River outflow (flood prevention channel)

Victoria Bridge

Farther down is the Victoria Bridge, one of two which cross the river at each extremity of the park,

Sumptermead Ait


and about a mile and a half from Romney Lock is Datchet, on the left bank.
Here will be found fair accommodation for man and boat.

Buckinghamshire, on the left bank, from London 41¼ miles, from Oxford 70¼ miles; a station on the Windsor branch of the South Western Railway, 24 miles from Waterloo; trains take about an hour.
Population, 1,100.
Soil, chiefly gravel.
A pleasantly and prettily situated village, with good houses, and agreeable neighbourhood, though sometimes uncomfortably liable to floods.
It is sometimes called Datchet St.Helen's, from the fact of there having been here at one time a branch establishment of the nunnery of St.Helen's, Bishopsgate.
The buildings themselves have entirely disappeared, but the garden walls are still standing.
Datchet Mead is a well-known place for anglers, and is known to all the world in connexion with certain disagreeable experiences of the immortal Sir John Falstaff.
the parish church is dedicated to St.Mary the Virgin.
It was originally- built about 1350, but nothing of the old structure remains except the east wall window of the chancel.
The present fine building consists of nave, aisles, transept, chancel, and organ chamber, and was erected in 1860.
Nearly all the windows are filled with stained glass.
Among the charities of the village is Barker's Bridge House Trust, which, under a scheme sanctioned by the Charity Commissioners, provides for the lighting of the village, the maintenance of the foot-paths, landing-places, and similar works.
Ditton Park, the seat of the Duke of Buccleuch, is about half a mile from the church.
This is perhaps as good a reach as any on the river for roach-fishing.
Anglers are not permitted on the tow-path of the Home Park.
Off the "Bells of Ouseley" is a fine shallow for the fly, and is upon a warm day literally alive with handsome chub and dace.
Trolling and spinning may be practised with success for jack and perch right away down to Bell Weir Lock, in the weir of which very handsome trout are taken every season.
Inns: "Manor House" and "Royal Stag".
Places of Worship: St.Mary the Virgin, and Baptist Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 7.20am, 12.15pm
Mails for London, 10am, 3.50 and 7.05pm Sunday, 10am
Nearest Bridges, up, Victoria ¼ mile; down, Albert ½ mile.
Locks, up, Romney 1¼ mile;
down, Old Windsor 1¾ mile.
Fares to Waterloo, 1st, 3/9, 5/6; 2nd, 2/9, 4/-; 3rd, 1/11.

Proposed Lower Thames Flood Risk Management Scheme start of Channel One

Albert Bridge

Albert Bridge, Windsor Home Park.
An iron bridge of elegant design.
Connects Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, crossing the river to the south of the park, about half a mile below Datchet.

Ham Bridge

After the second of the royal bridges (the Albert) is passed, the right bank must be kept, and a long narrow cut, crossed halfway by a wooden bridge, leads to [Old Windsor lock]

Ham Island, left bank of cut above Old Windsor Lock

Old Windsor Lock

Old Windsor Lock, of stone and wood, with rather inconvenient sills.
It has an average fall of 4 ft.
The distance from London is 39 ¾ miles, from Oxford 71 ¾ miles.
Shortly after passing the lock is a ferry, but the tow-path still continues on the right bank.
Three-quarters of a mile from the lock, in pretty scenery, is the well-known "Bells of Ouseley" tavern, where the stock ale deserves attention.
Half a mile farther down Magna Charta Island, with its cottage, is on the left, the wooded heights of Cooper's Hill with the Indian Engineering College on the right.
Below is Ankerwycke House, and the summer-house known as the Picnic (see Picnic).
After Ankerwycke the scenery becomes flat and tame, and even ugly, if such a word can be used in connection with the Thames anywhere.
Runnymead is on the right bank, which should be followed to

Friary Island

Ousely Island

The Bells of Ouzely

Three-quarters of a mile from the lock, in pretty scenery, is the well-known "Bells of Ouseley" tavern, where the stock ale deserves attention.

"Bells of Ouseley": A tavern on the Berks bank, at Old Windsor; about a mile below the [Old Windsor] lock, and close to Beaumont Catholic College.
Good accommodation can be had, and the house is noted for its ale.
The scenery here is very pretty.
The nearest railway station across the river is Wraysbury, Bucks; and by road, Datchet; both on the South-Western line, about an hour from town.
Fares from Wraysbury to Waterloo: 1st, 3/6, 5/6; 2nd, 2/6, 3/9; 3rd, 1/9, 3/3
Fares from Datchet: 1st, 3/9, 5/6; 2nd, 2/9, 4/-; 3rd, 1/9.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - Cooper's Hill

Cooper's Hill, near Egham, has been celebrated in verse by Sir John Denham, in a poem which received the praise of Alexander Pope.

The sequestered scenes,
The bow'ry mazes and surrounding greens
On Thames's banks, while fragrant breezes fill,
And where the Muses sport on Cooper's Hill.
On Cooper's Hill eternal wreaths shall grow,
While lasts the mountain or while Thames shall flow !
Here his first lays majestic Denham sung.

Sir John Denham, the author of this once well-known poem, resided in the parish of Egham, and was made sheriff of Surrey in 1642.
He was afterwards governor of Farnham Castle for the Royalists in the time of the Civil Wars.
A devoted adherent of the House of Stuart, he retired with the Royal Family into France after the execution of Charles I., and at the Restoration, more fortunate than many who ruined themselves for the king, he obtained honours, with profits attached to them as a reward for his fidelity.
Denham's poem was written at Oxford in 1643, whither he had retired after he resigned the governorship of Farnham Castle.
Its success was so great, that the cynics of the time spread abroad a report that the author had not written it himself, but had bought it of some nameless curate for £40.
He outlived the calumny by many years, disproving it, moreover, by his other writings.
Until Pope took up the pen, no poem produced in England excited so much immediate popularity as "Cooper's Hill".
But fame in literature was easily obtained in those days, when authors were few.
Even the critics who maligned the man for political reasons lauded the work as one of the happiest efforts of the natural, even while affecting to believe that its nominal was not its real author.
Denham's description of the Thames is still popular:

My eye, descending from this hill, surveys,
Where Thames among the wanton valleys strays,
Thames, the most lov'd of all the ocean's sons
By his old sire to his embraces runs,
Hasting to pay his tribute to the sea
Like mortal life to meet eternity.
Though with those streams he no resemblance hold,
Whose form is amber and their gravel gold,
His genuine and less guilty wealth t'explore,
Search not his bottom but survey his shore,
O'er which he kindly spreads his spacious wing,
And hatches plenty for th'ensuing spring;
Nor then destroys it with too fond a stay
Like mothers who their infants overlay:
Nor with a sudden and impetuous wave,
Like profuse kings, resumes the wealth he gave.
No unexpected inundations spoil
The mower's hopes, nor mock the ploughman's toil;
But godlike his unwearied bounty flows;
First loves to do, then loves the good he does.
Nor are his blessings to his banks confined,
But free and common as the sea or wind;
When he, to boast or to dispense his stores
Full of the tributes of his grateful shores,
Visits the world, and in his flying towers
Brings home to us, and makes both Indies ours;
Finds wealth where 'tis, and bestows it where it wants,
Cities in deserts, woods in cities plants;
So that to us no thing, no place is strange,
While his fair bosom is the world's exchange.

Cooper's Hill Boat Club

Cooper's Hill Boat Club (Royal Indian Engineering College).
This boating club numbers between fifty and sixty members.
In 1881 the club sent an eight to Henley to compete for the Ladies' Plate, an eight and a four to Kingston, and a four to Reading.
In 1882 it was unrepresented at Henley and Kingston, but had a four at Reading.
The colours are dark blue and yellow.
The boathouse, three-quarters of a mile from the college, is on the left bank, opposite the upper end of Magna Charta Island, about 600 yards below the "Bells of Ouseley."

Cooper's Hill College.

Cooper's Hill College -the Royal Indian Engineering College - has been established under the orders of the Secretary of State for India in Council, in view to the education of Civil Engineers for the service of Government in the Indian Public Works Department; but it is open, to the extent of the accommodation available, to all persons desirous of following the course of study pursued there.
All particulars as to admission, course of study, appointments, etc., may be obtained of the Secretary at the College.

Pats Croft Eyot

Magna Carta Island

Half a mile farther down Magna Charta Island, with its cottage, is on the left, the wooded heights of Cooper's Hill with the Indian Engineering College on the right.
Below is Ankerwycke House, and the summer-house known as the Picnic (see Picnic).
After Ankerwycke the scenery becomes flat and tame, and even ugly, if such a word can be used in connection with the Thames anywhere.

Magna Charta Island, a mile and a half from Old Windsor Lock, near the Middlesex bank, one of the most charming islands on the river, and of historical interest as the scene of the little arrangement between King John and his barons, which, as "every schoolboy knows", was the foundation of the freedom of England.
In a cottage which stands on the island is a stone on which it is said that Magna Charta was signed.
The usual uncertainty and vagueness which characterise all history step in even at what ought to be so very simple a matter as this.
Tradition undoubtedly assigns the honour of being the scene of signature to the island, but in the charter itself it is said to be given at Runningmede, so that it would seem to be doubtful whether the finishing stroke was given to the palladium of English liberties on this island itself, or on Runnymede on the Surrey bank.
Mr. and Mrs.S.C.Hall, who give an excellent account of Magna Charta in their delightful "Book of the Thames", express a regret "that no monument marks the spot at Runnymede where the rights and liberties of the people of England were maintained and secured, although several attempts have been made to raise one here".
The same page gives us the inscription on the stone on which the parchment is said to have been signed:
"Be it remembered that on this island, in June, 1215, King John of England signed the Magna Charta, and in the year 1834 this building was erected in commemoration of that great event by George Simon Harcourt, Esq., lord of the manor, and then high sheriff of the county."


Runnymead is on the right bank,

Coopers Hill views of the river

The Island, Hythe End, above Bell Weir Lock

Bell Weir Lock

Bell Weir Lock, a good stone lock, with a fall of about 5 ft; from London 36 m 7 f [36 ⅞], from Oxford 74 m 5 f [74 ⅝].
Here is the "Anglers' Rest Inn".
A footpath close to the inn leads to Egham.


Egham, Surrey - though not actually on the bank, the parish of Egham impinges on the Thames, and is connected with Middlesex by Staines Bridge; but from the river the nearest approach is from Bell Weir Lock, which is distant from the post-office and church about 10 minutes' walk across the fields, the pathway leaving the towing-path a few yards below the "Anglers' Rest Hotel".
From the post-office to the railway-station is about seven minutes' walk.
Flys meet the trains.
It is a station on the South Western Railway, 21 miles from Waterloo.
the average time of the railway journey is about an hour.
Egham is a small town in a pretty country, with many large houses and parks surrounding it, but offers in itself little special attraction.
It consists of a long street containing a few decent shops.
North of the town is Runnymede, and a race-meeting is held on it annually; the course being an oval flat, not quite two miles, with a straight mile.
Egham Races have considerably declined in interest and popularity of late years.
At the back of the town is Cooper's Hill, so well known in connection with Sir John Denham's poem, which has been, perhaps, as frequently quoted as any copy of verses in the language, and has obtained a certain popularity far beyond its deserts.
It would seem that Somerville was poking his fun when he described Denham as "a tuneful bard", and his song as being "sublimely sweet".
Pope goes even farther, and speaking of Cooper's Hill, which, by-the-bye with rather a stretch of poetic license, he calls a mountain, says:
Here his first lays majestic Denham sung.
Whatever the merits of Sir John Denham's poem may be, however, there can be no doubt of the beauty of the view from Cooper's Hill, and the ascent of Pope's "mountain" may be recommended to all visitors to Egham.
At the present time Cooper's Hill has become known as the seat of the Royal Indian Engineering College (see Cooper's Hill).
Among the numerous pleasant excursions in the neighbourhood is that to Virginia Water, which is in this parish.

The church is a very plain brick building, with a rather mean little belfry, and within is also very plain, with a small chancel, nave, with pews and galleries.
Over the altar is a painting respecting Elijah raising the widow's son, a good work of R.Westall, R.A.
On the right of the altar is a marble mural monument in memory of G.Gostling, who died 1820, by Flaxman, R.A.
In this a classically draped mourning female figure leans against the pedestal, surmounted by an urn, and bearing a medallion bust of the deceased.
On the other side of the chancel this is balanced by a corresponding monument to Lydia Gostling, with the difference that the female figure is represented with an anchor presumably intended for that of Hope.
Above the monument to G.Gostling is a tablet, with three figures in alto relievo, to other members of the Gostling family, from the chisel of E.H.Baily, R.A.
High on the east wall, under the south gallery, is a brass with four kneeling figures, and the inscription:
"Anthonye Bond, gent. once cittezen and writer of the Court Letter of London, 1576:
Christ is to me as lyef on earthe and death to me is gayne
Because I wish through him alone salvacione to obtayne
So bryttle is the state of man so soone it dothe decaye
So all the glory of this world must pas and fade away.

Close by is a tablet to the memory of the Rev.T.Beighton, 45 years vicar of Egham, who died 1771, with an epitaph signed D.Garrick:
Near half an age, with every good man's praise,
Among his flock the shepherd pass'd his days;
the friend, the comfort, of the sick and poor,
Want never knock'd unheeded at his door.
Oft when his duty call'd, disease and pain
Strove to confine him, but they strove in vain:
All mourn his death, his virtues long they try'd,
they knew not how they lov'd him till he dy'd;
Peculiar blessings did his life attend,
He had no foe, and Camden was his friend.

The great little David's "Camden was his friend" has a considerable family resemblance to the oft-quoted epitaph which records how the deceased "was first cousin to Lady O'Looney and of such is the kingdom of Heaven".
Dr.Johnson pronounced this to be the best epitaph in the English language, but then even Dr.Johnson was not always right.
On the east wall, under the north gallery, is a curious painted marble bust of Thomas Foster, a justice of the Common Bench in the times of James I. and Charles I. and II., afterwards of the Queen's Bench.
The learned judge wears a red tippet and a chain, and on his flowing locks is a flat cap, presumably the black cap.
He died in 1663, aged 74.
Hard by is a tablet to Richard Kellefet, 1595 "a most faithfull servant to hir majestie, chief groome in hir removing Garderobe of beddes and yeoman also of her standing Garderobe of Richmount".
On the wall of the stairs to the north gallery is a very good and interesting monument to the two wives of Sir John Denham, father of the poet: Cicile (for- merly wife of Richard Kellefet), and Ellenor, who died in childbed of a daughter who was buried with her.
The monument is of stone and marble, with two three-quarter length female figures in the centre.
One of these, Cicile, no doubt, still wears widow's mourning; while Lady Ellenor, who was married to Sir John Denham when he was Chief Justice in Ireland, is represented with a child in her arms.
Below is an odd little painted figure of a boy, possibly intended for the poet himself.
In the churchyard is an elevated granite grave, where a Mrs.Pocock lies above ground, it is said to ensure to her survivors some property which was to be held by them "so long as she should be above ground".

On the left of the road to Stroude is a stone marking the old Roman road.
Strode's Charity, Egham, is an institution consisting of almshouses and school, founded by Henry Strode, Esq., in the year 1747, and liberally endowed by him with landed property, of which he made the Coopers' Company of London trustees.
The institution includes almshouses, school, chapel, master's house, with spacious lawn and gardens, and, opening to the High-street, is one of the principal ornaments of the thriving town of Egham.
The benefits of Strode's Charity are con- fined to the parish.
Bank: Ashby & Co.
Dispensary: High-street.
Fair: May 29.
Hospital: Cottage Hospital, Egham-hill (eight beds).
Inns: "Angler's Rest", Bell Weir Lock;
"Catherine Wheel", High-street.
Places of Worship: St.John the Baptist and St.Jude's Chapel of Ease; and Congregational & Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Station, Egham-hill.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), High-street, opposite church.
Mails from London, 7 and 10.05am and 4.55pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails for London, 8.40 and 11am, 3.10 and 7.15pm; Sunday, 7.15pm
Nearest Bridges (from Bell Weir Lock), up, Albert 3½ miles; down, Staines about 1 mile.
Locks: up, Old Windsor 3 miles: down, Penton Hook 2¾ miles.
Railway Station, Egham.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 3/8, 5\6; 2nd, 2/6, 4/-; 3rd, 1/9, 3/3.

Runnymede Bridge

Holm Island

London Stone - ancient boundary mark

Half a mile below Bell Weir Lock on the left bank is London Stone, which formerly marked the limit of the jurisdiction of the Conservancy.
The passage to the left is the nearest way to Staines Church, Tims's boat-house, and the ladies' bath.
The Colne enters the Thames on the left between Bell Weir Lock and Staines.

Church Island

Staines Bridge

Two or three hundred yards farther is Staines Bridge and the town of Staines, nearly a mile from Bell Weir Lock.
On the left is the "Pack Horse Inn", with good accommodation for boating parties, and on the right the "Swan", with landing-stage, &c.
At Staines the tow-path crosses to the left bank, which should be followed.

Staines, Middlesex, on the left bank, from Oxford 76 miles; from London 35½ miles.
A station on the London and South Western Railway, about 19 miles from Waterloo; trains take about 45 minutes.
The station is 10 minutes' walk from the Angel Hotel in the centre of the town; flys meet the trains.
Population, about 5,000. Soil alluvial and gravel.
Staines is a clean, well-built, comfortable and quiet little town, offering but few points of general interest.
The river is here crossed by a handsome stone bridge of three arches, designed by Rennie.
The parish church, St.Mary's, is situated near the river, at the end of Church-street, and is a modern erection of no particular interest save that the red brick tower, which was built in 1631, is the work of Inigo Jones, as is recorded on a stone let into the wall in 1791, and bearing the names of the then churchwardens, "Walter Molt and Daniel Endorb".
About a hundred yards to the left on leaving the churchyard is Duncroft, a good specimen of Elizabethan architecture, quaintly gabled and mullioned, standing in a pleasaunce remarkable for the beauty of its trees and shrubs.
The house is sometimes attributed to an earlier period, and there is even a popular superstition that it was once a palace of King John.
This, of course, is out of the question, although it may well be that the site was formally occupied by a royal residence.
Local tradition has it that in this house or its predecessor the king slept on the night before Magna Charta was signed.
There is an annual regatta of a local character under the auspices of the tradesmen of the town.
A masonic lodge meets at the Angel Hotel.
The 44th Company, 7th Administrative Battalion Middlesex R.V., have their headquarters in Thames-street.
The Mechanics' Institute and Reading Room is in Church-street.
The subscription for honorary members is £1 1s per annum; for ordinary members 2s per quarter, and the admission fee for casual visitors is 1d per diem.
Among the summer excitements are the daily visits of the coach, which here changes horses, on its way to and from Windsor; but it must be confessed that the town is not strong in amusements.
Little of Staines is at present to be seen from the river, and that little is not interesting.
The handsome Town Hall, the funds for the erection of which gradually accrued from a Town Hall Improvement Rate, is a great acquisition to the town itself, but unfortunately turns its back upon the river, the banks of which, except for an embanked wall and terrace at this point, still present the uninviting and untidy prospect which is so usual with Thames-side towns.

On approaching Staines from Bell Weir Lock, a channel to the left beyond the gas-works on the right bank leads to Tims's boat-house and landing-stage (ten minutes from the "Angel", via Church-street), where boats can be housed or hired, and where are kept the Royal Humane Society's drags and life-buoys.
Here, also, is a ladies' swimming-bath; subscription, 10s per annum; single bath, 4d;
Lower down, past the bridge, is the Club landing-stage, and farther still, near the railway-bridge, is the comfortable "Packhorse Hotel", with a convenient landing-stage, excellent boat-house, and good accommodation for oarsmen.
A footpath immediately opposite the "Pack-horse" leads to the station (nine minutes): the High-street is distant four minutes' walk.
There is also a landing-stage and boat-house at the "Swan Hotel" (the headquarters ot the Staines Rowing Club) on the right bank.
The fishing at Staines is very uncertain; good takes are sometimes made, but these are the exception.
Penton Hook, lower down, is a perfect trout preserve.
Bank: Ashby and Co. High-street.
Fire: Brigade under Local Board: Captain, first officer, second officer, and engineer, nine gentlemen, and four working-men. Engine-house, Church-street.
Hotels: "Angel", "Railway", and "Packhorse" by the river.
Places of Worship: St.Mary's (parish); St.Peter's Mission, Edghill-road; Friends' Meeting House, and Baptist Congregational and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Station, London-road.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, insurance office), High-street.
Mails from London, 7 and 9.45am, 4.30 and 5.45pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 9.35 and 11.05am, 4.30 and 8.30pm; Sunday, 7.50pm
Nearest Bridges: Staines; up, Albert, 4¾ miles; down, Chertsey, 3¾ miles.
Locks: up, Bell Weir, 1¼ mile; down, Penton Hook, 1½ mile.
Ferry: Laleham.
Railway Station: Staines.
Fares to London: 1st, 3/3, 5/-; 2nd, 2/3, 3/6; 3rd, 1/7, 3/-

Staines Rowing Club

Staines Rowing Club: Subscription, 10/6.
Colours, red and black.
Boat- house, "Swan Hotel", near Staines Bridge (right bank).

Staines Railway Bridge

Truss's Island and slipway

Penton Hook Lock

Penton Hook Lock, about 1 ¾ mile from Staines, from London 34 miles, from Oxford 77 ½ miles.
Care must be taken to avoid the weir-whirl, which is very dangerous, and insufficiently protected.
There is a fall of 2 ft 6 in.
There are plenty of trout about here.

Laleham Slipway

After this lock (about half a mile) is Laleham and the ferry.
Laleham House, the seat of the Earl of Lucan, is just below.


Laleham, Middlesex, on the left bank; from London 33 miles; from Oxford 78½ miles.
Population, 566. Soil, gravel and brick earth.
A village rather more than two miles from Staines, and about a mile and a half from Chertsey, well known for its ferry, where there is a long shallow for the fly.
On the south side of the river near the ferry-house is a Roman camp, evidently intended to guard the ford; while on the north side, about half a mile from the river, there are still traditions of another Cæsar's camp.
The tract of meadow land on the south side of the river, known as the Burway, used to belong and pay rates to Laleham parish, but on the occasion of Laleham parish refusing to pay for the burial of the body of a drowned man cast on shore on the Burway, Chertsey parish buried the corpse and claimed the rates, which it has retained ever since.
The Earl of Lucan owns a considerable quantity of land in the neighbourhood, and claims as his property a chapel on the north side of the church.
The church, dedicated to All Saints, contains some fine old Norman pillars and arches, some of which are built in the south wall, showing that in the old Norman time there was a south aisle to the church.
This was cut off in the decorated Gothic period, and windows of that date inserted in the arches.
This seems to point to the much greater comparative importance of villages on a great waterway when the uplying parts were heavily clothed with forest than when, 200 years later, the forests were to a large extent cut down.
The tower is a brick structure of George I.'s time.
In the chancel is a large altar-piece of Our Saviour and St.Peter on the sea, painted by Harlowe during a stay in the village; and on the south of the chancel is a mural monument to Mrs.Hartwell, by Chantrey, not a very favourable specimen of the master.
In the churchyard at the foot of the tower is an epitaph, date 1789, which offers a variation on the old- fashioned "Affliction sore long time I bore":
Pain was my portion, physic was my food,
Groans my devotion, drugs did me no good,
Christ my physician knew which way was best
To ease my pain and set my soul at rest.

Inns:the "Feathers", and the "Horse Shoes".
Place of Worship: All Saints.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office near the church (money order and telegraph office).
Mails from London, 7am and 12 noon; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 10.10am, and 6.40pm; Sunday, 10am.
Nearest Bridges: up, Staines 2½ miles; down, Chertsey 1 mile.
Locks: up, Penton Hook ½ mile; down, Chertsey 1¼ mile.
Ferry: Laleham.
Railway Stations: Staines and Chertsey.
Fares from Staines: 1st, 3/3, 5/-; 2nd, 2/3, 3/6; 3rd, 1/7, 3/-.
From Chertsey, 1st, 4/-, 5/6; 2nd, 3/-, 4/-; 3rd, 1/10, 3/4.

M3 Bridge

1971: M3 Bridge]

Chertsey Lock

Still keeping to the left bank, we next come to Chertsey Lock, with a fall of about 3 ft.
; from London 32 miles, and from Oxford 79 ½ miles.

Boathouse Restaurant & Kingfisher @ Chertsey

Chertsey Bridge

A quarter of a mile farther is Chertsey Bridge, at the foot of which, on the right, is the Bridge House Hotel.
A wide berth should be given to the first point below the bridge, on the tow-path side, as the water here shoals considerably.
Hence the river winds very much between flat banks


Chertsey, Surrey, on the right bank, from Oxford 79¾ miles, from London 31¾ miles.
A station on the London and South Western Railway, about an hour from London.
the station is ten minutes' walk from the Town Hall, and twenty-five minutes' from Chertsey Bridge.
Flys meet the trains.
Population, 7,760.
Chertsey is an old-fashioned country town with a number of good houses and a few shops of some importance in its two principal thoroughfares, Windsor-street and Guildford-street, which runs at right angles to Windsor-street, and leads from the town-hall to the station.
There is not much to be said in favour of the architectural pretensions of the two principal public buildings - the town-hall and the church.
The town generally may be described as quiet and dull, but to make amends it is rich in interesting historical associations.
Some remains of Chertsey Abbey, in which the body of Henry VI. was for a short time buried, still exist, although it is harder every day to conceive that so magnificent a building as has been described could have so utterly disappeared.
Near Chertsey is St.Anne's Hill, a favourite retreat of Charles James Fox; and in the Porch House in Guildford-street died the poet Cowley.
The room in which he died is said to be still in existence, although the porch which gave its name to the house was removed in 1786.
Cowley's death here is recorded in an inscription on the wall of the house, which concludes with Pope's line:
Here the last accents flowed from Cowley's tongue.
St.Anne's Hill has other recommendations besides its connection with the great statesman, as the views from its summit on both sides are singularly beautiful.
The country around, indeed, is almost universally picturesque, being for the most part hilly and well-wooded.
The charming neighbourhoods of Virginia Water and Sunningdale are within easy reach, and these excursions may be recommended to visitors.
Weybridgeand the country surrounding are also worthy of exploration.
Chertsey Bridge, which connects Surrey and Middlesex, is of stone, with seven arches, and near it, on the right bank, is one of the most interesting experimental establishments on the river.
Here Mr.Forbes, so long and so favourably known as an enthusiastic devotee of pisciculture, has brought his arrangements for the hatching and rearing of salmon trout and other fish to a singular degree of completeness.
Mr.Forbes occasionally grants permission to view these fish nurseries.
Sir William Perkins's Endowed Schools were founded in 1725 for the education of twenty-five poor boys of the parish of Chertsey.
In 1736 Sir William Perkins built a similar school for twenty-five poor girls.
The original school buildings were in Windsor-street.
At his death in 1741, Sir William left £3,000 for the support of the schools, and in 1819 the fund had increased to over £5,000.
It was then decided to sell the old houses and buy a piece of land at the west end of Chertsey, and largely to extend the benefits of the schools.
Subsequently the buildings were again enlarged; the clothing which was given to the children and certain special gifts were abolished; and the whole of the income is devoted to giving a sound elementary education to between 500 and 600 children of Chertsey and neighbourhood.
The Chertsey District Horticultural Society, founded some fifteen years ago, has, from small beginnings, made rapid progress, and its shows are now among the best in the home counties.
There is also a Chrysanthemum Society, founded in 1876.
Among the other public institutions is the Literary and Scientific, the members of which have the use of a reading-room, recreation-room, and a good library of 2,000 volumes.
The subscription is for non-members, £1 1s.;
for general members, 10s. 6d.
per annum, 3s. per quarter;
library members, 2s. 6d. per annum.
Of waterside features Chertsey has but few.
The "Bridge House Hotel", the Chertsey Rowing Club boat-house, and Messrs.Des Vigne's torpedo-launch manufactory pretty well exhaust the list.
There is a convenient landing-place at the "Bridge House Hotel".
The coach from London to Virginia Water changes horses at Chertsey.
Roach swims in plenty; good angling from bank.
From this to Shepperton is fine jack water.
Banks: Ashby & Co., Old Bank, and London and County, both in Guildford-St.
Fire: Station in the town.
Hotels: "the Bridge House", on the river;
"Crown", London-street.
Places of Worship: St.Peter's; and Baptist, Congregational, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: station, East-street, some distance from the town.
Postal Arrangements:
Post Office, Windsor-street, opposite the church (money, savings bank, telegraph, insurance office).
Mails from London, 3.35 and 8.40am, 4.49pm
Mails for London, 9.35 and 11.35am, 3.20 and 8pm
Nearest Bridge, Station, and Lock: Chertsey.
Nearest Bridges: up, Staines 3¾ miles;
down, Walton 4½ miles.
Locks: up, Penton Hook 2 miles;
down, Shepperton 2 miles.
Ferry, Laleham.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 4/-, 5/6; 2nd, 3/-, 4/-; 3rd, 1/10, 3/4.

Chertsey Rowing Club

Chertsey Rowing Club.
Election by ballot in general meeting; one black ball in five excludes.
Subscription, 15s.; honorary members, £1 12s.; lads for coxswains, 5s.
Colours, black and white vertical stripes.
Boat-house, just below Chertsey Bridge, right bank.

Pharoah's Island

Thames Court Restaurant & Pub

Shepperton Lock

Shepperton Lock, on the left, with an average fall of 5 ft 6 in, and is distant from London 30 miles, from Oxford 81 ½ miles.
Here the Wey enters the Thames.
The tow-path crosses to right bank.
The village of Shepperton is three-quarters of a mile from the lock on the left, and half a mile farther is Halliford and "Bob" Stone's popular "Ship Hotel".
On the right are extensive views of the woods above Weybridge, Oatlands Park, and Walton.

Weybridge Slipway


Weybridge, Surrey, on the right bank about 2½ miles by road from Walton, a station on the London and South Western Railway, 19 miles from Waterloo; the trains average about ¾ hour.
The station is about a mile from the village, twenty minutes' walk from the river, and ten from the church.
The Basingstoke Canal, the Bourne, and the River Wey join the Thames just below Shepperton Lock.
There is but little in Weybridge to detain even the most determined sight-seer.
When he has inspected the column on the green erected to the memory of the Duchess of York, the original Seven Dials stone, and has searched for the remains of the old palace of Henry VIII., the lions of Weybridge are exhausted, unless Oatlands Park, which is about midway between Walton and Weybridge, be deemed worthy of a visit.
Oatlands was for a long time royal property.
Henry VIII is said to have acquired it in his usual affable manner, and after various vicissitudes the property again came into the royal hands of the late Duke of York who built the present not very royal building known in these later days as the "Oatlands Park Hotel".
The park has been cut up and sold in "lots to suit purchasers".
The famous grotto, which took twenty years to construct and upon have £40,000 is said to have been wasted, still exists, and is shown to visitors for a small fee.
How £40,000 could have been spent in constructing two or three rooms and a passage of oyster-shells and cement is a mystery.
The Dogs' Graveyard, in which are deposited the remains of about fifty of the Duchess's favourite companions, each with a headstone and many with epitaphs, is not now open to the general public.
The church dedicated to St.James is a fine modern building of stone erected in 1847 in the pointed Gothic style.
Most of the windows are filled with modern stained glass.
Under the tower on the north wall will be found a monument by Chantrey to the memory of Frederica Charlotte Ulrica Katharine, Duchess of York.
On the floor near the west end of the church are three brasses: one to the memory of John Wolvde, 1598; an inscription on brass, dated 1642, to
Hvmphry Dethick, One of His Maties Gent. Ushers (Dayly Waiter)
and another, dated 1586, to
Thomas Inwood ye Elder,
which represents him with three wives, two children behind the first, and three behind the second.
The churchyard is rendered pleasant by many shrubs.
In the vaults under the Catholic church of St.Charles Borromeo, King Louis Philippe, Queen Amelie, and other members of the Orleans family were buried.
The only member of that family left there now is the Duchesse de Nemours.
Bank: London & County, Church-St.
Fire: Station, opposite church.
Hotels: "Oatlands Park"; "Hand and Spear", by the Station; "Lincoln Arms", near the river.
Places of Worship: St.James's; St.Michaels; and the Roman Catholic Church of St.Charles Borromeo.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, insurance, telegraph, and savings bank).
Mails from London, 7 and 9.15am, 5pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails for London, 10.30am, 3.30, 8.45, and 10pm; Sunday, 8.45 and 10pm
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 3/6, 5/-; 2nd 2/6, 3/6; 3rd, 1/ 7, 2/10.

Shepperton Ferry

Shepperton, Middlesex, on the left bank, from London 30 miles, from Oxford 81½ miles, a terminus on a branch of the South Western Railway, 19 miles from Waterloo; train takes about one hour.
Flys meet the trains.
Population, 1,126. Soil, gravel.
A small village with some good houses and offering plenty of fishing, but calling for no description or remark.
The station is an easy fifteen minutes' walk from the river, close to which are the church and the post-office.
The present church, perfectly cruciform, with tower at west end, was built, 1614, out of the débris of a former church standing over the Thames and built on piles (many wills being still extant leaving legacies to add piles to its foundation).
On dit a flood of the Thames washed down the former edifice; its only memorial is in a picture painted in 1548 by Anthony Vander Wyngrede of the Palace at Oatlands, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, where the church stands with spire in the distant bend of the Thames.
The arches, windows, and sepulchral slabs in the present church came from the former; the brick tower being added by the rector, L.Atterbury, brother to the well-known Bishop of Rochester, in 1710; the five bells being new in 1877.
The learned Grocyn, the correspondent and friend of Erasmus, was rector in 1504, and entertained that reformer in the rectory, still standing.
The rectory, a beautiful and unique oak-built house, some 400 years old, is deceptive to a casual observer, looking like a brick house, with two wings, twenty-one windows in front, and surrounded by gardens.
Less than 100 years ago the oak house was covered with mathematical tiles to keep out damp, and the interior was modernised to suit modern requirements, but without altering the ground plan or original structure, which are still apparent to an architect's eye.
The late squire of the village was a well-known man, William Schaw Lindsay, M.P. for Sunderland, and in early youth a cabin-boy in a Liverpool East Indiaman.
His tomb is in the village cemetery.

A tomb in the churchyard, nearly illegible, is very curious, dedicated to the memory of a negro and his wife by Sir Pat.Blake, Bart., of Langham, Suffolk:

Benjamin and Cotto Blake,
from the Isle of Colombo.
Go to Mauritania, Reader,
learn duty of an Ethiopian,
and know that virtue
inhabiteth skins of other colours than thine own.

In the churchyard, also, is that rarest of all black swans, a pretty and graceful epitaph, which well deserves quotation:

Long night succeeds thy little day,
O ! blighted blossom, can it be
That this grey stone and grassy clay
Have closed our anxious care of thee ?

The half-formed words of liveliest thought
That spoke a mind beyond thy years,
The song, the dance, by nature taught,
The sunny smiles, the transient tears.

The symmetry of face and form,
The eye with light and life replete,
The little heart so fondly warm,
The voice so musically sweet;

These lost to hope, in memory yet
Around the hearts that loved thee cling,
Shadowing with long and vain regret
The too fair promise of thy spring.

The grave is that of Margaret Love Peacock, a child of three years old, who died in 1826.

There is good fishing about Shepperton and Halliford.
Hotel: "The Anchor".
Place of Worship: St.Nicholas.
Postal Arrangements: (The Post Office is now called Upper Shepperton).
Mails from London, 7 and 11am, 6.45pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails for London, 8.55am, 1.50, 7.15, and 8.25pm; Sunday, 10am
The nearest money order office is Shepperton.
Telegraph- office at the Shepperton post-office.
Nearest Bridges: up, Chertsey 1¾ mile; down, Walton 2½ miles.
Locks: Shepperton; up, Chertsey 2 miles; down, Sunbury 3½ miles.
Ferry and Railway Station: Shepperton.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 3/-, 4/-; 2nd, 2 /4, 3/-; 3rd, 1/6, 2 / 6

D'Oyly Carte Island

Shepperton Old river bypassed by Desborough Cut

1934: Desborough Cut built]


Halliford, Middlesex (and see Causeway Stakes) on the left bank, between Shepperton and Walton; from London 28¾miles, from Oxford 82¾ miles.
Halliford - generally known as Lower Halliford, there being a so-called Upper Halliford in the parish of Sunbury - is a hamlet much in favour with anglers, with a fine view, across the river, of Oatlands Park and the Surrey hills.
An iron bridge connects the counties of Middlesex and Surrey at Halliford; the old brick bridge, with its numerous arches, having succumbed some years ago in a disastrous flood.
There is no particular point calling for remark at Halliford, except that it has a very comfortable and reasonable hotel in Stone's well-known "Ship", which is largely used by anglers and rowing men.
Shepperton railway station is an easy fifteen minutes' walk from the "Ship".
Punts now begin to thicken, and as many may be counted in a mile as in twenty above; yet roach are taken by the five to twelve dozen in a day with a single rod, and all the persistent angling appears to have no appreciable effect upon their presence.
There is a Wesleyan Chapel in the village.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, telegraph, and savings bank), about six minutes' walk to the left from the river.
Mails from London, 7 and 10.40am, 6.20pm; Sunday, 7am
Mails for London, 9.10am, 2.00, 7.30, and 8.40pm; Sunday, 10.10pm
Nearest Bridges, up, Chertsey, 2¾miles; down, Walton 1 mile.
Locks, up, Shepperton 1¼mile; down, Sunbury, 2½miles.
Railway Station, Shepperton.
Fares, Shepperton to Waterloo, 1st, 3/-, 4/-; 2nd, 2/4, 3/-; 3rd, 1/6½, 2/6.

Desborough Cut bypassing Shepperton Old River

1934: Desborough Cut built]

Walton Slipway

Cowey Stakes

Three-quarters of a mile below Halliford are Coway, or Causeway Stakes,

Causeway Stakes, also known as Coway Stakes, in the bend of the river half a mile above Walton Bridge; the reputed scene of a battle between Cæsar's legions and the Britons.
The river was forded by the invader notwithstanding that Cassivelaunus had planted the bank and filled the river bed with sharp stakes.
It is said that remains of these stakes were to be seen in the river until quite recently, but this tradition had better not be accepted as a fact.
The venerable Bede notes that these stakes "are seen to this day about the thickness of a man's thigh, stuck immovable, being driven hard into the bottom of the river"; but it does not appear that the venerable one himself had ocular demonstration of the fact.

Walton Bridge

[ 1750 - 1783: First Walton Bridge
1783 - 1788: Ferry
1788 - 1859: Second Walton Bridge (collapsed 1859)
1864 - 1985: Third Walton Bridge
1953 - 2010s Fourth Walton Bridge
1999 - 2010s Fifth Walton Bridge
2010s: Sixth and current Walton Bridge]

and immediately afterwards comes Walton Bridge, which consists of four arches.
On the right below is Mount Felix, and the village of Walton.
Half a mile on the left is a tumbling-bay, whose neighbourhood will be best avoided, and half a mile beyond this, on the right, is the cut leading to Sunbury Lock


Walton, Surrey, on the right bank, 28 miles from London, 83 ½ from Oxford.
A station on the London and South Western Railway 17 miles from Waterloo, the trains averaging about three-quarters of an hour.
Flys meet the trains.
The station is twenty-five minutes' walk from the river; the cab-hire is 2s 6d.
Population, 6,050. Soil, gravel.
The ancient village of Walton, which lies some little way back from the river, is not without interest.In addition to Causeway or Coway Stakes (which see) there are various traces of the Roman occupation in the immediate neighbourhood, both at Oatlands and St.George's Hill.
The latter is the site of one of the innumerable camps of Caesar, traces of which are still visible, and it is believed by those competent to form an opinion that a still greater camp existed at Oatlands.
From St.George's Hill may be obtained one of the finest views on the river, extending over seven counties.
The village, with its long straggling High-street, and, at right angles to it, Church-street, still retains an air of primitive simplicity.
Here was the residence of the regicide Bradshaw, and not far off, at Ashley Park, the Lord Protector himself is said to have resided.
Local tradition, never slow to minister to local self-importance, holds it an article of firm belief that in Bradshaw's house the signatures were affixed to the death warrant of Charles.
Besides Bradshaw, and Admiral Rodney, who was born in Walton, the most notorious inhabitant of the village in former times was William Lilly, the famous astrologer, who, notwithstanding his presumed study of the black art, was at one time a churchwarden of the parish, and is said to have practised medicine there and in the neighbourhood with some considerable success.

The church, dedicated to St.Mary, is a very ancient structure, dating probably from Saxon times.
The most prominent feature is the fine old buttressed tower, but the pillars in the interior, the east window of the south aisle, and the stone work of the windows in the north aisle, are of antiquity and will repay examination.
On the north wall of the chancel hangs, framed and mounted on wood, the famous brass representing John Sellwyn, "kepper of her Matis parke of Otelande", with his wife, five sons, and six daughters.
Between Sellwyn and his wife the former is represented performing a marvellous feat.
Stag-hunting in Oatlands Park with Queen Elizabeth, Sellwyn is said to have suddenly leaped from his horse to "the back of a stag, to have plunged his sword into the neck of the beast, which fell dead at the feet of the Queen", a circus-like performance which no doubt greatly gratified the virgin monarch.
On the north wall of the chancel is a brass, with an excellent likeness, to the memory of J.F.Lewis, R.A., who died in 1876.
On the south wall of the chancel is one of Chantrey's commonplace effigies to the memory of Christopher D'Oyley, who died in 1795.
Over the door leading from the chancel to the churchyard is a mural monument, surmounted by an hour-glass and skull, to Thomas Fitts Girald and his wife, with a curious epitaph, which concludes:
Though future Tymes or Malice will not Credit,
Present Trewth subscribs to such was their Meritt.

It bears date 1619.
On a pillar by the pulpit is the confession of faith said to have been made by Queen Elizabeth, on the subject of Transubstantiation:
Christ was the worde and spake it,
He took the bread and brake it,
And what the worde doth make it,
That I beleive and take it.

In the north aisle is Roubiliac's towering monument to Richard Boyle, Lord Viscount Shannon, topped by a full-length statue of that nobleman (who, it is recorded, was a volunteer at the battle of the Boyne), and surrounded by drums, cannon, flags, and other warlike "alarums".
At the feet of Boyle is a life-size woful female figure holding on to an urn.
In the gallery to the south is a rambling old pew, surmounted and surrounded by iron spikes, claimed as their property by the Askews of Burwood Park.
Under the monument to Fitts Girald, on the pavement facing the chancel door, is the slab placed by Elias Ashmole, in memory of Gulielmi Lillii, Astrologi Peritissimi [very skilled], 1681.
In the vestry is preserved the iron scold's bridle, the donor of which is said to have lost an estate through the instrumentality of a gossiping lying woman.
The date of the bridle is 1632, and it bore at one time the following inscription:
Chester presents Walton with a bridle,
To curb women's tongues when they are idle.

There are a number of charities in connection with the church, the principal of which is the rent, now amounting annually to £280, of 39, Bishopsgate-street, bequeathed by Thomas Fenner in 1635.
Walton is noted for its bream hole, and is good for chub, roach, &c.
For Oatlands Park see Weybridge.
Bank: Ash by & Co., Church-street.
Fair: Easter Monday.
Fire: Station, High-street (Superintendent, engineer, foreman, nine firemen).
Hotels: "Angler", by the river; "Duke's Head", in the village; "Old Manor House" and "Swan", by the river.
Places of Worship: St.Mary's and Wesleyan Chapel.
Police: Two constables live in the village. Station: Hersham.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), Bridge-street.
Mails from London, 7 and 9.10am, 5.45pm; Sunday, 7am, over counter 7 to 10am,
Mails for London, 10.30am, 3 and 9pm; Sunday, 8pm
Nearest Bridges: Walton; up, Chertsey 4 ¼ miles; down, Hampton Court 4 ½miles.
Locks, up, Shepperton 2 ½ miles; down, Sunbury 1 ¼ mile.
Railway Stations:, Walton and Hersham.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 3/-, 4/-; 2nd, 2/-, 3/-; 3rd, 1/5, 2/6.

Swan Upping


Swan-upping: Centuries ago swans were considered royal birds.
In the reign of Edward IV. no one was permitted to keep swans who did not possess a freehold of at least five marks annual value, except the king's son, and an Act of Henry VII. condemned robbers of eggs to a year's imprisonment, and a fine at the will of the sovereign.
As a mark of favour the king sometimes granted to an individual or a corporation "a game of swans", and along with it the right of a swan mark.
Thus the Dyers' and the Vintners' companies have possessed, from time immemorial, the privilege of owning and marking swans.
The reason why the right was granted to them was probably a desire on the part of the Crown to prevent trouble arising between the Royal Swanherd and the Thames Conservancy.
The date of the granting of the privilege is not certain.
Swans of a certain age not marked may be claimed by the Crown, and these birds are known as "clear-billed".
The marks were changed in the year 1878, after the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals had prosecuted, unsuccessfully, the swan herds employed by the Crown and the two City companies.
The marking, or "upping" as it is technically called, is effected by cutting the upper mandible of the bird, and stopping the slight bleeding with pitch.
The new system of marking, which omits at least half the old number of cuts, consists of two diamonds on royal birds, two small nicks on either side of the mandible on birds belonging to the Vintners' Company, and one nick cut on the right side of birds belonging to the Dyers'.
The two nicks on the Vintners' birds gave rise to the well- known tavern sign, "The Swan with Two Necks".
The process of Swan-upping is conducted with much ceremony.
It takes place in July or August, when the markers of the three owners take count of all swans in the river, and mark the clear-billed birds which have reached maturity.
The work is frequently watched by dignitaries of the companies from saloon steamers, and the occasion serves as no bad excuse for a picnic.
A few years ago a great cry was raised by anglers and the inhabitants of the banks of the Thames, that the swans were terrible enemies to the fish, that they haunted all the spawning grounds, and swallowed the eggs till they could eat no longer.
Mr.Buckland was accordingly consulted by the Lord Chamberlain on the subject, and, after his analysis, it was proved that the statements of the anglers were exaggerated, for the swans did not devour the spawn by preference, but only incidentally whilst feeding on the vegetable matter and river growths to which the spawn is frequently attached.
The Crown, nevertheless, has no desire to increase the number of birds on the river, which is maintained at about 500 grown birds and cygnets, thereby limiting the total to 610, allowing 65 to the Dyers aad 45 to the Vintners.

Wheatleys Ait

Sunbury Lock Ait


The weir to the left is very dangerous.
Sunbury Lock is a good one, of stone, with a roller for pleasure-boats.
From London 26 m 3f [26 ⅜], from Oxford 85 m 1 f [85 ⅛].
From the boathouse on the lock island is a ferry to Sunbury.
There is some pretty scenery on the left below the lock, the right bank being very flat and dull.
A strong stream known as Sunbury Race runs here.
About 1 ½ mile below the lock is an island, either side of which may be taken.
On the right are Molesey Hurst and race-course, and on the left Hampton


Sunbury, Middlesex, on the left bank, from London 26½ miles, from Oxford 85 miles, a station on the Thanes Valley branch of the South Western Railway, 16½ miles from Waterloo; the trains average about three-quarters of an hour.
The station is nearly 1½ mile from the river.
Population, 3,368. Soil, gravel and brick earth.
A village with a long street (Thames-street) straggling untidily along the bank, with a few shops, and several excellent houses; at right angles to it, to the eastward, runs French-street, a very pleasant neighbourhood.
In ancient records, Sunbury is called Sunna-byri, and Sunneberie.
Lysons supposes the name to be derived from the Saxon words, Sunna, the sun, and Byrie, a town.
There was a church here in the time of Edward the Confessor, then belonging to the Abbots of Westminster.
It was afterwards transferred to the Bishop of London, when the following arrangements were made: The inhabitants of Sunbury had to provide money for supplying the tallow candles for the High Altar of St.Paul's, and a minor canon had to sing a musical mass [missa cum cantu) every day.
At the end of the year, if there was any surplus in the funds to provide the candles, it was to be spent for the purchase of the vestments of the minor canon who sang the mass.
The church was pulled down in the reign of George II., and another built according to the taste of that period.
It was reconstructed in 1856, a new Byzantine chancel and aisles were built, the windows altered throughout, and a handsome western porch erected.
The upper portion of the tower remains the same, but a plan for its future reconstruction hangs up in the tower basement, which will, it is hoped, be carried out at some future time.
Several charitable bequests have been made to the church, mostly for the distribution of bread, and two for keeping the tombs, &c., in decent order.
There is little of importance in the church itself, which has been decorated in the florid Salviati mosaic style.
Under the south-west gallery, partly concealed, is a mural monument to Richd Billingsley, 1682, "of St.Martin's, Wistminster, who was unhappily drowned".
There is a good marble font.

Near to Sunbury is the new and pretty racecourse constructed by the Kempton Park Club, at Kempton, formerly called Kenyngton.
The estate is upwards of 300 acres in extent.
The mile course is nearly flat, and 30 yards wide at the narrowest point.
The inner course is about 1½ mile in length; the half-mile course is straight.
Races take place at frequent intervals.
Sunbury is reached from the Surrey shore by means of a ferry, which crosses the weir stream from the Ferry Hotel to the boat-houses on the lock island.
Trout are taken at the weir; dace and chub with the fly; barbel, roach, and perch are pretty plentiful.
The Thames Angling Preservation Society has a rearing pond and stream close to Sunbury Lock, where the young trout are placed from the hatching apparatus, and remain until they are sufficiently large to be placed in the Thames.
Inns: "Ferry", "Magpie", "Weir", and "Flower Pot" near river.
Places of Worship: St.Mary's; a Roman Catholic Church; and Congregational and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Metropolitan Police-station (T Division), Thames-St.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, telegraph, and savings bank), Thames-street.
Mails from London, 7 and 9am, 7.30pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 9.10am, 2.50 and 7.50pm; Sunday, 8.50am
Nearest Bridges: up, Walton, rather more than 1 mile; down, Hampton Court, 3¼ miles.
Locks: Sunbury; up, Shepperton 3½ miles; down, Molesey 3 miles.
Ferry and Railway Station: Sunbury.
Fares: To Waterloo: 1st, 2/6, 3/-; 2nd, 2/-, 2/6; 3rd, 1/4, 2/3.

Swan's Rest & Rivermead Islands


Sunbury Court Island


Grand Junction Island


Platt's Eyot


Benn's Island, Hampton Sailing Club



Here is a ferry, and on the left bank, below the church, Garrick's Villa.

Garrick's Ait, Island between Molesey & Sunbury Locks


Amongst the notabilia of Hampton is Garrick's Villa on the bank of the river, opposite the island just past the church.
The house itself stands some little dis- tance back, being separated from the lawn which abuts on the river by the high road, under which Garrick constructed a short tunnel.
On the lawn is a summer-house, sometimes described as a temple, which at one time contained Roubiliac's statue to Shakespeare, afterwards removed to the hall of the British Museum.

Launching Place right bank at Hurst Park


Garrick's Lawn, left bank between Molesey & Sunbury Locks


Duck's Ait, tiny island between Molesey & Sunbury Locks


Taggs Island above Molesey Lock


Half a mile farther is Tagg's Island, with Hotel and boat-houses, and on the right (the weir must on no account be trifled with) is Molesey Lock

Moulsey Boat Club

Moulsey Boat Club: Election by committee, who "have exclusive powers".
Subscription: Honorary members, £1 1s per annum; ordinary members, £2 2s per annum.
Boat-house: the Island. Colours, black and white vertical stripes.

Molesey Regatta

Molesey Regatta: the course is about a mile, from a little above the cherry-orchard to a flag-boat below Garrick's Villa.
1882 results:

Ash Island above Molesey Lock



Molesey Lock.
This is a wooden lock, with an average fall of 6 ft, and has a roller for pleasure-boats.
It is distant from London 23 m 3 f [23 ⅜], from Oxford 88 m 1 f [88 ⅛].

East Molesey

East Molesey, in Surrey, on the right bank opposite Hampton Court, the Hampton Court railway-station being in the parish.
The distance from London is 23¼ miles, from Oxford 88¼ miles.
Population, 2,500.
Soil, light and gravelly.
The village of Molesey is practically part of Hampton Court, with which it is connected by an iron bridge, and is chiefly interesting to excursionists from the point of view of refreshments.
Here the Mole empties itself into the Thames, and hard by to the north-west is Molesey Hurst, where Hampton Races take place.
The old church of St.Mary, which was a curious specimen of an old riverside church, was partly destroyed by fire in 1863; the present church, consisting of chancel, nave, and north aisle, was built in 1865.
A good brass in memory of Anthonie Standen, cupbearer to Lord Darnley, father of James I., has been preserved.
Near the church is an old inn, "the Bell", which is said to have been in the "good old times" much patronised by highwaymen.
Hotels: "Castle" and "Prince of Wales".
Places of Worship: St.Mary's, and Wesleyan Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 6.45 and 9.50am, 2.30 and 8pm; Sunday, 6.45am
Mails for London, 8.40 and 11.50am, 3.25 and 8pm; Sunday, 10am: Nearest [Post office]: (See Hampton Court).
Fares: (See Hampton Court).

Hampton Court Bridge

Below is Hampton Court Bridge, an ugly iron erection, Hampton Court being on the left, and East Molesey, with the railway-station, on the right.
The tow-path here crosses to the left bank.


Hampton, Middlesex, on the left bank; from London 24¼ miles, from Oxford 87¼ miles.
A station on the Thames Valley Line of the London and South Western Railway, 14½ miles from Waterloo; trains average about forty-five minutes.
Flys meet the trains.
The station is about five minutes' walk from the landing-stage.
Population, 3,915.
Soil, gravel.
Hampton is a small town scattered over a considerable space; a number of villas and houses of a similar class having from time to time been added to the original street or strand of Hampton.
The Cockney appellation 'Appy 'Ampton arises from the Hampton races (which, in point of fact, do not take place at Hampton at all, but at Molesey Hurst on the other side of the river, and in another county), which occur twice in the year.
"All the fun of the fair" is to be found at the June meeting, and the road has quite a miniature Derby Day appearance.
The sport, however, is seldom brilliant, a circumstance which makes little difference to the holiday people, who come out more for a picnic and "a spree" than to enjoy the "sport of kings".
The course is a flat oval, about a mile and a half.
The T.Y.C. is a little over half a mile in length and quite straight.
The Hampton Grammar School was founded in 1556, reconstituted 1878, and the buildings now stand near the railway-station.
The course of instruction includes all the usual branches of a liberal education.
The fees are from 3½ to 4½ guineas per term, of which there are three in the year; boys not resident in Hampton or Hampton Wick pay an entrance fee of £2.
The head-master takes alimited number of boarders at £60 per annum, exclusive of tuition fee.
The assistant-masters also take boarders.
At Tangley Park, near Hampton, is the Female Orphans' Home, the object of which is to train children for domestic service.
All children of the ages from four to ten, who have lost both parents, and have no relatives able to provide for them, are eligible for admission.
There is no election, but candidates are received as vacancies occur.
The present number is limited to 50.
The institution is supported by subscriptions.
The register dates from 1512, but the church itself is a comparatively modern building, not by any means to be commended, having been built at a disastrous architectural period.
Unpromising as is its exterior it is not undeserving a visit, there being some curious monuments and epitaphs.
At the west end of the church is a large marble monument, unfortunately mutilated, representing in life-size a Miss Susannah Thomas and her mother.
In the western vestibule is a very curious monument with a recumbent female figure, under a canopy, bearing a singular resemblance to one of the ladies in the children's Noah's arks.
The lady in question was Sibel, daughter of John Hampden, wife to one of the Penns, of Penn House, and nurse to King Edward VI.
The following inscription records her history:

For here is brought to home the place of longe abode
Whose vertu guided hath her shippe into the quiet rode
A mirror of her time for vertues of the minde
A matrone such as in her dayes the like was hard to find
No plante of servile stocke, a Hampden by descent
Unto whose race 300 yeres hathe friendly fortune lent
To courte she called was to foster up a kinge
Whose helping hand long lingring sobes to speedie end did bring.
Two quenes that scepter bare gave credit to this dame
Full many yeres in court she dwelt without disgrac or blame
No house ne worldly wealthe on earthe she did regarde
Before eache joye yea and her life her prince's health preferd
Whose long and loyall love with skilful care to serve
Was such as did through heavenly help her prince's thanks deserve
Woulde God the ground were grafte with trees of suche delight
That idell braines of fruitfull plantes might find just caus to write
As I have plied my pen to praise this pen with all
Who lyeth entombed in this grave untill the trompe her call
This restinge place beholde no subject place to bale
To which perforce ye lokers on your fleetinge bodyes shall.

On the north-east, wall is a table to Robert Terwhit, 1616, and in the north gallery is a tablet to: David Garrick, nephew of the great "Davy", with a weak inscription by Hannah More; and another to the memory of Richard, son of George Cumberland the dramatist.
On the east wall is the monument of Edmond Pigeon, yeoman of the jewel-house to King Henry VIII., "by whose speciall command he attended him at Bouloigne and continued in that office under K.Edw.6, Queene Mary and Q.Elizabeth, who made him also clerke of her robes and wardrobes, also of his son Nickolas who succeeded him in both offices".
An epitaph on a child, who died at the age of 13 months, contains the following sweetly poetical thought:
Sweet Babe - she tasted of Life's bitter cup,
Refused to drink the potion up !
But turned her little head aside,
Disgusted with the taste and died.

The organ in the church was the gift of William IV.
The deeps here do not yield their roach as formerly; still very fair baskets are obtained in the swim opposite the church.
Fire: the engine is kept opposite the "Red Lion Hotel".
Hotels: the "Red Lion", close to the river;
"Tagg's Hotel", on the island, about half a mile down, with good boat-houses.
Places of Worship: St.Mary's, and Wesleyan Chapel.
Police: Metropolitan (T Division), Station, New-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), corner of New-street.
Mails from London, 6.30 and 9am, 2.20 and 7.20pm; Sunday, 6.55am,
Mails for London, 9.50am, 12.30, 3.30 and 8.10pm; Sunday, no dispatch.
Nearest Bridge: up, Walton 3 miles; down, Molesey 1½ mile.
Locks: up, Sunbury 2 miles; down, Molesey 1 mile.
Ferry: Hampton.
Railway Station: Hampton.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 2/3, 2/9; 2nd, 1/9 2/3; 3rd 1/2 2/-

Hampton Court

Hampton Court, Middlesex, on the left bank; from London 23¼ miles, from Oxford 88¼ miles.
A terminus on the Hampton Court branch of the London and South Western Railway, 15 miles from Waterloo; the trains average about 45 minutes.
Flys meets the trains.
Hampton Court is a very small village, which may be described as consisting of a few good houses on and about the green, and a number of taverns and tea-houses for the refreshment of the numerous excursionists who are attracted to Hampton Court by the palace and park.
An ugly iron bridge spans the river at this point.
What is called the Hampton Court railway-station is in fact in East Molesey, on the Surrey side of the river.
Hampton Court is a great meet for bicyclists, who gather here "in their thousands" on their great parade day in the spring.
Fifteen minutes' walk from the station on the Hampton Court-road, is Hope Cottage, Lady Bourchier's Convalescent Home.
Here five inmates are received of the class of servants, needlewomen, or tradespeople.
These pay 5s per week in advance.
Ladies sending invalids pay 7s 6d per week.
Applications for beds are to be made to the Convalescent Committee of the Charity Organisation Society, 15, Buckingham-street, London, W.C.
The chapel at Hampton Court Palace is intended for the use of the residents in the palace, but the public is also admitted to divine service.
The services are: Sunday, 11am, 3.30pm;
Saints' Days, 11am; Wednesday and Friday, 10.30am;
During Lent and Advent, daily at 10.30am;
Holy Communion: Sunday, 8.30am, or after morning service; on Saints' Days, after morning service.
There is a good organ in the chapel by Father Smith.
There are many ways of access to Hampton Court.
Besides its own railway-station Teddington, Twickenham, Hampton, Kingston, and Richmond are all more or less convenient.
Steamboats occasionally run up in the summer months if there be sufficient water in the river.
the Thames Ditton, the Virginia Water, and the Windsor coaches all pass through Hampton Court: (See COACHING).
Hotels: "Castle" by the bridge,
Molesey side; "Greyhound" and "King's Arms", by the park entrance and Lion Gate; "Mitre", by the bridge, Middlesex side.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office Mails from London, 7 and 10am, 2.30 and 8pm; Sundays 7am,
Mails for London, 8.45 and 11.55am, 3.30 and 8pm: Sundays, 10am
Nearest Bridges: up, Walton 4¾ miles; down, Kingston 3 miles.
Locks: up, Sunbury 3 miles; down, Teddington, 4½ miles.
Ferries: up, Hampton 1 mile; down: Thames Ditton 1 mile.
Fares to Waterloo; 1st 2/-, 2/9; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/2½, 1/10.

Hampton Court Palace

Hampton Court Palace, originally founded by Cardinal Wolsey in 1515, and by him presented to Henry VIII in 1526, in the same manner in which a sop is presented to Cerberus, or a tub to a whale, was for many years a favourite royal residence.
Henry VIII., who added considerably to Wolsey's buildings, passed much of his time at Hampton Court.
Here Edward VI. was born and Jane Seymour died, and here the king was married to his sixth wife, Katharine Parr.
Edward VI. lived at Hampton Court Palace, and Queen Mary and Philip of Spain passed their honeymoon here, and a grand Christmas supper in the Great Hall is recorded as having taken place in their reign.
Queen Elizabeth held high state at Hampton Court, and in James I.'s time the Palace was the scene of the great conference between the Presbyterians and the Established Church.
It was a favourite residence of Charles I., and after his execution passed into the possession of Cromwell.
Charles II. and James II. occasionally visited the Palace.
William III. and Mary made it almost their permanent place of abode, and greatly enlarged and improved it.
Their immediate successors also lived at Hampton Court; its last royal occupant having been George II.
Since that time a portion of the building has been devoted to the use of the public, and in other portions suites of apartments are granted to ladies and gentlemen favoured by the Crown.

the Palace originally consisted of five quadrangles and the Great Hall, which was added by Henry VIII.
Two of Wolsey's courts and the Great Hall remain; the third, or Fountain Court, was added by Sir Christopher Wren, to whom is also due the eastern frontage, which overlooks the gardens.
The Palace has been well and completely restored, and the Great Hall especially, which is described below, has been very perfectly done.
The state apartments are open to the public free every day throughout the year, except Fridays and Christmas Day.
the hours are 10am, to 6pm from April 1 to September 30, and from 10am to 4pm during the remainder of the year.
On Sundays they are not open until 2pm the gardens are open until 8pm in summer, and at other times till dusk.
An average of about 200,000 persons passes through the state rooms annually.
In the two Exhibition years - 1851 and 1862 - the numbers were 350, 848 and 369,162 respectively.
The entrance to the building, coming from the railway, is through barracks immediately opposite the Mitre Hotel.

Hampton Court Palace - the Great Hall

Passing out of the first court, a staircase on the left, under the clock-tower (the groined roof and Tudor rose of the gateway should be remarked), leads to the Great Hall, a building of magnificent proportions, especially remarkable for the lofty pitch of its richly carved and decorated roof, which is studded with the arms and blazons of King Henry VIII., and for its elaborate stained glass windows.
Of these the great west window, which is over the minstrel gallery, contains the arms, badges, and cyphers of Henry VIII. and his wives, whose pedigrees, with their arms, initials, and badges, are set forth in alternate windows.
The first on the south, or right, looking from the minstrel gallery, is dedicated to Katharine of Aragon, the third to Ann Boleyn, the fifth to Jane Seymour, the eighth, on the opposite side, to Anne of Cleves, the tenth to Katharine Howard, and the twelfth to Katharine Parr; the seven intermediate windows contain the heraldic badges of Henry VIII.: the lion, portcullis, fleur de lys, Tudor rose, red dragon of York, and the white greyhound of Lancaster.
The great east window also contains numerous arms and other heraldic devices, such as those of Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward III., Edward IV., &c.
At the upper end of the Hall is a singularly beautiful bay window with the arms and cyphers of Henry VIII., Jane Seymour, and Cardinal Wolsey.
From this end is the best place to take a general survey of the Hall, and hence the best idea is obtained of its great size and perfect symmetry of design.
For the information of the accurate people who are never satisfied with general effects, but require to have everything reduced to figures, it may be noted that the length of Wolsey's Great Hall is 106 feet, its width 40 feet, and height 60 feet.
The restorations and additions to the stained glass, which have been executed in admirable taste, are due to Mr.Williment, and were completed about forty years ago.
The Hall is at present hung with some magnificent tapestry, representing the history of Abraham, bordered with many allegorical and other figures and devices.
The series begins on the left of the entrance, and each subject bears a descriptive legend in Latin.
The subject of each piece of tapestry is sufficiently apparent to render a detailed description unnecessary here.
Under the minstrel gallery are several other pieces of tapestry of allegorical design, one of which represents the seven deadly sins riding on animals supposed by the artist to be appropriate.
Before leaving the Hall it may be added that it has more than once been used for theatrical purposes, and tradition even says that Shakespeare's "King Henry VIII., or the Fall of Wolsey", was here acted before Queen Elizabeth, the author taking part in the representation.
There appears, however, to be no evidence to support this legend.

Hampton Court Palace - the Withdrawing Room

In the Withdrawing Room, sometimes called the Presence Chamber, which opens out from the Hall, is a further collection of tapestries, the designs of which are remarkable achievements in the way of allegory, thus: - Chastity attended by Lucretia, and Scipio Africanus (at least, so say the experts) drives his chariot over Sensuality; the Fates triumph; Renown summons the illustrious dead, and in another place submits to the influence of Time, the signs of the Zodiac indulging in remarkable pranks the while; and many similar eccentricities.
Obscured and dimmed by time, these tapestries are still well worth careful inspection.
Above the tapestries are some graceful cartoons by Carlo Cignani.
Opposite the door is another handsome bay window, in the recess of which is an indifferent marble Venus.
The ceiling is panelled and adorned with pendants and with badges of rose portcullis, &c, &c.
The mantelpiece is of handsome carved oak, and bears a profile portrait of Wolsey.
It is a good instance of the value of statistics in matters of this kind to record that considerable difference of opinion exists as to the dimensions of this room.
One authority gives its length at 62 feet, and its height at 29 feet; another (official) gives the length as - "about 70 feet", and the height "about 20 feet".
As neither authority has any hesitation in setting the width down at 29 feet, visitors may congratulate themselves that on that point at least they are possessed of accurate information.

Hampton Court Palace - the Second Court

Returning through the Great Hall, descending the stairs, and turning to the left, we come to the second court, the northern side of which is occupied by the length of the Hall.
Over the gateway at the western end is the dial plate of an astronomical clock, which was, if the date (1254[?]) be correct, one of the earliest public clocks in the country.
The tower bears the medallion busts of the Caesars in terra-cotta, which, with those in the first court, are the restored work of Lucca della Robbia, and were given to Cardinal Wolsey by Pope Leo X.
The eastern side of the court was considerably restored in the middle of the last century, and this point marks the end of the principal remains of Wolsey's Palace.
The eastern portion of the present building was designed by Sir Christopher Wren, who is also responsible for the Ionic colonnade in the southern side of the second court, a colonnade which might or might not be worth looking at elsewhere, but which here is as inappropriate as a modern chimney-pot hat would, have been on the head of Wolsey himself.
The visitor entering at the door in the south-east corner of the colonnade has to deliver up stick and umbrella, parcel and bag, preparatory to making the passage of the picture galleries - an arduous undertaking, which, it were well to remark, once begun must be gone through with, from the first room to the last - and there are a great many of them - no turning back is permitted.
None of the attendants are allowed to receive a fee.
Any articles left with the custodian at the entrance to the galleries, not claimed by closing hours, will be forwarded if the ticket and address are sent to the superintendent, at the Palace.

Hampton Court Palace - King's Staircase

After the transaction of the necessary business at the foot of the staircase comes the ascent of the King's Staircase, which is fine in itself, and would perhaps be finer if it were not for the sprawling monstrosities and garish colouring of that arch impostor, Antonio Verrio.
This Neapolitan painter, whose introduction to England is not the least of the merry sins for which Charles II. has to answer, is seen at his worst in Hampton Court Palace, and perhaps the King's Staircase gives as good a notion of his idea of art as can anywhere be found.
The first room of the two dozen or so devoted to pictures, which are approached by the King's Staircase,

Hampton Court Palace - the Guard Chamber

is the Guard Chamber, which is decorated with trophies of arms, and contains two handsome wrought-iron screens, the work of H.Shaw, of Nottingham, 1695.
Before proceeding to give any hints as to the pictures best worthy inspection, it should be stated that in almost every case the description of the picture and the name of the artist is affixed to it, and that there is, therefore, no absolute necessity for a catalogue.
Painted on each canvas is a number.
this is distinct from that of the catalogues, and is the private number affixed by the surveyor of pictures to identify the work under any changes.
It is here given in brackets, after the wall number, as a means of identification should the latter be changed.
Considerable uncertainty prevails as to the authorship of many of the Hampton Court pictures.
The official view is adopted here.
Throughout the rooms are many valuable specimens of the carved woodwork of Grinling Gibbons, and admirers of blue and white china, whether Delft or Oriental, will find good examples in almost every room.
In the Guard Chamber are 9 [15], a rather conventional view of the Colosseum at Rome, Canaletto; and a quaintly humorous portrait, 20 [4], of Queen Elizabeth's porter, 1580, by Zucchero.
There are also a number of battle pieces and portraits in keeping with the character of the room.

Hampton Court Palace - King's First Presence Chamber

Immediately on the left of the doorway, in the King's First Presence Chamber, is a very weak picture of King William III. landing at Torbay, 29 [25], in which Sir G.Kneller has introduced Neptune and other incongruous company.
A pair of curious Dutch pictures are 38 [34], King William III. embarking from Holland, and 51 [48], his landing at Brixham.
Number 62 [61] is an interesting picture full of detail, representing King Charles II. taking leave of the Dutch Court at the time of the Restoration.
Number 58 [241] is a very good group of portraits of William, Duke of Buckingham, and his family, by Honthorst.
Numbers 26 [22], 30 [26], 33 [29], 37 [33], 40 [37], 46 [43], 50 [47], and 53 [51] represent ladies of the Court of William and Mary, by Kneller, known as the Hampton Court beauties.
Other Knellers in the room are of very unequal merit.
The chandelier is of the time of Queen Anne.

Hampton Court Palace - the Second Presence Chamber

Here, 85 [87], are the fine equestrian portraits of Charles I., by Vandyck, and 90 [91], Queen Christina, consort of Philip IV., by Velasquez, a good example in excellent preservation; and also 72 [67], a Sculptor, by Leandro Bassano; 84 [158], a Venetian Senator, Pordenone 91 [159J, a Knight of Malta, an excellent Tintoretto; 98 [100], a large full-length of Christian IV., King of Denmark, by Van Somer; 103 [128], portrait of Giorgione, by himself; and 73 [136], a much-esteemed Diana and Actceon, by Giorgione, in which Actaeon wears a pantomime stag's head and court suit, and in which so many extraneous figures are introduced that Diana could not have bathed more publicly even at Margate.

Hampton Court Palace - the Audience Chamber.

Number 108 [53], a Portrait of a Man, by Tintoretto; 119 [111], a portrait by Titian, said to be, but probably not, that of Ignatius Loyola; 117 [277], John de Bellini, attributed to himself; 128 [125], a full-length of Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I., by Honthorst; 131 [130], the Woman taken in Adultery, Sebastiano Ricci; 138 [74], a Warrior in Armour, ascribed to Savoldo; 144 [554], a Concert, Lorenzo Lotto; 147 [134], a Man's Head, Bassano; and 149 [68], Alexander de Medicis, by Titian, are among the principal pictures on the walls of the Audience Chamber.
In the middle of the room is a triptych for an altar, a work of the highest interest, attributed, perhaps doubtfully, to Lucas Van Leyden.
Whatever doubt there may be as to the artist there can be none as to the merit of the pictures.
The canopy of this room is that of the throne on which sat James II, when giving audience to the Pope's Nuncio.
The furniture and chandelier date from William and Mary and Queen Anne.

Hampton Court Palace - the King's Drawing-room

The King's Drawing-room contains, among others, 154 [145], the Expulsion of Heresy, a portrait picture, by Paolo Veronese; 155 [333], the Duke of Richmond, by Van Somer; 158 [905], a good Giorgione, a portrait of a Venetian Gentleman; 164 [569], a Venus, ascribed to Titian, stated to be a "replica" of the celebrated picture at Florence, but looking much more like an indifferent copy; 174 [553], a Lady with Orrery and Dog, ascribed to Parmegiano; 180 [498], a Venetian Gentleman, by Bassano; and 182 [52], an Italian Lawyer, by Paris Bordone.

Hampton Court Palace - King William III.'s Bed-room

King William III.'s Bed-room.
In this room are the state bed of Queen Charlotte, and the portraits of the Beauties of Charles II.'s Court, by Sir Peter Lely, which were formerly at Windsor.
The fine marble mantelpiece and glass, and the carving of the cornice and ornaments above the mantelpiece by Gibbons, should be specially noticed.
Near the head of the bed is a clock which requires winding but once a year, a ceremony which appears to have been omitted on the last anniversary; and in a corner is an odd old Tompion barometer.
The ceiling, unhappily, has been painted by Verrio in a manner calculated to disturb the dreams of any but the stoutest heart.
Besides the Beauties is a delightful portrait, 186 [171], of the Princess Mary as Diana, also by Sir P.Lely, and much pleasanter to look upon than Charles's leering, simpering favourites.
The numbers attached to the portraits of these ladies are 185 [170], 195 [189 197 [191], 199 [193], 204 [198' No.194 [188], Louise de Querouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, is by H.Gascar.

Hampton Court Palace - the King's Dressing-room

Here, again, Verrio has given reins to his allegorical nightmares.
No.210 [741] is a comic picture of men fighting with bears, by Bassano; 212 [670], robbers, in a cave, dividing their spoils, is like many other Salvator Rosas.

Hampton Court Palace - the King's Writing Closet

contains a mirror so placed as to reflect the whole suite of rooms.
Among the pictures may be noted 225 [222], and 243 [229], by Bogdane.

Hampton Court Palace - Queen Mary's Closet

containing 251 [247], a Holy Family after Raffaelo, by Giulio Romano; and 267 [417], Sophonisba, or Fair Rosamond - the choice of subject is elastic - attributed to Gaetano.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Gallery

In the Queen's Gallery will be found seven large and important pieces of tapestry, after paintings by Le Brun, 1690, representing incidents in the history of Alexander the Great.
These have suffered somewhat at the hands of time, but deserve careful notice.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Bed-room.

Here is the state bed of Queen Anne.
The ceiling is the work of Sir James Thornhill, and among the pictures are 273 [459], the Queen of James I., by Van Somer; 275 [462], St.Francis with the Infant Jesus, Guido; 283 [461], a Princess of Brunswick, the painter of which is not named; 301 [230], Judith with the Head of Holofernes, by Guido; 306 [76], a portrait of an Italian Lady with a singular taste in dress, by Parmegiano; and 307 [456], by Francesco Francia, St.John baptizing Christ, a very fine example of the master.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Drawing-room

The Queen's Drawing-room is the centre of the eastern front of Wren's portion of Hampton Court Palace.
From its windows is a beautiful view of the gardens with three long avenues of trees stretching away from the Palace towards the river, Kingston Church closing the vista on the left hand, and the canal and fountain lending agreeable variety to the centre.
On the ceiling Verrio has depicted Queen Anne in the character of Justice.
The walls are hung with the works of Sir Benjamin West.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Audience Chamber.

The state canopy of Queen Mary still hangs in this room, and among the pictures may be mentioned 326 [506], the Duchess of Luneberg, Brunswick, Mytens; 327 [593], a portrait of Don Gusman, another fine Mytens; 330 [457], Christian, Duke of Brunswick, Honthorst; a doubtful Holbein, 331 [524], the Meeting of Henry VIII. and the Emperor Maximilian; 335 [521], the Duke of Brunswick, Mytens; 340 [510], portraits of Henry VIII. and his family, a work of unusual interest and importance, Holbein; 342 [520] the Field of the Cloth of Gold, also Holbein; 343 [525], Isabella of Austria, Pourbus; 346 [780], Anne, Queen of James I., Van Somer; and 349 [299], a portrait of Queen Elizabeth, in a fancy dress with remarkably fancy blue and white shoes, crowning a stag with flowers.
On the right of the picture are three mottoes, and a tablet on the left contains the following lines:
The restless swallow fits my restless minde,
In still revivinge, still renewinge wronges;
Her just complaintes of cruelty unkinde
Are all the musique that my life prolonges.
With pensive thoughtes my weepinge stagg I crowne,
Whose melancholy tears my cares expresse;
His teares in sylence, and mysighes unknowne,
Are all the physicke that my harmes redresse,
My onely hope was in this goodly tree,
Which I did plant in love, bringe up in care;
But all in vaine, for now too late I see,
The sheles be mine, the kernels others are.
My musique may be plaintes, my physique teares,
If this be all the fruite my love-tree beares.

In the official catalogue this picture is ascribed, hesitatingly, to Heere.
On the frame, however, there is the name of Zucchero.

Hampton Court Palace - the Public Dining-room

The Public Dining-room is principally remarkable for two excellent Gainsboroughs, 352 [747], Fisher the Composer, and 353 [733J, Colonel St. Leger (Handsome Jack); 355 [961], 358 [950] and 359 [960], are good examples of Hoppner.
360 [951] is a curious picture, by Home, of the King of Oude receiving tribute.
Over the noble marble mantelpiece hangs 362 [155], the Nabob of Arcot, G.Willison.
363 [936] is a portrait of Friedrich von Gentz, by Sir Thomas Lawrence; 395 [587], by Robert Walker, is a portrait of himself; 369 [847], a capital picture by Michael Wright, represents John Lacy, a comedian of the time of Charles II., in three characters; and 375 [944] is a portrait of Mrs.Delany, by Opie.
In the left corner is the door leading to the Queen's Chapel, &c., but there are still three rooms approached by the door near the window.

Hampton Court Palace - the Prince of Wales's Presence Chamber, Drawing-room, and Bedroom.

The principal pictures in these rooms are 382 [421] and 382 [432]; respectively a Jewish Rabbi and Dutch Lady, both splendid Rembrandts; 389 [285], Portrait of an Old Man, Quintin Matsys; 390 [464], Dogs, Snyders; 393 [249], Singing by Candlelight, Honthorst; 397 [57], and 398 [437] Boys, Murillo; 407 [580, not 581, as described in the official catalogue], Van Belchamp; 413 [516], Louis XVI. of France, Greuze; 417 [984], Clermont, Greuze; and 429 [986], a portrait of Pompadour, a very superior work by the same master.
From these rooms visitors return through the Public Dining-room, and pass through the Queen's Private Chapel and Closet, in which the pictures, principally of flowers and birds, are of no great importance.

Hampton Court Palace - the Private Dining-room

The next apartment is the Private Dining-room, which looks out on to Fountain Court.
The state beds, with crimson trappings, of William and Mary, which are preserved in this room, and the smaller bed used by George II., do not give a very lively idea of the comforts enjoyed by royal personages.
There is some particularly good china here, and among other pictures, a portrait of the Duchess of Brunswick, sister to George III., 507 [603], by Angelica Kauffmann.
In the adjoining closet is 507 [64], a curious picture, by Fialetti, representing senators of Venice in the Senate House.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Private Chamber

In the Queen's Private Chamber are 512 [907], an unnamed Queen of Prussia, by an unnamed artist; 518 [619], Frederick, Prince of Wales, a smirking, highly-coloured portrait, by Vanloo; and 524 [787], a Labyrinth, the eccentric production of Tintoretto.

Hampton Court Palace - the King's Private Dressing-room

has a fine marble bust of a negro, and portraits of four Doges of Venice, by Fialetti, 526 [791 to 794].
531 [577], is a humorous picture of a barrack-room, by C.Troost.

Hampton Court Palace - South Gallery

George II.'s Private Chamber, and the closet adjoining, lead to the South Gallery, where formerly Raffaelle's cartoons, now at South Kensington, were exhibited.
This is a very long gallery, divided into compartments, in the third of which is a finely carved marble mantelpiece.
It contains many pictures of great value and merit.
The following is a list of some of those to which the attention of visitors is especially directed: 559 [513], the Countess of Lennox, Holbein; 560 [667], Mary Queen of Scots, Zucchero; 563 [313], Henry VIII., Holbein; 572 [343], Countess of Derby, Heere: 573 [344], Sir Geo.Carew, Holbein; 582 [908J, La Belle Gabrielle, by an unnamed artist; 589 [275], a portrait of a Youth, A.Durer; 593 [1085], 594 [331], portraits of Erasmus, 597, [324], a similar subject, 598 [330], all by Holbein; 600 [612], St.Christopher with Saints, L.Cranach; 603 [323], Joannes Frobenius, printer; 606 [326], King Henry VIII.; 608 [336], the painter's father and mother, Holbein; 609 [989], Lazarus Spinola, W.Kay; 610 [325], "A side-faced gentleman out of Cornwall", attributed to Holbein; 611 [401], St. Jerome, after A.Durer; 613 [290], Sir Francis Walsingham; 615 [270], Sir P.Carew, both by an unnamed artist; 616 [293], 619 [273], portraits of Queen Elizabeth, the former by Zucchero, the latter by Gerrard; 622 [347], a charming portrait of a Lady, Sir A.More; 632 [316], Francis II. when a boy, Janette; 633 [291], Philip II. of Spain, Sir A.More; 642 [345], a companion picture to 622, and an equally good work, by the same artist; 644 [306], another portrait of a Lady, Sir A.More; 657 [644], Windsor Castle, Verdussen; 666 [329J, an admirably humorous portrait of Henry VIII.'s Jester, Will Somers, Holbein; 676 [234], a small whole-length of a Man, F.Hals; 684 [825], a flower piece with insects, Withoos; 704 [959], a wild boar hunt, Snyders, full of life and vigour; 707 [588], Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, C.Janssen; 710 [278], a portrait of Raffaelle, attributed to himself; 763 [514], James I., and 764 [591], his Queen, the companion picture to it, both by Van Somer; 765 [650], Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, a daughter of James I., Derick; and 707 [106], a Dutch Gentleman, Van der Halst.
The Ante Room, adjoining the South Gallery - 780 [846], a landscape, Oldenburg - leads to the

Hampton Court Palace - Mantegna Gallery.

The Mantegna Gallery, so called from a set of paintings in distemper, on linen, 9 feet high, by Andrea Mantegna.
They are nine in number, 797 [873 to 881], and represent the triumphs of Julius Caesar.
Originally purchased by Charles I., they were sold by Parliament for £1,000, and subsequently repurchased by Charles II.
They are in a faded and damaged condition, and it is difficult always to follow the artist's intention.
In the same gallery is 798 [892], a quaint portrait of Sir Jeffrey Hudson, by Mytens, And three pictures by unnamed artists.
Of these, 793 [901], is a portrait of Jane Shore, who is described on the canvas as "Baker's wife, mistris to a king"; 808 [899] represents "Schachner of Austria"; and 809 [958] is a Young Lady with a feather fan.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Staircase

On the Queen's Staircase is an immense painting 810 [932], Honthorst, whereof, as is not uncommon with allegorical works of the kind, the subject appears to be in doubt.
According to Horace Walpole, it is intended to represent Charles I. and his Queen as Apollo and Diana receiving the Arts and Sciences, the ceremony of introduction being performed by the Duke of Buckingham, as Mercury.
Another authority, also quoted in the official guide, is of opinion that the royal personages are the King and Queen of Bohemia in the clouds.
The judicious visitor may select either of these interpretations, or indeed any other which may seem good to him, but Honthorst, in any case, cannot be congratulated on his work.

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Guard Chamber

The Queen's Guard Chamber, like the South Gallery, is divided into compartments, noticeable in the second of which are two most singular terminal figures of beefeaters which serve as supporters to the mantelpiece.
Among the pictures are 815 [967], 816 [966], 819 [970], 821 [965], portraits respectively of Giulio Romano, Michael Angelo, Tintoretto, and P.del Vaga, by an unnamed hand; 858 [902], is a portrait of a Man with a watch in his hand, by Peter Van Aelst.
From this chamber an ante-room leads to

Hampton Court Palace - the Queen's Presence Chamber

The Queen's Presence Chamber, in which are numerous pictures of sea fights, &c, and two portions of timbers from Nelson's Victory.
There are also a series of views on the Thames, by James and others, which should be interesting to readers of this Dictionary.
They are 883 [1043], Fleet Ditch, &c.
; 884 [1044], Old London Bridge; 885 [1045], the Old Savoy Palace; 914 [1079], Greenwich Hospital, &c.; 918 [1016], a similar subject; 920 [1024] the Tower; 921 [1023], old Somerset House and the Temple; 922 [1026], the Temple again; 923 [1031], another view of the Savoy; and 925 [1032], Westminster Bridge, &c. &c.

This closes the list of apartments open to the public.
The chapel is not visible except on Sunday, when it is open for divine service.
Returning from the Queen's Presence Chamber to the Queen's Staircase, the visitor again emerges into the Middle Court; and, after reclaiming any property which he may have left at the King's Staircase entrance, proceeds by the Fountain Court to the gardens, which extend along the whole east front of the building.
Should the visitor on leaving the building wish to visit the famous grape-vine, which is shown (admission, 1d) as one of the great attractions of Hampton Court, he will turn to the right; should he, on the other hand, prefer to make direct for the Wilderness and the Maze, he will turn to the left, passing the tennis-court on his way.
the price of admission to the Maze is 1d.
Some writers in treating of Hampton Court give precise directions how to traverse the paths of the Maze; but, as the greater part of the fun consists in losing your way, and in observing the idiosyncracies of your fellow-creatures who are in the same predicament, rather than getting to the centre and out again in "the shortest time on record", no clue to the mystery is given here.
To many people, perhaps, the greatest attraction of Hampton Court will be found in its beautiful gardens, which are unreservedly thrown open to the public.
They are tastefully laid out, and every year considerable ingenuity and skill are displayed in the carpet-bedding devices, and other floral adornments of the gardens, by Mr.Graham, the able superintendent.
The lawns are always in perfect order, there is abundance of shade from the yews and other trees with which they are studded, and seats have been distributed about with no niggard hand.
There is not the usual annoying restriction as to walking on the grass, except as to the verge of the flower beds, and it is pleasant to see that the request, that the public will protect what is intended for public enjoyment, is carefully respected.
The principal entrance on the north is through the Lion Gates, opposite Bushey Park.
Visitors who propose to go through the galleries are recommended to enter the palace by the barrack gateway, near the bridge, already described.
The restrictions imposed by the regulations are few, and are dictated by obvious considerations for the general convenience and comfort both of the visitors and residents in the palace.
The following are the principal rules,
No smoking is permitted in any part of the palace or grounds.
No baskets or parcels are allowed to be taken into the gardens.
No dogs are admitted.
Bath-chairs and perambulators are allowed to residents only.
Last, and not least, it is fortunately provided that no public address may be delivered.
The famous avenue of chestnuts in Bushey Park leads from the Lion Gates of Hampton Court Palace to Teddington, and is one of the chief sights of the spring season, when its grand old trees are covered with their pyramids of blossom.
the fountain in the centre of the oval pond, near the Hampton Court entrance, is surmounted by a bronze statue of Diana.
The Park contains, besides its chestnuts, many fine elms and oaks, and the hawthorns are almost as celebrated as the chestnuts.
A herd of deer roam in the park, adding greatly to its romantic character.
It is a favourite place for picnics, and after inspection of Hampton Court Palace the contents of the reclaimed baskets and parcels are freely discussed under the shady glades of Bushey.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - Hampton Court

Hampton Court, so closely associated with the history of England during the reigns of Henry VIII. and his successors up to the time of William and Mary, belongs also to the history of English poetry, if it were only for the episode of the Earl of Surrey and the fair Geraldine Surrey's romantic love for the beautiful Geraldine was a tradition, founded on his poetry, until the supposed facts on which it rested were for the first time investigated by the author of "The Thames and its Tributaries", and found to be mythical.

Hampton Wick

Hampton Wick, Middlesex, on the left bank, about a mile east of Hampton Court by road; from London 22 miles, Oxford 89½ miles.
A station on the Kingston branch of the London and South Western Railway, 14½ miles from Waterloo; the trains average about 45 minutes.
Population, 2,207.
Soil, gravel.
Hampton Wick is nowadays practically a suburb of Kingston, with which it is connected by Kingston Bridge, and consists to a large extent of pleasant villa residences.
Place of Worship: St.Mary's.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order and savings bank), High- street.
Letters through Kingston.
Mails from London 6.45 and 9.15am, 2.15 and 7.30pm
Mails for London 9am, 12.10, 3.45, and 8.20pm
Nearest Bridges (from Kingston Bridge): up Hampton Court 3¼ miles; down: Richmond 5 miles.
Locks: up, Molesey about 3½ miles; down, Teddington 2 miles.
Railway Station: Hampton Wick.
Fares to Waterloo (or Ludgate-hill): 1st, 2/, 2/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/-, 1/8.

Rivers Mole & Ember

Hampton Court

Thames Ditton Island

Swan Inn

Nearly a mile below the [Hampton Court] bridge, on the right, is Thames Ditton, with the "Swan Hotel", and Boyle Farm, the residence of the late Lord St.Leonards.

Thames Ditton

Thames Ditton, Surrey, on the right bank, from London 22¼ miles, from Oxford 89¼ miles.
A station on the Hampton Court branch of the South Western Railway, 14 miles from Waterloo; the trains take about 40 minutes.
The station is ten minutes' walk from the river.
Population, 1,900.
A pretty little village in a sequestered corner opposite Hampton Court Park, very popular with punt-anglers, and, formerly to a larger extent than at present, with excursionists from London.
Increased railway facilities have taken visitors farther afield, and Ditton is no longer so popular as it was in the days when Theodore Hook wrote his well-known verses in praise of its little inn.
There is in truth little except the prettiness of the situation to attract visitors except the church, which contains some fine brasses, and is itself a curious building, with old oak beams, rambling galleries, and queer lights in the roof.
It has chancel, nave, and south aisle, the latter added fifteen years ago, and a low square tower, with a very unassuming little wooden spire.
The font is of great antiquity, as is also an old canopied stone tomb from which the figure has disappeared.
The brasses, an unusually fine collection, have been removed from their original positions on the floor, and are now placed upon the walls, where they can not only be well seen, but will be protected from inevitable wear and tear.
On the north wall of the chancel is the memorable brass of Robert Smythe and Katheryn his wife, who died respectively in 1539 and 1549.
It contains nine kneeling figures.
Underneath is a coat of arms, apparently belonging to the brass below, which is that of William Notte, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Robert and Katheryn Smythe.
William died in 1576, and Elizabeth eleven years later.
They are represented kneeling at a prie-dieu, with a small family of nineteen children kneeling with them.
Near the canopied tomb already mentioned are some very elaborate brass coats-of-arms, with the motto "Que Sera Sera" and a brass of "Eras, fiforde, sone and heyre of Walter fforde, sometyme tresorer to Kynge Edward IV., and Julyan the Wyffe".
The dates of their deaths are given as 1533 and 1539.
Large families appear to have been fashionable in these parts at that period, as Erasmus kneels in company with six sons, and Julyan with twelve daughters.
On the wall just by the vestry door are the effigies of Cuthbert Lakeden, who died 1540, John Boothe, 1548, and Julyan, "sometyme the wyef of the said Cuthbert and John", who erected this monument 1580.
She died 1586, aged 77.
Hard by is a brass inscription in memory of Ann Child, "the davghter of William Child, of Estsheene, in the parish of Mourclack, in the County of Surrey".
The date is 1607, and it may be assumed that the Mourclack is supposed to represent Mortlake.
On the wall above the pulpit stairs are two large full-length figures of John Cheke, "who departed this transitorye lyfe, 1690, and Isabel, daughter of Wm.Seilearde, of London".
Seven young Chekes kneel with their father, above whom is his coat-of-arms.
Also by the pulpit steps are the praying figures of John Polsted (1540), and Anne Wheeler, with their four daughters, Anne, Jane, Elizabeth, and Julyan, "the which julyan erected this monument, An. Dni. 1582, and in the 73rd yeare of her age".
There are several marble tablets in the church, and a long list of charitable bequests hangs in the vestry, one of which is odd.
By it W.Hatton left £10 a year to the minister, "if he be chosen by the major part of the chief inhabitants".
If he were not so chosen, the benefaction was to go to the poor.
In the centre of the village is a handsome drinking fountain, newly erected at the cost and charges of the lord of the manor of Weston.
Close to the railway station are almshouses founded by H.Bridges, 1720.
The National Schools are aided by the interest of £1000 left by Sir Charles Sullivan, of Imber Court.
This part of the river is far too crowded in the summer season with small craft to enjoy a day's angling, but in the winter a very fair haul of roach and dace, with, perhaps, a perch or two, may reward the perseverance of the angler.
Hotel: "The Swan".
Places of Worship: St.Nicholas; and a Congregational Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post-office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 7 and 10.30am, 8pm; Sunday, 7am,
Mails for London, 8.10am, 2.55 and 6.55pm; Sunday, 10am,
Nearest Bridges: up, Hampton Court 1 mile; down, Kingston 1¾ mile.
Locks, up, Molesey about a mile; down, Teddington about 4 miles.
Railway Station: Thames Ditton.
Fares to Waterloo, 1st, 2/-, 2/8; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/2, 1/9.

Ditton Slipway

Ravens Ait

At the top of the waterworks is the beginning of the Kingston Regatta Course.
Passing Messenger's Island we come to Surbiton, and nearly a mile lower down to Kingston Bridge


Surbiton: A suburb of Kingston, has grown immensely of late years.
Some of the best houses face the river, and it contains what is generally known as the villa residence in every size, and at almost all rents.
It is very convenient of access from London, being on the main line of the London and South-Western Railway, and affords excellent facilities for boating, the distance between locks here being nearly five miles.
Along the riverside the authorities have constructed an esplanade, with gardens, which extends from the Waterworks some distance towards Kingston, and affords a fine promenade.
From the ferry opposite Raven Island, by Grove-road, nearly opposite to the railway station, is ten minutes' walk.
The headquarters of the well-known Kingston Rowing Club and Thames Sailing Club (both of which see) are at Surbiton, the boat-houses of the former being on Raven Island, and of the latter on the right bank, a little above the island.
Five minutes from the river are the Surbiton Reading Rooms, Library, and Recreation Ground.
Here, in addition to library, &c, is one of the fastest cinder paths in England for bicycle-riding, a cricket ground, bowling green, lawn tennis, &c.
The annual subscription is £1 1s.
The churches are all modern buildings of no particular interest.
There is also a Surbiton Club (entrance £2; subscription £5; election by ballot in committee: two black balls exclude).
For Cab Fares, &c, &c, see Kingston.
Banks: London and County, Victoria-terrace; London and Provincial, Victoria-road.
Fire: Surbiton Fire Brigade, St.James's-road (under control of Surbiton Improvement Commissioners): Superintendent and 8 members. Fire Escape Brigade: Superintendent and 3 members.
Hospital-Cottage, York Villa, Victoria-road. Patients are required to pay not less than 2s 6d, or more than 10s 6d per week.
Places of Worship: St.Mark's, Christ Church, and St.Andrew's (Chapel of Ease to St.Mark's); The Roman Catholic Church of the Archangel St. Raphael; and Baptist, Congregational, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 7.30 and 9.45am, 2.45, 5.45 and 8.30pm Sunday, 8am,
Mails for London, 7.30 and 10am, 4.20 and 9pm, Sunday, 7pm
Nearest Bridges (from Messenger's Island), up, Hampton 2 miles; down, Kingston ¾ mile.
Locks: up, Molesey 2¼ miles; down, Teddington 2½ miles.
Ferry at the Island.
Railway Stations: Surbiton and Kingston.
Fares: From Kingston or Surbiton to Waterloo: 1st, 2/-, 2/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/-, 1/8.


Norbiton, a suburb of Kingston, to the north-east, rapidly extending its rows of villas and cottages towards the open country in the neighbourhood of Wimbledon Common and Richmond Park, where Jerry Abershaw and other knights of the road once took toll from travellers.
It is a railway station on the South Western, and may also be reached by the Metropolitan line.
The walks about Norbiton are numerous, and the scenery is very pretty; the open commons being agreeably diversified with finely-timbered woods.
At Norbiton is the Royal Cambridge Asylum for soldiers' widows, established in 1851, under the patronage of the royal family, in memory of the late Duke of Cambridge.
Widows of non-commissioned officers and privates of the Army, not under 50 years of age, are eligible.
Each widow has a furnished room and 7s weekly, besides a monthly allowance of coals.
The funded income of the charity is a little over £600, and the estimated expenditure £2,300, the balance being raised by subscriptions.
The Children's Convalescent Institution is at Kingston Hill, and contains 150 beds.
The institution is open for inspection every day except Sunday.
The Children's Home for 22 girls is at 4, Park- road-villas, Park-road.
Visitors can inspect the Home on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday afternoons, between 3 and 5. (And see Kingston.)
Places of Worship: St.John the Baptist, Kingston Vale; St.Peter's; and Baptist Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph).
Mails from London, 7 and 9.30am, 2.35 and 7.30pm; Sun. 7am,
Mails for London, 8.20 and 11.50am, 3.30, 4.55, 7.30, and 9pm
No London mail out on Sunday.
Fares to Waterloo: 2/-, 2/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, -/11, 1/8.

Kingston Rowing Club

Kingston Rowing Club: this club consists of ordinary members and three classes of life members.
Full members are those who live within a radius of six miles from the club boat-house, for any period not less than one month during the rowing season, or who row in any races in club boats.
Half members are those who live beyond a radius of six miles from the club boat-house, or resident members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge and public schools.
Honorary members shall be entitled to the use of the club-room only.
Entrance fee for full and half members, £1 1s; subscriptions, full members, £2 2s; half and honorary members, £1 1s; life full members £15 15s; half, £8 8s; honorary, £5 5s.
Election is by ballot in general, meeting: one black ball in six excludes.
Boat-house, the Island, Surbiton.
The Raven's Ait Company (Limited) are now the proprietors of the island.
Colours, scarlet and white, horizontal.

Junior Kingston Rowing Club

Junior Kingston Rowing Club, Sun Hotel, Kingston: Election by ballot; one black ball in three excludes. Entrance fee, 5s; subscriptions, £1 1s.
Boathouse, High-street, Kingston. Colours, black and gold.

Thames Sailing Club, Surbiton

The object of the club is to encourage the sailing of small boats, especially upon the upper waters of the River Thames.
The officers are commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore, and honorary secretary and treasurer. The committee consists of 7 members, in addition to the 4 officers.
Election is by committee. Entrance fee, £1 1s; subscription, £2 2s.
Burgee white, dark blue cross, red foul anchor in centre of cross.
Ensign white, dark blue cross, red foul anchor in fly.

Kingston Bridge

The bridge which connects Surrey and Middlesex, is close to the Market-place.
It is a handsome stone structure of five arches, was opened in 1828, and freed in 1870.
It affords very pleasant views both up and down stream.
A little below it is the railway-bridge, Kingston station being close to the river.


Kingston, Surrey, on the right bank, from London 20½ miles, from Oxford 91 miles.
A station (at Surbiton) on the main line of the London and South Western Railway, 12 miles from Waterloo; trains take about 25 minutes.
Kingston station is connected, via Twickenham, with the Windsor branch of the same railway, and is also in communication with the Metropolitan and North London systems.
Flys meet the trains.
the Guildford Coach (see Coaching) passes through Kingston.
Population, about 17,000.
The town is divided into four wards, and is governed by a high steward, mayor, eight aldermen, and twenty-four councillors.
It is an assize town; the present Recorder being William Hardman, Esq.
It is the headquarters of the 47th Infantry Brigade Depot, and the barracks are in King's-road; the district includes the 1st and 3rd regiments Surrey Militia, the 1st and 2nd Administrative Battalions, and the 1st, 7th, and 12th corps of Surrey Volunteers, the latter being the Kingston corps, with headquarters in Orchard-road.
The rifle range - 600 yards - is near the cemetery.
Kingston, once called Kyningestun, was a place of considerable importance in the very early times of English history, having been intimately connected with the Saxon kings so far back as the ninth century the ubiquitous Cæsar had, of course, already left his mark in the neighbourhood.
Many Roman remains and fragments of camps have been found all about Kingston and Wimbledon, and some writers prefer to believe that the Romans, when in pursuit of Cassivelaunus, crossed the Thames at Kingston, and not at Causeway or Coway Stakes.
In 838, Kingston was selected as the seat of the Great Council or Wittenagemot, convened by King Egbert, which his son Athelwolf, and many bishops and nobles attended, the president being Ceolnothus, Archbishop of Canterbury.
The fact that the records of this meeting, describing the town as Kyningestun famosa illa locus does away with the legend that the town derived its name from the subsequent coronation of Saxon kings on the stone in the market-place.
There is, however, no doubt that such coronations did take place here, and perhaps on the stone which is still preserved.
Leland says
"the townisch men have certen knowledge of a few kinges crownid there afore the Conqueste".
The names and dates of these "kinges", as recorded on the pedestal of the stone, are:
Eadweard: 902;
Adelstan: 924;
Eadmund: 943;
Eadwig: 955;
Eadweard: 975;
{I, John Eade, editing this, feel we should not forget these Kings!}

A picturesque account of the crowning of Adelstan will be found in Dean Hook's "Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury".
The coronation of these kings at Kingston appears to be sufficiently established.
Whether young Edwy, who married his cousin Elgiva, and became, with his unfortunate queen, the victim of the cruelty and brutality of "Saint" Dunstan and his friend Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury - par nobile fratrum - was crowned at Kingston is less certain.
The story goes that the king withdrew early from the rough coronation feast to seek the society of Elgiva, and greatly excited the wrath of the nobles.
Dunstan and Odo were sent to bring the king back, and forcibly dragged him from his apartments, assailing the queen with foul and opprobrious epithets.
Unfortunately for poor Elgiva, she had her revenge on Dunstan, who was finally banished from the kingdom, and whose fall was bitterly avenged by his friend Odo.
First branded with hot irons to destroy the beauty which had so much power over the young king, she fell, at a later period, again into the hands of Odo, and was cruelly put to death, the king dying of a broken heart shortly afterwards.
In Domesday Book the town is called Chingestune.
The townsmen received their first and second municipal charters from King John; that of 1209 is still preserved.
Another charter in the possession of the corporation is one granted by Henry III., in 1256, and subsequent charters of Henry VI., 1441, James I., 1603, Charles I., 1629, and finally, James II., 1685, conferred various privileges on the municipality and burgesses.
In 1264, Henry III. took and destroyed Kingston Castle, at that time the property of the Earl of Gloucester.
For about sixty years from the beginning of the fourteenth century the town was represented ir Parliament.
During the great civil war, Kingston was frequently occupied by one or other of the contending parties, and in 1648 Lord Francis Villiers was killed here in a skirmish.
There is little in the present thriving and busy town of Kingston to recall its ancient history, unless it be the coronation stone, which has been set up and fenced in by a gorgeous railing, close to the Assize Courts.
The principal business centre is the Market-place, in the middle of which stands the Town Hall, a modern building supported on arches and columns, and displaying over the southern entrance the inevitable statue of Queen Anne, which formerly adorned the old building.
The Council Chamber, a handsome apartment, contains a full-length portrait of Queen Anne, by Sir Godfrey Kneller; a drawing of Kingston Bridge, by Edward Lapidge, the architect; and some other pictures of inferior merit.
The middle window has eight very curious panes of painted and stained glass, displaying armorial bearings and mottoes, which are well worth careful examination.
In the justices' room is some good old oak carving, formerly in the old Town Hall.

Kingston has largely increased in importance, owing to the growth of its suburbs, Norbiton, Surbiton, and New Maiden; the convenience of access from London, and the pleasant surroundings of the neighbourhood, having attracted a large residential population.
Along the riverside road the authorities of Surbiton have constructed and laid out public walks and gardens, which extend as far as the Water-works and Raven Eyot and Boat-houses.
From Raven Eyot to Surbiton railway-station is by Grove- road, nearly opposite the Ferry, about ten minutes' walk.
The Grammar School has been rebuilt, and was opened January 30, 1878, for one hundred boys, including boarders.
The building, and master's house adjoining, form a handsome block of buildings, facing London-street.
The old school-room is the only part of the old buildings left standing.
It was built as a chapel (chantry), and dedicated to St.Mary Magdalene, by Edward Lovekyn, A.D. 1305.
John Lovekyn, his heir, rebuilt the chapel and house contiguous thereto, and improved the foundation by the addition of another chaplain; he gave to the new foundation considerable property in Kingston, and houses in St.Michael's, Crooked-lane, London, where he resided.
Leland says:
"He was a native of Kingston, and was Lord Mayer in 1347, 1357, 1364, and 1365.
He was buried in St.Michael's Church, under a large raised tomb, having the figures of himself and his wife in alabaster - but this was destroyed by the Great Fire of London".
The famous William Walworth was an apprentice of John Lovekyn, and he added another chaplain to the foundation.
The chapel was seized by Henry VIII., and Queen Elizabeth converted it into a school, A.D. 1561.
In March, 1873, a new scheme for the management of the school, in combination with several other charities, was issued by the Endowed Schools Commissioners, giving 10-24ths to the Upper Grammar School, and 7-24ths to Tiffins's School for Boys, and 7-24ths to Tiffins's School for Girls, for lower middle-class children.
The buildings for Tiffins's School stand in the Fair-field.
The fees for the Upper or Grammar School are 10 guineas per annum, and for the other not less than £3 nor more than £5.
The members for Mid-Surrey, Sir H.W.Peek and Sir T.Lawrence, have each given a scholarship for five years, clearing school fees.
Scholarships are to be given at Tiffins's for boys from the National Schools, and at the Grammar School for scholars from Tiffins's, and, as the funds permit, from the Grammar School to the Universities.

There are at Kingston, Surbiton, and Norbiton a large number of institutions of a charitable or public character.
Some of these will be found under their proper headings below.
Amongst the others may be mentioned:
the Society for Organising Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendicity {begging}, of which the Rev.F.M.Arnold is secretary; Cleave's Almhouses, founded by William Cleave, 1665, for the benefit of six poor men and six poor women, single residents of Kingston, being over sixty years of age - the Cleave Foundation has been augmented by the dividends of £1,000 three Per Cents, bequeathed by John Tilsey in the reign of Queen Anne;
the Children's Convalescent Institute, in connection with the Metropolitan Institution at Walton-on-Thames, is at Kingston Hill, and contains 150 beds;
the Young Men's Reading Room, Brick-lane;
the Soup Kitchen, in connection with the Charity Organisation Society;
and the Workmen's Club and Institute, Fairfield-road.
There are also the Kingston and Surbiton Horticultural and Chrysanthemum Societies.
The parish church is dedicated to All Saints, and stands close to the Market-place.
It is a plain brick building, with a square tower, principally of flint and rubble, which has been very lately restored.
Adjoining the old church once stood the chapel of St.Mary, which is said to have been the scene of the coronation of several of the Saxon kings, and in which their effigies were preserved.
In 1729 this building fell, and the sexton and another man were killed.
The sexton's daughter, who was working in a grave at the time, was saved by the falling of a portion of a column across the opening of the grave.
The piece of stone, inscribed "Life preserved, 1731" is still to be seen in the church.
The present building consists of nave, chancel, and north and south aisles, the latter disfigured by galleries.
The tower contains a good peal of ten bells.
There are numerous monuments.
Near the chancel is a statue in white marble, by Chantrey: a seated figure of the Countess of Liver- pool, who died in June, 1821.
Close by, under a canopy on the south wall, is the altar tomb of Sir Anthony Benn, once recorder of Kingston, who died in 1618.
Under the canopy lies the alabaster effigy of the deceased, in his official robes.
Also against the south wall are several monuments of the Davidson family, one being a white marble figure, and another a somewhat conventional mourning figure, with urn and drapery.
There are signs of numerous brasses, and a few still remain.
The best is that to the memory of Robert Skern, and Joan his wife, which is on the south wall.
It represents two figures, some three feet in length, is elaborately executed, and is of the fifteenth century.
Another brass, with two kneel- ing figures, is on a column near the north entrance, and records the deaths of John and Katherine Hertcombe, who died respectively 1488 and 1487.
The brass to Dr.Edmund Staunton's ten children has the following curious inscription:

Another curious epitaph is that on a memorial stone of Thos.Hayward, 1665:
Earth to earth
Ashes on Ashes lye, on Ashes tread
Ashes engrav'd these words which Ashes read
Then what poore thing is Man when any gust
Can blow his Ashes to their elder dust?
More was intended but a wind did rise
And filled with Ashes both my Mouth and Eyes.

There are a vast number of other tablets, some curious, in the church.
The other churches in Kingston are St.John the Evangelist, and St.John the Baptist.
The Congregational Church, Eden-street, was founded in 1662, by the Rev.Richard Mayo, Vicar of Kingston, who seceded from the Established Church on the passing of the Act of Uniformity.
Cabstands: Kingston and Surbiton Railway stations, and Market-place.
Cab Fares: If by distance: Not exceeding one mile, 1s; exceeding one mile - for each mile or part of a mile, 1s.
If by time: For one hour or less, 2s 6d.; above one hour, for every 15 minutes, 8d.; for any less period, 8d.
Extra payments, whether hired by distance or by time: For each package carried outside, 2d; for each person above two, 6d; for each child under 10 years, 3d; by distance - waiting, for every 15 minutes complete, 8d.
Banks: London and County, Market-place; Shrubsole and Co., 11, Market-place.
Fair: Nov. 13.
Fire: Borough Fire and Escape Brigade, Church-street (steam-engine, escape, &c.); Volunteer Steam Fire Brigade, London-street (steam-engine, etc.).
Hotels: "Griffin", "Sun", "Wheatsheaf", all in Market-place.
Markets: Thursday and Saturday.
Places of Worship: All Saints (parish church); St.John the Evangelist, Springfield-road; St.Paul's, Kingston hill; and Baptist, Congregational, Presbyterian, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels, and Friends' Meeting-house.
Police: Station, London-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph and insurance), Eden-street.
Mails from London, 6.30 and 9am, 4.30 and 7.30pm
Sunday, 6.30am, by letter-carrier; delivery over the counter, 8 to 10 am
Mails for London, 7.20 and 10am 12.30, 3, 4, 4.50, 8.30, and 10pm; Sunday, 10 pm
Nearest Bridges: Kingston; up, Hampton Court about 3 miles; down, Richmond 5 miles.
Locks: up, Molesey, 3½ miles; down, Teddington 1¾ mile.
Ferry: Surbiton.
Railway Station: Surbiton and Kingston.
Fares, Kingston and Surbiton to Waterloo: 1st, 2/-, 2/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/-, 1/8.

Kingston Amateur Regatta

Kingston Amateur Regatta - Races in 1882. {1st edition}

Canoe Club (Royal)

Canoe Club (Royal) Office, 11, Buckingham-street, Adelphi.
- The Royal Canoe Club Boat-house is at Turk's, Kingston-on-Thames.
T.G.F.Winser, Sec.
The object of the club is to improve canoes, promote canoeing, and unite canoeists, by arranging and recording canoe voyages, by holding meetings annually for business and bivouac, for paddling and sailing, and for racing and chasing in canoes over land and water.
Any gentleman nominated by two members is eligible.
Election is by ballot, one black ball in five to exclude.
Entrance fee, £2; subscription, £1.
Life members,;£ 10, without entrance fee.
Ladies are also eligible for election.
Each member on election is required to send a carte portrait of himself for insertion in the club album.
The officers are commodore (H.R.H. the Prince of Wales), captain, two mates, purser, cook, and secretary.
The club ribbon is black, with crown and club cipher embroidered in gold.
The club burgee is blue, with crown and cipher in white.
The principal sailing races of the Royal Canoe Club take place on Hendon Lake and at Teddington.
The regatta of 1884 was held on the Thames at Teddington, on the 28th of Tune.

Kingston Railway Bridge

Boaters Inn

Stevens Eyot

Trowlock Island

Teddington Locks Footbridge

Thames Flow

Teddington Locks

Teddington Lock, a first-rate stone lock, on the right, with a smaller lock, as well as a roller for pleasure boats.
The fall is nearly 9 ft, and the distance from London 18 ½ miles, from Oxford 93 miles.
On the left is Teddington, and an almost uninterrupted line of villas extends along that bank as far as Twickenham.


Teddington, Middlesex, on the left bank, 18½ miles from London, 93 miles from Oxford, a station on the South Western Railway 13½ miles from Waterloo; the trains average forty-five minutes; the time occupied on the alternative route to Ludgate is much longer.
The station is about three-quarters of a mile from the "Anglers", near the weir.
Population, 6,500. Soil, gravel.
Teddington is a pleasant and rapidly-growing village, with no particular claim to attention except that here is the first lock on the river, and that at the western extremity of the village is Bushey Park.
The church is of no particular beauty or interest, inside or out, and is a plain brick edifice with a whitewashed interior.
The churchyard is extremely well kept, and is rendered as attractive as possible with shrubs and flowers.
South of the chancel is a heavy marble mural monument, in memory of Sir Orlando Bridgman, keeper of the seals to Charles II., who died in 1674.
On the north wall over the reading desk is a mural tablet with scrolls, skulls, and cherubs, which commemorates that famous; actress, Peg Woffington; or, as the inscription has it, Margaret Woffington, spinster, who died, aged 39, in 1700.
In the south aisle is a conventional monument of a kneeling lamenting female figure, by Richard Westmacott, R.A., to W.T.Stretton, 1814.
Let into the same wall is a brass, with male and female figures, to John Goodyere and Thomasyn, his wife.
John died, as nearly as can be deciphered, in 1506.
On the east wall of the south aisle a brass inscription will be found to "Ricardus Parsons Tontonensis", 1613.
The John Walter of The Times is buried here, and there is a tablet to his memory in the church.
The churches of St. Peter and St.Paul, and St.Mark, are both modern.
At Teddington is a Mutual Instruction Reading Society, under the presidency of the vicar, with circulating library of reference, lectures, classes, &c.
Candi- dates are admitted by ballot; the subscription is nominal.
There is also a Horticultural Society, which held its eighth exhibition in 1879.
The angling below this and at the weir will repay a visit.
Very large carp are caught here, and the dace are in plenty.
Fire: Station, Park-lane.
Hospital: Teddington and Hampton Wick Cottage, Hampton-road.
Hotels: "The Anglers", by the river; "The Clarence", near the station.
Places of Worship: St.Mark's; Mission Church; St.Mary's (parish church); SS. Peter and Paul; Christ Church (Free Church of England); and a Wesleyan Chapel.
Police: Station, Church-road.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), High-street.
Mails from London, 6.30am, 2 and 7pm; Sunday, 6.30am,
Mails for London, 9.45am, 12.45, 4.35 and 8.30pm; no despatch on Sunday.
Nearest Bridges: up, Kingston about 2 miles; down, Richmond 3 miles.
Locks: Teddington; up, Molesey 5 miles.
Ferry: Twickenham.
Railway Station: Teddington.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 2/-, 2/6; 2nd, 1/6, 2/-; 3rd, 1/-, 1/8.
To Ludgate, 1st, 2/-, 2/9; 2nd, 1/6, 2/3; 3rd, 1/2, 1/9.

Swan Island

Eel Pie Island

About a mile from the lock is Eel Pie Island, opposite which is Petersham, and Ham House, the seat of the Earl of Dysart, almost hidden among the trees.
On the left is Orleans House, and down the river rises Richmond Hill, crowned with the famous "Star and Garter".
Making the bend just below the next island is, on the right bank, the ivy-clad residence of the Duke of Buccleuch.

Eel-Pie Island - An Island of seven acres off Twickenham, once in high repute with picnic parties, but now rather out of vogue.
The island is close to the Orleans Club, and a fine view of Richmond Hill is to be obtained from it.
Opposite, almost entirely concealed by trees, is Ham House, the seat of the Earls of Dysart.
The river about here is inconveniently shallow at low tide, notwithstanding the persistent efforts of the Conservators to maintain a channel by dredging.
Nearest Post and Telegraph Offices and Railway Station, Twickenham.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - Pope's Villa

The genius loci of Twickenham, on the opposite side of the river, is Alexander Pope.
In this village he lived and died, and constructed at his villa - which has long since disappeared - the grotto, still existing, which goes by his name.
The original "Pope's Villa", which the poet Rogers in after times desired to purchase and to occupy, was demolished by Lady Howe, who erected a more commodious villa on its site, which in its turn disappeared to make room for the present structure.
Many comments were made on the occasion, and many accusations of Vandalism and want of reverence were hurled at the head of Lady Howe; but as she spared the grotto, the removal of the house was in due time forgiven her.
A willow once overhung the Thames from Pope's garden, but the relic-hunters in the course of time so chipped and cut and lopped the tree - in admiration, not of the tree, but of the poet - that its vitality was destroyed.
It was cut down, and converted most probably into snuff boxes - in the not very remote days when the use of snuff was almost universal.
The grotto was erected about the year 1715.
"Being", as Dr.
Johnson says in his "Lives of the Poets", "under the necessity of making a subterranean passage to a garden on the other side of the road, he adorned it with fossils, and dignified it with the name of a grotto; a place of silence and retreat, from which he endeavoured to persuade himself and his friends that cares and passions could be excluded."
His principal friends at this time were Lords Bolingbroke and Marchmont, who, like Pope himself, were by far too sensible to imagine that cares and passions could be excluded from a spot on earth, except
The pleasant fosse, six feet by twain,
Impervious to all grief,

which, until cremation becomes the law of sepulture, must be the final dwelling- place of all humanity.
Pope intended to inscribe on the walls of his grotto the following lines which he wrote for the purpose.
Though included in his works they do not appear to have ever been set forth in the place for which they were intended.

Thou who shalt stop where Thames' translucent wave
Shines, a broad mirror, through the shady cave,
Where lingering drops from mineral roofs distil,
And pointed crystals break the sparkling rill !
Unpolish'd gems no ray of pride bestow,
And latent metals innocently glow.
Approach! great Nature studiously behold,
And eye the mint, without a wish for gold !
Approach! but awful. Lo! the Egerian grot
Where, nobly pensive, St.John sat and thought,
Where British sighs from dying Wyndham stole,
And the bright flame was shot through Marchmont's soul,
Let such, such only, tread this sacred floor,
Who dare to love their country and be poor.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - Strawberry Hill

Strawberry Hill, the abode of Horace Walpole, author of "The Castle of Otranto", and in our day the favourite residence of the late Countess of Walde- grave, daughter of John Braham, one of the most celebrated of English vocalists, must be mentioned among the places on the banks of the Thames that recall pleasant memories of literature and song.


Petersham, Surrey, on the right bank, a small village at the foot of Richmond Hill.
Population, 683. Soil, sand and gravel.
Here was once Petersham Lodge, which was some years ago pulled down and the grounds thrown into Richmond Park, including the Mount, where, according to some chroniclers, Henry VI II. stood to see the signal for the execution of Anne Boleyn.
There must be some mistake as to this matter, for other lovers of tradition assert that the king awaited the signal at Ankerwycke; while we have it on the unimpeachable authority of Mr.Harrison Ainsworth that the king waited the firing of the signal gun in company with Heme the Hunter in Windsor Forest.
At Petersham is Ham House, the property of the Earl of Dysart, a rather gloomy mansion jealously surrounded by trees.
It contains many rare and valuable portraits and pictures, and is in itself curious.
The church is a very small red-brick building with brick tower, and is said to date from 1505, though almost the only portion bearing any signs of age is the diminutive chancel.
This was originally a chapel attached to the priory of Merton.
In it were discovered by the late Sir Gilbert Scott a window of the 13th century and an oak roof, the remains of the church as remodelled in 1505.
In the chancel is a fine marble tomb, reaching from the floor to the ceiling, to the memory of some members of the Cole family.
There are three recumbent life-size figures each leaning on its right elbow.
Mrs.Cole wears a ruff and curious poke head-dress of the period, which appears to be 1624.
Over George Cole and his wife Francisca is an arch with carved cherubs smiling down upon them and upon the child which reposes underneath them, and which may be either a boy or a girl, according to fancy.
Opposite to this interesting monument is a marble mural tablet, with the chronic skull at the base, and with the usual accompanying cherubs and a profuse display of armorial bearings to Sir Thomas Jenner, who married Anne Poe, only daughter and heiress of James Poe, whose father, Leonard Poe, Doctor of Physicke, was physician to Queen Elizabeth, King James, and Charles I.
Sir Thomas Jenner was Recorder of London, and afterwards Baron of the Exchequer and Justice of "ye Comon Pleas".
He died in 1706-1707.
Facing the pulpit on the right is a marble tablet erected by the Hudson's Bay Company to Captain Vancouver, the North Pacific explorer, who is buried in the churchyard, which also contains the tomb of the Duchess of Lauderdale.
The picturesque almshouses for the reception of six inmates were built with money left by a lady who desired her name to remain unknown.
A handsome school for the children of the village was built in Richmond Park by the late Earl Russell.
At Petersham is Sudbrook Park, the well-known hydropathic establishment of Dr.Lane.
Inn: "the Dysart Arms", opposite Richmond Park Gate.
Places of Worship: St.Peter's, and a Wesleyan Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance).
Mails from London: 7 and 9am, 2.30 and 7.25pm
For London: 8.30 and 11.25am, 4.20 and 8.20pm
Nearest Bridges: Richmond; up, Kingston 4½ miles; down, Kew 2¼ miles.
Lock: up, Teddington 3 miles.
Ferries: Petersham and Isleworth.
Nearest Railway Station: Richmond (which see for Fares).

Glovers Island

Richmond Bridge

Richmond Bridge.
Boats may be left either at Messenger's boat-house, or at Wheeler's, close to the bridge.
The trip is generally concluded here, the banks of the river below this point presenting little or nothing to attract the visitor.
Except, therefore, in the case of oarsmen bound for one of the metropolitan club-houses, it is recommended that the boat should finally be left at Richmond.


Richmond, Surrey, on the right bank from London 15½ miles, from Oxford 96 miles.
A station on the Windsor branch of the London and South Western Railway, 9¾ miles from Waterloo; average duration of journey rather less than ½ hour.
Richmond is also in communication with Ludgate-hill (from 1 hour to 1½ hour); Mansion House (about ¾ hour); Broad-street (about 1 hour); and Aldgate (1 hour).
Steamboats occasionally run to Richmond in the summer.
Population, 15,110. Soil: clay, sand, and gravel.
Richmond, one of the most favourite excursions of Londoners of all classes, received its present name from Henry VII., having been previously called Sheen, which name still survives at East Sheen, one of the entrances to Richmond Park.
For a long period Sheen was a royal residence.
The first three Edwards resided there.
The third, unable to bear the associations of the place after it had been the scene of the death of his wife, dismantled it, but Henry V. restored it, and also founded a great monastery of Carthusians, and a grand tournament at Henry VII.'s manor of Richmond is now on record.
Henry VIII. also occasionally visited the Surrey palace, and at one time lent it to Wolsey.
Queen Elizabeth was imprisoned at Richmond, where she afterwards frequently resided, and where she died.
Part of Charles I.'s troubled life was passed here.
The palace stood on the spot now known as the Green, and has long since disappeared.

From a small village Richmond has rapidly grown into a considerable town, and building is still actively carried on.
Its convenient distance from London, beautiful and healthy situation, and pleasant neighbourhood, all combine to make it attractive to those who have daily business in town, and still want a certain amount of fresh air, while the railway facilities have been greatly in- creased and improved of late years.
Houses, therefore, of all classes, from the mansion to the cottage, have been lately springing up in all directions.
The principal business streets are George-street and Hill-street; the principal residential portion of the town being about the hill.
Nothing in the neighbourhood of London is better known or more delightful than the view from Richmond Hill and Terrace, and when Sir Walter Scott described it as an unrivalled landscape, he was hardly saying too much.
At the top of the hill is the Great Park, some eight miles in circumference, and affording an infinite variety of delightful walks and drives.
There are entrances from Richmond Hill, East Sheen, Roehampton, Wimbledon, and Kingston.
Cabs are not admitted.
Angling in the Pen Ponds only by special permission.
The view of Richmond Hill and town from the river, here crossed by a stone bridge of five arches, is extremely good.
The Richmond Theatre, once very popular and associated with many great names - notably with that of Edmund Kean - is on the Green; but in regard to public amusements generally Richmond is practically a London suburb, and the Waterloo Station is too near the great theatrical district about the Strand to give the Richmond Theatre a very brilliant chance.
There is a parochial library of about 3,000 volumes and reading-room at 2, The Quadrant.
The subscription is 6s per annum, or 2s per quarter, with 6d entrance fee.
Entertainments and lectures are given in the winter months.
The Richmond Piscatorial Society has been recently established , with headquarters at the "Station Hotel".
" The Associated Home Company has been started at Richmond with the object of providing "a private home, freed by a joint system of board and service from the burdens and troubles of isolated housekeeping".
A handsome mansion on Richmond Hill has been secured, and board with service is charged £2 2s per week.
Rooms are from 10s 6d, to £2 2s per week.

The church is of the hideous red brick usual hereabouts, but unpromising as it appears from a cursory view, it contains many monuments of note.
Here was buried Edmund Kean, and a tablet to his memory, with a medallion portrait, has been erected.
Here also the poet Thomson was interred, and a brass in the west of the north aisle tells us: "The Earl of Buchan, unwilling that so good a man and sweet a poet should be without a memorial, has denoted the place of his interment for the satisfaction of his admirers in the year of our Lord 1792."
In the chancel on the right is a mural monument, with two principal and seven subsidiary kneeling figures in stone or alabaster, to Lady Dorothie Wright, 1631, and an early brass to Robert Cotton, "officer of the remooving wardroppe of ye beddes to Queene Marie".
On the left is a monument with kneeling figures to Lady Margaret Chudleigh, 1628; and a tablet with two marble full-length angels, by E.H.Baily, R.A., to Samuel Paynter, who died in 1844.
In the south aisle is a monument by Flaxman, a full-length marble figure of a female, apparently leaning on a pillar letter-box, to Mrs.Barbara Lowther, 1805.
This was erected by the Duchess of Bolton, Mrs.Lowther's sister.
In the south gallery is a mural monument, surmounted by a bust, to Robert Lewes, who appears to have been a barrister.
This bears an odd Latin epitaph, commencing "Eheu viator siste gradum paulisper", and ending "Abi viator et cave posthac Litiges".
As Cook's local guide observes, Robert Lewes "was such a great lover of peace and quietness, that when a contention arose in his body between life and death, he immediately gave up the ghost to end the dispute".
The remaining churches are modern erections of no special attractiveness.
On Richmond Hill is the Wesleyan Theological Institution for the training of ministers.
There are almshouses for over seventy poor people, of which Hickey's Almshouses are said to have an income of more than £1,000 a year.
Many celebrated names besides those connected with the church of St.Mary Magdalen are associated with Richmond.
Dean Swift lived in a house on the site of the old monastery, and Thomson, the poet, lived and died in the house now used as the Richmond Hospital.
The matron's sitting-room was occupied by him, and is still called Thomson's Room.

Banks: London and County, George-street; London and Provincial, Hill-street.
Fire: Engine-station, The Square.
Hospital: The Richmond Hospital.
Hotels and Inns: "Greyhound", "King's Head", "Star and Garter", "Station", "Talbot", "Three Pigeons".
Places of Worship: Hickey's Alms houses Chapel; Holy Trinity Church; St.John's; St.Mary Magdalen (parish); and St.Matthias; the Roman Catholic Church of St.Elizabeth; and Baptist, Congregational, Independent, Presbyterian, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Metropolitan (V Division), Station, George-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings' bank, telegraph, insurance), George-street.
Mails from London, 6.30 and 8.30am, 1.50, 3.50, 6.50, and 9pm.
No delivery on Sunday, but letters are delivered on Saturday at 9pm
Mails for London, 6.15 and 9.35am, 12.50, 3.05, 5.15, 9.15, and 10pm; Sunday, 8.30pm
Nearest Bridges: Richmond; up, Kingston 5 miles; down, Kew 3 miles.
Lock: up, Teddington, 3 miles.
Ferries: Petersham and Isleworth.
Fares to Waterloo, 1st, 1/3, 2/-; 2nd, 1/- 1/6; 3rd, 9d, 1/3.
To Broad-street, 1st, 1/6, 2/3; 2nd, 1/2, 1/8; 3rd, 1/-, 1/6.
To Ludgate-hill or Mansion House, 1st, 1/6, 2/3; 2nd, 1/3, 1/9; 3rd, 1/-, 1/6.
To the Tower, 1st, 1/8, 2/6; 2nd, 1/4, 1/11; 3rd, 11d, 1/8

Richmond, and beautiful Richmond Park, one of the favourite resorts of Londoners when they make holiday, are closely associated with the life and labours of James Thomson, author of the almost forgotten series of poems, "The Seasons", and the national anthem of "Rule Britannia", not heard in our day so frequently as in the last generation.
Here he lived and died, a prosperous and contented gentleman, and here he was buried.
The latter fact is celebrated by some beautiful lines of his brother poet Collins, the author of the famous "Ode to the Passions".
An American poet, traveller, and diplo- matist, the late Bayard Taylor, was taken on his first visit to England to dine at the "Star and Garter" (the old original "Star and Garter", the retreat of King Louis Philippe and his family after his flight from Paris in 1848, since destroyed by fire), and from all he had heard and read expected to find the view from Richmond Hill surpassingly beautiful.
He admired the silvery winding and meanderings of the Thames, as seen from the gardens of the hotel, but on the whole he experienced a feeling of disappointment with the over-vaunted charm of the landscape.
"It is fine, no doubt, but it sadly wants clearing!" He spoke in this respect not as a poet, but as a backwoodsman, whose first thought in America when he sees a vast expanse of what he calls "timber" is to cut it down, to facilitate the operations of the plough.
The popular song, "The Lass of Richmond Hill", which has been a favourite of the English people for three-quarters of a century, is supposed to have been inspired by admiration of some fair unknown who resided on the Terrace.
It has been ascribed to the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., who, however, was quite innocent of its perpetration.
The music was the composition of Hook, the father of Theodore Hook, the celebrated novelist; and the poetry, which scarcely deserves the name, except in a country where unfortunately any doggrel passes muster for a song, was written, according to the authority of Sir Henry Bishop, by one Upton, who wrote many scores of similar effusions for the once popular open-air concerts at Vauxhall Gardens.
There have been many controversies to determine, if possible, whether Richmond in Surrey or Richmond in Yorkshire were the abode of the real or possibly fabulous beauty of the song; but the probability is that there was no such person except in the fancy of Mr.Upton.

Corporation Island

Richmond Railway Bridge

Twickenham Bridge

Richmond Half tide lock & weir

1894: Richmond Half tide weir and lock opened]

Isleworth Ait


Isleworth, Middlesex, on the left bank; from London 15 miles, from Oxford 96½ miles.
A station on the South Western Railway 12 miles from Waterloo.
Trains average about 40 minutes, or from Ludgate-hill about an hour and a half.
Population, about 12,000. Soil, light.
Isleworth, known to Doomsday Book as Ghistelworde, and called in Elizabeth's time Thistleworth, is a place of some antiquity; but is now generally known in consequence of its market gardens, which are very numerous and prolific.
Here, also, are extensive flour mills, cement works, &c.
Close to the little town is Syon House, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland.
It is a large, plain mansion facing the river, and stands on the site of a nunnery founded in the time of Henry V.
In the natural course of events the nunnery was dissolved by Henry VIII.
It was given by Edward VI too Seymour, Duke of Somerset, and after several confiscations was finally granted, in 1604, to the Earl of Northumberland, who built the present house.
The well-known Lion from Northumberland House, Strand, having retired from public life, now takes his ease at Syon.
Half a mile above Syon House is the Church Ferry, and another ferry is above the eyots, half a mile nearer Richmond.
Among the local institutions are the Isleworth and St.John's Working Men's Clubs, and the Public Reading-room and Library.
The subscription to the latter is 5s annually, 1s 6d quarterly.
The Reading-room is in South-street.
Opposite the Church Ferry is the Green School, a red brick building, erected in 1861 by the late Duchess of Northumberland.
This school is endowed to clothe and educate 40 girls between the ages of seven and fourteen.
The Blue Schools are for girls and boys.
In addition to various places of worship is a Roman Catholic convent.
The list of charities and alms-houses is very extensive.
The parish church, All Saints, was rebuilt in 1705, and restored in 1866.
It is a fine building, with a remarkably beautiful ivy-covered tower.
In it are some good brasses, one of the 15th century, and one in front of the Duke of Northumberland's pew to the memory of Margaret Dely, who died 1561, having been a nun at Syon when it was restored to its original purposes by Queen Mary.
Fire: Volunteer Fire Brigade, Station-house-square.
Inns: " London Apprentice", Church-street; "Northumberland Arms", Brentford End; "Orange Tree", Mill Bridge.
Places of Worship: All Saints (parish), St.John the Baptist, and St.Mary's;
the Roman Catholic Church of St.Mary Immaculate and St.Bridget, and the Convent Chapels; also Congregational and Wesleyan Chapels, and Friends' Meeting House.
Police: Metropolitan (T Division), Station, Worple-road.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance).
Mails from London, 7 and 9am, 2.30 and 6.45pm (Saturdays, 8.30pm) No Sunday delivery.
Mails for London, 6.15 and 9.45am, 12.45, 5.15, and 9.30pm; Sundays, 9pm
Nearest Bridges, up, Richmond about ½ mile; down, Kew about 2 miles.
Lock, up, Teddington, 3J miles.
Ferries: Isleworth and Brentford.
Railway Station: Isleworth.
Fares to Waterloo and Ludgate-hill: 1st, 1/2, 1/9; 2nd, 1/-, 1/6; 3rd, 10d, 1/4.

Syon House

Brentford Marina


Brentford, Middlesex, on the left bank, from London 13 miles, from Oxford 98½ miles, nearly opposite Kew; a station on the London and South- Western Railway 10½ miles from Waterloo.
Trains average 35 minutes.
There are alternative routes to Ludgate (about 1 hour) and Paddington (about 45 minutes).
Population, 11,091.
Soil, London clay.
Brentford has been described as a
tedious town
For dirty streets and white-legged chickens known;

and although the chickens are no longer a specialty, the streets are still open to improvement.
The place, now divided into Old and New Brentford, is in fact, a bustling, busy, metropolitan water-side district rather than a self-contained town, and has the untidiness characteristic of such places.
The river Brent enters the Thames here, and at its mouth are the extensive docks of the Great Western Railway, where whole fleets of barges discharge and take in cargoes.
Many important manufactures are carried on in both parts of the town.
The town-hall, the post-office, and other public buildings are in New Brentford.
The church of Old Brentford is dedicated to St.George, and is a plain brick building of no great antiquity, with an altar-piece by Zoffany, who lived at Strand-on-the-Green, just below Kew Bridge.
It is in contemplation to build a new church, and to this end a site costing £2,200 has been secured.
The church of New Brentford is dedicated to St.Lawrence, and, except the tower, which is of great antiquity, dates from about the middle of the last century.
St. Paul's Church, Old Brentford, was built in 1868.
Bank: London and County, High street.
Hotels: "Star and Garter"; "Kew Bridge Castle"; "New Brentford".
Market: Tuesday.
Places of Worship: St.George's; St.Lawrence; St.Paul's; and the Roman Catholic Church of St.John the Evangelist.
Police: Station (T division, Metropolitan), High-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, insurance).
Mails from London, 7 and 8am, 2.40, 6.45, and 8.20pm.
Sunday, over counter, 8 to 10 am.
Mails for London, 6.15 and 9.30am, 12.40, 3, 5, 8.15, and 9.50pm.
Sunday, 9pm.
Nearest Bridges, up, Richmond 2½ miles; down, Kew ½ mile.
Lock, up, Teddington, 5¼ miles.
Ferry and Railway Station, Brentford.
Fares to Waterloo or Ludgate: 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, -/10, 1/2; 3rd, -/8, 1/-.
To Paddington: 1st, 1/6, 2/3; 2nd, 1/2, 1/9; 3rd, -/10.

Grand Union Canal entrance



Kew, Surrey, on the right bank; from London 12½ miles, from Oxford 99 miles.
Kew Bridge is a station on the South Western Railway, 9¼ miles from Waterloo; trains take about half an hour.
There is another route to Ludgate-hill, trains, average 1¼ hour.
The Kew Gardens station is on the Surrey side, and is in connection with most of the Metropolitan Railway stations, via District, &c.
The Kew Bridge station is on the Middlesex side, the two counties being here connected by a stone bridge, where there is also a steamboat pier.
Population, 1033. Soil, gravel.
Like most villages near London, Kew is losing most of its distinctive features, and but for the quaint old green with its picturesque surroundings, there is little to remind of the Kew of even twenty years ago.
By the side of Kew Green is Cambridge Cottage, and near it an entrance to the magnificent Botanical Gardens, among the finest in the world.
Kew Gardens are not only among the most favourite resorts of the London holiday-maker, but have special value to the botanist and horticulturist.
The judicious expenditure of public money has made the gardens and houses at Kew almost unique among public institutions of the kind.
Here are to be seen flourishing in an atmosphere of their own, though in an uncongenial climate, the most beautiful tropical palms, plants, ferns, fern-trees, and cacti; and the pleasure-grounds and arboretum contain in endless and exhaustive profusion specimens of the flowers, shrubs, and trees indigenous to Great Britain.
Attached to the gardens is a valuable museum of useful vegetable products.
The Gardens are at present open free to the public every day in the week, Sundays included, in the afternoon; the morning hours being reserved for the necessary work of the gardeners, curators, and a few favoured students.
On Bank Holidays, however, the Gardens are opened at 10am.
Kew Palace was built by Sir Hugh Portman during the reign of James I., and is close to the gardens.
It is a plain building of red brick, and, like many other plain things and people, was high in favour with George III. and Queen Charlotte.
The Church of St.Anne was built in 1714, and enlarged in 1840.
It is chiefly noteworthy for its graveyard, which contains the tombs of many celebrated men, amongst them being Gainsborough and Zoffany, the latter having been a resident of Strand-on-the-Green just across the river.
Gainsborough was not a resident in the neighbourhood, but was buried here by his own desire.
A brief inscription on the stone records Gainsborough's death, and in the church is a tablet to his memory, erected by E.M.Ward, R.A.
In Kew churchyard also lie Meyer the painter, and Sir William Hooker, the late director of the Botanic Gardens.
To the east of the church is the mausoleum of the late Duke of Cambridge.
The following curious epitaph is inscribed on a slab at the entrance to the church:

Here lyeth the bodys of Robert and Ann Plaistow,
late of Tyso, near Edy Hill,
died August the 28, 1728.

At Tyso they were born and bred,
And in the same good lives they led
Until they came to marriage state,
Which was to them most fortunate.
Near sixty years of mortal life
They were a happy man and wife;
And being so by nature tied,
When one fell sick the other died,
And both together laid in dust
To wait the rising of the just.
They had six children, born and bred,
And five before them being dead,
Their only one surviving son
Hath caus'd this stone for to be done.

The foundation stone of the Queen's Free School for boys and girls was laid by William IV.; the Queen and Royal Family, especially the Cambridge branch, are liberal benefactors.
Inns: "Star and Garter", Middlesex side;
"Coach and Horses", "Greyhound", "Cumberland Arms", Kew-road; "King's Arms", "Rose and Crown", the Green.
Place of Worship: St.Anne's.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 7 and 8.30am, 2.20, 6.30, and 8.40pm; Sunday, 7.30am
Mails to London, 6.15, 9.40am, 12.50, 5.10, and 9.05pm; Sunday, 9.15pm
Nearest bridge: Kew; nearest Bridges: up, Richmond 3 miles; down, Hammersmith 4 miles.
Lock: up, Teddington about 6 miles.
Ferry: Kew, above the Eyots.
Railway Station: Kew.
Fares to Waterloo: 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, 9d, 1/2; 3rd, 8d, 1/-
Kew Gardens to Mansion House: 1st, 1/2, 1/9; 2nd, 1/-, 1/4; 3rd, 9d, 1/2.

Lots Ait

Brentford Aits

Kew Bridge

Olivers Ait

Kew Railway Bridge

Chiswick Marina

Grove Park Rowing Club

Grove Park Rowing Club, Chiswick.
Amateur: Election by ballot in committee, one "negative vote" in five to exclude.
Entrance fee, a £1 share in the Grove Park Boat-house Company (Lim.).
Subscription, £1 11s 6d.; honorary members, £1 1s.
Colours, red, black, and yellow. Club-house, Grove-park, Chiswick.

Anglian Boat Club.

Established 1878.
Subscriptions, rowing members, £1 10s; coxswains, 10s.
; honorary members, £1 1s.
Entrance fee of £1 1s. may be remitted in certain cases.
Election by ballot in general meeting; one black ball in six excludes.
Colours, maroon, black, and light blue.
Boathouse, Maynards, Chiswick.

Chiswick Bridge


Chiswick, London, S.W., on the left bank.
A waterside suburb about 5 miles west of Hyde Park Corner, rapidly being swallowed up by the advancing tide of buildings.
Hogarth died here, and is buried in the churchyard.
Rousseau also lived here, boarding at a little grocer's shop.
The gardens of the Horticultural Society lie on the Turnham-green side.
Chiswick Church is situated at the west-end of the pleasant riverside walk known as the Mall; and just opposite lies Chiswick Eyot, a well-known landmark in champion and University boat-races.
There is a ferry here from the bottom of Chiswick-lane, in Middlesex, to Ferry-lane, leading to Barnes Common, in Surrey.
Chiswick may be reached by rail from Waterloo, Ludgate-hill, and Mansion House.


Mortlake, London, S.W.: On the right bank from a river point of view, is chiefly noticeable as being the terminus of the championship and University boat-races.
From Waterloo (about 25 min.). 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, 10d, 1/3; 3rd, 8d, 1/-.
Nearest Bridge, Kew.

Barnes Railway Bridge & Footbridge

Barnes, London, S.W.

On the right bank of the Thames between Putney and Mortlake, and a good place for a view of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat-race.
Barnes-common, in actual extent 135 acres, 15 of which, however, are now absorbed by the railway, is open and airy, and villas are rising rapidly all round it.
It is one of the best kept commons round London, and, moreover, marches with Wimbledon Common and Putney Heath, so that the extent of open ground immediately around is really very large.
There is a capital terrace with good houses fronting the river, and at high water the view is pretty enough.
At certain states of the tide, however, there is somewhat more mud on view than is altogether desirable.
From Waterloo (about 20 min.), 1st: 9d, 1/0d; 2nd: 7d, -/10; 3rd: 6d, 8d.
From Ludgate-hill (45 min.), 1st: 1/-, 1/6; 2nd: 10d, 1/3; 3rd, 8d, 1/-.
Nearest Bridge, Hammersmith.

Ranelagh Club

Ranelagh Club, Barn Elms, on the right bank: On much the same principles as the Hurlingham.
Entrance fee, £10 10s., and annual subscription, £5 5s.
Members are entitled to admit two ladies with free passes, and may give vouchers of admission on payment to as many friends as they please.
The price of admission to members' friends is 10s, except on such day as the committee may appoint, when it is raised to 20s
No person is eligible for membership who is not received in general society.
The election is in the hands of the committee.
At least five members must vote, and one black ball in five excludes.

Barnes and Mortlake Amateur Regatta

Barnes and Mortlake Amateur Regatta was originally founded in 1852, and has been held every year since without intermission.
The course is between Maynard's boat-house at Strand-on-the-green and Barnes railway-bridge, a distance of about one and a half mile, and races are rowed up or down accord- ing to the tide.
About £100 worth of prizes is annually distributed, and for the senior four-oared race there is a challenge- cup, value £75.
Winners of the Challenge Cup:
1862 London Rowing Club.
1863 London Rowing Club.
1864 Kingston Rowing Club.
1865 Kingston Rowing Club.
1866 London Rowing Club.
1867 London Rowing Club.
1868 London Rowing Club.
1869 London Rowing Club.
1870 London Rowing Club.
1871 London Rowing Club.
1872 Thames Rowing Club.
1873 Thames Rowing Club.
1874 London Rowing Club.
1875 Thames Rowing Club.
1876 Thames Rowing Club.
1877 Thames Rowing Club.
1878 London Rowing Club.
1879 Thames Rowing Club.
1880 Thames Rowing Club.
1881 Thames Rowing Club.
1882 Not rowed, owing to the committee having accepted the entry of the American Hillsdale Crew, and the Thames and London Clubs therefore declining to compete.
1883 London Rowing Club.
1884 Grove Park Rowing Club.
[Detailed results omitted - Regatta, July 26, 1884]
Junior Sculls (rowed up):
Eights (rowed up).
Junior Fours (rowed up).
The Fitzgerald Challenge Cup for Public School Fours (rowed down).
Senior Pairs (rowed down).
Local Fours (for the Committee Challenge Cup) (rowed down).
Senior Sculls (rowed down).
Senior Fours (Barnes Challenge Cup) (rowed down).

Chiswick Eyot

Hammersmith Bridge

Hammersmith, London, S.W:
On the left bank, is chiefly remarkable on the river for the Mall, just above the bridge, which contains, besides some modern houses, a few remnants of the Anne and Georgian periods.
Below bridge the bank is more commercial and less pleasing.
A suspension bridge, with carriage road, spans the river at this point, and was for many years a favourite and cheap grand stand on the University Boat-race day.
Regard for the public safety has induced the authorities to close it during the race.
It is now (1885) being rebuilt.
At Hammersmith are the headquarters of a number of rowing clubs, and Biffen's well known boat-house is on the Mall-road.
Nearest Railway Stations: District and Metropolitan, Broadway;
Omnibus Routes, Hammersmith, and Hammersmith and Barnes;
Steamboat Pier: Hammersmith.

Ariadne Boat Club, Hammersmith.

Election by ballot in committee, one black ball in six excludes.
Entrance fee, 10s.; subscription, active members, £1 10s.; honorary members, 10s. 6d.
Boathouse, Biffen's, The Mall, Hammersmith.
Motto, Per ardua stabilis.
Colours, purple and white.

Kensington Rowing Club

Kensington Rowing Club: Headquarters, Biffen's, Hammersmith.
Election by ballot, either at general or committee meeting; two adverse votes at a committee, or four at a general meeting, excluding.
Entrance fee, 10s 6d; Subscription, 30s acting members; 21s honorary members.
Boathouse, Biffen's, Hammersmith. Colours, pink and black.

Leander Club

[1897: Leander Club moved to Henley]

Leander Club: this old-established rowing club (sometimes called the "Brilliants") consists of members and honorary members; the subscription for the former is £2 2s, for the latter £1 1s.
Members of the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are only liable to a subscription of 10s 6d per annum so long as they are resident undergraduates.
The election of members is entrusted to the committee.
Colours, red. Boat-house, Biffen's, Hammersmith.

Metropolitan Railway Rowing Club

Metropolitan Railway Rowing Club, Hammersmith:
Election: Either majority at the general meeting on election of officers, or afterwards by the officers.
Boat-house: Biffen's, Hammersmith. Colours, blue and violet.

London Hospital Rowing Club

London Hospital Rowing Club, Hammersmith:
Subscription: Effective members, 10s 6d; hon members, "not less than 10s 6d"
Candidates for membership shall become members on giving in their names and subscriptions to the secretary.
Boat-house: Biffen's, Hammersmith. Colours: red and black stripe.
Badge: red and black oar, serpent and garter. Motto: Celer et certus.

North London Rowing Club

North London Rowing Club, Hammersmith:
Election is by ballot in general meeting: one black ball in five excludes.
Entrance fee, £1 1s, subscription, £1 10s.
Colours, dark blue and light blue vertical. Boat-house, Biffen's, Hammersmith.

Occidental Rowing Club

Occidental Rowing Club, Hammersmith: Election by ballot of members, not less than fifteen to vote, one blackball in five to exclude.
Entrance fee, 10s 6d; subscription, £1 10s.
Headquarters, Biffen's, the Mall, Hammersmith. Colours, blue, black, and gold diagonals.

London Sailing Club

London Sailing Club: Club-house, The Rutland Hotel, the Mall, Hammersmith.
The officers are Commodore, vice and rear-Commodores, Treasurer, and hon secretary, who with eight members constitute the committee both for sailing and general purposes.
Election is by ballot in general meeting: one black ball in four excludes.
Entrance fee, 10s 6d. Subscription: owners of boats, £1 1s; non-owners, or honorary members, 10s 6d.
Burgee, blue with yellow dolphin.

Boatrace Map flow & tide

Boatrace 2010s

Women's Boat Race before 2015

Boatrace 2000s; 1990s; 1980s; 1970s; 1960s; 1950s; 1940s; 1930s; 1920s; 1910s; 1900s; 1890s; 1880s; 1870s

Harvard v Oxford 1869

Boatrace 1860s; 1850s; 1845 to 1849; 1836 to 1842; 1829

University Boat Race

Not many years ago the annual eight-oared race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was an event which concerned only the crews, their friends, the members of the Universities, and that small portion of the general public which took pleasure in river sports.
It was a quiet, friendly sort of gathering enough in those days.
The comparatively few people who watched the practice of the crews all seemed to know each other.
It was a wonderful week for parsons.
Past University oarsmen, their jerseys exchanged for the decorous high waistcoat, the white choker taking the place of the rowing-man's muffler, were to be met all over Putney, and about Searle's yard and the London Boat-house.
The towing-path was a sort of Rialto or High 'Change, on which old friends met and renewed their youth as they talked over old times, and criticised their successors.
There were but few rowing-clubs then; the river had not become the fashion; the professional touts and tipsters had not fastened on the boat-race; the graphic reporter as yet was not.
There was betting, of course, but it was of a modest kind, and was unaccompanied by publicity.
The whole had the ring of true sport about it.
It seemed indeed to be the only event that kept alive that idea of sport for its own sake which was fast fading out, if it was not already extinct, in most other contests.

Of course it was too good to last.
The popularising process was not likely to spare the boat-race.
First of all aquatics generally grew more in favour, and so a larger public was attracted to take an interest in the battle of the blues.
Then the newspapers took the subject up, and the graphic reporter worked his will with the race and its surroundings, and the extraordinary multiplication of sporting newspapers and sporting articles in papers of all sorts, let loose any number of touts on to the towing-path.
Finally the ominous announcement of "Boat-race, 5 to 4 on Oxford (taken in hundreds)", and the like began to appear in the price current of Tattersall's; and the whole character of the race was changed.
What the blue fever is now, and has been for some years, every Londoner knows well.
Perhaps it is because the boat-race is the first of the spring events - as it were, the first swallow which indicates at least the possibility of a summer - perhaps it is because of the very natural readiness that exists among the masses to take advantage of any excuse for a holiday; perhaps it is because of the sheep-like tendency of the British public of all classes to follow a leader of any kind anywhere, that the complaint assumes so epidemic a form with every recurring spring.
It is certain, at all events, that for some time before the race there is taken in it - or affected to be taken, which does just as well - an interest which has about it even something ludicrous.
Every scrap of gossip about the men and their boats, their trials and their coaches, is greedily devoured.
Year by year, to gratify the public taste in that direction, has the language of the industrious gentlemen who describe the practice become more and more candid, not to say personal.
The faults and peculiarities of individual members of the crews are criticised in some quarters in terms which might be considered rude if applied to a favourite for the Derby, who presumably does not read the sporting papers, and which, when used in speaking of gentlemen who may perhaps have feelings to be hurt, seems to the unprejudiced mind even offensive.
The gushing reporter not only attends the race itself, but disports himself on the towing-path after his peculiar and diverting fashion on practice days, and daily develops the strangest conglomeration of views on matters aquatic in the greatest possible number of words.
All sorts of dodges, borrowed from some of the shabbiest tricks of the "horse-watcher's" trade, are adopted by touts, amateur and professional, to get at the time of the crews between certain points, or over the whole course.
The race is betted upon as regularly as the Derby, as publicly, and as generally.

Cabmen, butcher boys, and omnibus drivers sport the colours of the Universities in all directions: the dark blue of Oxford and the light blue of Cambridge fill all the hosiers' shops, and are flaunted in all sorts of indescribable company.
Every publican who has a flag-staff hoists a flag to mark his preference and to show which way his crown or so has gone - unless, as is sometimes the case, he be a dispassionate person with no pecuniary interest involved, in which case he impartially displays the banners of both crews.
Everybody talks about the race, and it generally happens that the more ignorant of the matter is the company the more heated is the discussion, and the more confident and dogmatic the opinions expressed.
That thousands and thousands of people go down to the river on the important day who do not know one end of a boat from the other, who have no prospect of seeing anything at all, and no particular care whether they do see anything or not, is not surprising.
That other thousands go, knowing perfectly well that all they are likely to see is a mere glimpse of the two crews as they dash by, perhaps separated by some boats' lengths after the real struggle is all over, is equally natural.
Thousands and thousands of people go to the Derby on exactly the same principles.
That any has claimed the boat-race for his own is only to say that he is there as he is everywhere, and that circumstance is not perhaps to be laid to the charge of the boat-race.
But the fact is, and becomes more and more plain every year, that the boat-race is becoming vulgarised - not in the sense that it is patronised and in favour with what are called "common people", but in the sense that it has got to be the centre of most undesirable surroundings- and that its removal from metropolitan waters would not be lamented by real friends of the Universities, or lovers of genuine sport.
It is not so bad as the Eton and Harrow cricket match, which has been utterly vulgarised by "society", genuine and sham, and for which there is no kind of excuse or reason.
The University crews cannot meet each other on their own waters, as cricketers can play upon each other's grounds.
They must have a neutral course to row upon.
It is probable, before very long, that it will occur to the authorities that there are other suitable pieces of water in England besides the Putney course, and that there is no reason whatever why, if the annual vexata quæstio of the rowing superiority of the rival Universities is all that is to be taken into account, the race should not be rowed elsewhere.
The managers of the race or their friends have shown signs of some confusion of mind on this head on more than one occasion.
Protests have gone forth that it is a private match with which the public have nothing to do.
The crowding of spectators to see the practice - and as many people go nowadays to Putney on a Saturday afternoon, if there be a good tide, as used to go to the race itself twenty years ago - has been complained of.
The general exhibition of interest has been deprecated.
It has been intimated that all this newspaper publicity is distasteful and undesirable.
In some strange way the boat devoted to the service of the general body of the press on the day of the race is always either so slow a tub as to be of little use, or else meets with some mysterious accident which deprives its occupants of any but a very distant view of the proceedings, while their more fortunate brethren, who happen to have been educated at Oxford or Cambridge, are careering gaily after the racing boats on board one of the University steamers.
The independent sporting papers say that accurate information has become more and more difficult to get, and newspaper reports - except in special quarters - are, following out the private-match theory, discouraged as much as possible.
But it is all to no purpose.
The boat-race can never shake off its surroundings so long as it continues to be rowed at Putney.
Change of air will, in all probability, shortly be found necessary to restore it to a healthy condition - a condition in which it certainly is not now.

As matters stand at present, the race is rowed annually, about the Saturday before Passion Week, between Putney and Mortlake, usually with the flood-tide, although occasionally the reverse course has been taken.
The crews are generally at Putney for a fortnight or more for practice, a very much longer period of training on the tidal water being considered necessary now than was the case in the earlier years of the match.
Four steamers only accompany the race: one for the umpire, one for either University, and one for the press; and although this arrangement is decidedly an advantage from the point of view of the public safety, the spectators about Hammersmith and Barnes lose a singular sight.
The charge through the bridges of the twenty steamers or so which used to be chartered to accompany the race was something to see; but although it was magnificent it was not safe, and it was fortunate that the Conservancy regulations stopped it before some terrible accident occurred.
That nothing very serious ever happened in that fleet of overcrowded, swaying, bumping, jostling boats was an annual cause for wonder; and it became sometimes, when one was on board one of the fleet as it approached Hammersmith, matter for rather serious consideration to speculate at what particular moment the mass of spectators on the suspension bridge would break it down and plunge with the ruins into the river.
Fortunately the bridge stood long enough for the official mind to be exercised on the subject before anything happened, and it is now wisely closed during and for some time before and after the race.
The best points of view are at Chiswick, on Barnes Terrace, or, best of all, perhaps, on Barnes Railway Bridge, tickets for which are to be had at Waterloo Station.
Otherwise, railway travelling between London and Mortlake cannot be recommended on boat-race days - for ladies at all events.

The Universities rowed their first match over a course of two miles and a quarter at Henley, and have met 40 times over the London course, as will be seen by the subjoined table, with the result that Oxford has won 21, and Cambridge 18 races, while the race of 1877 was given by the judge as a dead heat.
It is significant of the kind of influences that now prevail that this decision was productive of much discontent, and that the judge, who had officiated for a long period, was in the following year superseded.
Of course all sorts of improvements have been made in the boats in which the competitors row, the introduction of outriggers in 1846 and the adoption of sliding-seats in 1873 being the most radical alterations; but it is noticeable that from some cause or another the sliding-seats, which the modern rowing-man looks upon as an absolute necessity, do not seem to have increased the pace of the boats - if the time test goes for anything, that is to say.
This is the more remarkable, as rowing men appear to be agreed that a crew rowing in fixed seats would have no chance against opponents of exactly equal merit on slides.
It may be that the times taken before the days of chronographs were not exactly trustworthy.
However it may be explained, the fact remains.
It will be seen that success has often favoured one or other of the Universities for a series of years, only to go over to the other side for another series.
The most important consecutive score is that of Oxford, from 1861 to 1869.

In 1829 Oxford beat Cambridge easily over 2¼ miles at Putney, in 14 min 30 sec.
[ One hesitates to challenge such an authority as Charles Dickens - but the 1829 first university boatrace was over a 2¼ mile course at Henley. See here. The time I have was 14 min 40 secs.]

On five occasions the Universities have met in their heats for the Grand Challenge Cup at Henley with the following results:

Also at the Thames Regatta, 1844, Oxford beat Cambridge.
This is what maybe called the Morrison era, as the brothers Morrison were either in the boat or coaching during the whole, or the greater part, of that period, and finer crews than some of those which comprised such men as Darbishire, Willan, Tinne, the Morrisons, Hoare, Yarborough, Woodgate - to mention only a few names - have never been sent to Putney.
Then Cambridge, who had persevered with the utmost pluck through most disheartening difficulties and defeat, learnt the proper lesson from Morrison, and the light blue once more came to the front under the auspices of Goldie.
After this admirable stroke and sound judge, who did wonders for Cambridge rowing, came Rhodes, and plenty of good men have since been found to do battle at Putney for the honour of Cambridge.
Different times have been given by different authorities as the duration of the race in the last few years.
In one case two of the most trustworthy are at issue as to a matter of half a minute, so there must evidently be some mistake somewhere.
The times adopted in the preceding list are those given by the editor of the "Rowing Almanack", a thorough good judge of rowing, who has had many years' experience of timing races, and, being invariably careful, is presumably accurate.

Putney, on the right bank, rather more than 7 miles from London, is a considerable suburb grafted on to an old-fashioned High-street and water frontage.
It is the headquarters of London rowing, and during the fortnight before the University Boat-race and the period of the Volunteer encampment at Wimbledon is a very lively and bustling place.
At other times there is little to attract any but rowing men.
A most inconvenient, and even dangerous, bridge (now being rebuilt) connects Putney with Fulham, and a little above is an aqueduct of singularly unprepossessing exterior.
Putney is a station on the London and South Western Railway, about twenty minutes from London, and is a stopping place for steamers in the summer.
Omnibuses run from the City, via the Strand and Piccadilly, to the Fulham end of Putney Bridge.
Fares: 1st, 9d, 1/-; 2nd, 7d, 10d; 3rd, 5d, 8d.

Thames Rowing Club

The Thames Rowing Club was founded in 1861 as a pleasure club only.
Its headquarters were then at Simmons's.
There were very few members at first, but the numbers rapidly increased, and in 1862, when club races were first started, the club numbered nearly 150.
In 1877 the Thames Boathouse Company (Limited) was formed for the purpose of providing a boat and club house for the club.
Money was raised by means of shares, the club and the company being kept quite distinct.
The result has been the construction, at a cost of more than £3,000, of the present Thames Boat-house, on a site about 300 yards above that of the London.
The club at present numbers over 400 members.
The subscription for new members is £2 2s a year, with an entrance fee of £1 11s 6d.
A payment of £12 12s, or £7 7s after five years' full membership, entitles anyone to an honorary life membership.
The election is by ballot in general meeting; one black ball in five excluding.
Colours, red, black, and white.

London Rowing Club

London Rowing Club, Putney, was founded in 1856.
In 1869, for the purpose of borrowing funds for the erection of a new boat-house, the members formed themselves into the London Boat-house Co., Limited, which was duly incorporated in January, 1870.
The new house was opened in January, 1871, and some additions were made to it in 1875.
The sum expended was nearly £3,000, and the money was raised by debentures, some of which are drawn by lot for payment in each year.
The number of members is upwards of 500.
The election of members is by ballot in general meeting: one black ball in five excludes.
Entrance £2, being the cost of a share in the Boat-house Co., on which there is no further liability.
Subscription, £2 2s.
A payment of £15 15s at the time of election, or of £7 17s 6d after five years' membership, constitutes a life-membership.
The share reverts to the company on resignation, forfeiture, or expulsion of a member.
Sons, brothers, or nephews of members may be elected by ballot in general meeting under certain restrictions as cadet members, but the cadet member at the time of his election must not be less than ten years of age, and not more than sixteen; he must be able to swim, and cadet membership ceases at the age of eighteen.
Cadets pay no subscriptions or entrance fee.
Boat-house: Putney. Colours, blue and white vertical stripes.
Members who have passed an examination, and have qualified as "oarsmen", are also entitled to wear a silver badge.

Metropolitan Amateur Regatta

Metropolitan Amateur Regatta, Putney.
This regatta, which was founded in 1866, arose out of a challenge given by the West London Rowing Club to the London Rowing Club in the previous year for a junior eight-oared match.
Other clubs connected with the then existing Amateur Rowing Clubs Association joined in, and several crews started, with the result that the final heat from Putney to Chiswick Church was won by the London Rowing Club Crew, the Thames being second, and the West London third.
The event was so successful that it was decided to establish an annual regatta on the Putney water, and a large amount being collected amongst the members of the associated clubs and others, valuable - perhaps even too valuable - challenge prizes were bought, and the regatta was duly started under the management of the association.
That body, however, experienced the fate that has befallen so many attempts at combination amongst amateur clubs, and was in a short time dissolved.
Since then the management of the regatta has been in the hands of the London Rowing Club, the members of which subscribe and collect among their friends by far the greater portion of the money required to carry on the regatta, which takes place on the first available tide after Henley, when it is high water at about 5pm, that is to say.
The course - about a mile and three-quarters - is from Putney to Hammersmith, or vice versa, according to the state of the tide.
The winners of the challenge cups are as follows:

Hurlingham Club

The Hurlingham Club, on the left bank a short distance below Putney Bridge the club is instituted for the purpose of providing a ground for pigeon-shooting, polo, lawn-tennis, &c, surrounded with such accessories and so situated as to render it an agreeable country resort, not alone to those who take part in pigeon-shooting and polo, but also to their families and friends.
The club consists, at the time of revising this description of it, of shooting, polo, and non-shooting members.
Elected members pay an entrance fee of £15 15s, and an annual subscription of £5 5s.
They are entitled to all the privileges of the club, and to admit two ladies without payment, and may give orders of admission to as many friends as they please, on payment.
The non-shooting members, who are not elected, pay an annual subscription of £2 2s each, and are entitled to admit two ladies without payment and to all the privileges of the club, except shooting and polo-playing.
They may give orders of admission to as many friends as they may please, on payment only.
Every member is entitled, by the payment of £1 1s extra per annum, to give one additional order for ladies only for free admission daily.
No person is eligible for admission who is not received in general society.
The committee elect by ballot, and the candidate balloted for shall be put up not sooner than one week after he is proposed.
Five members must be present; if there be one black ball he shall be considered as not elected.
{in 1883 Dickens added:
The passage into law of Mr.Anderson's Cruelty to Animals Bill will probably very seriously alter the constitution and rules of Hurlingham.}

Fulham Railway Bridge & Footbridge

Wandsworth Bridge

Wandsworth Bridge: A new bridge crossing the river rather more than a mile below Putney, and connecting Wandsworth and the south-west with the extreme west of London, via Walham Green. [Fulham Broadway]

Battersea Railway Bridge

Battersea Bridge

Battersea Bridge, an old decrepit structure, almost as much out of date as Putney Bridge, and about to be replaced by a new and more commodious structure.
It connects Battersea with Chelsea.

Battersea Park

Battersea Park, London, is on the Surrey side of the river, and in the S.W. district.
One of the youngest of the London parks, it is certainly one of the prettiest.
The sub-tropical garden is emphatically one of the sights which no visitor should fail to see, especially in the latter part of the summer.
The park contains excellent drives, and is encircled by a superior prepared ride.
There is every accommodation for cricketers, and boating may be indulged in on the lake.
The park gates are in Albert-road, Prince of Wales's -road, and Victoria-road, and the fine terrace-walk facing the river is directly approached from the steamboat pier.
The best way of approaching Battersea from the west is along the Grosvenor Road and over Chelsea Suspension Bridge.
Nearest Bridges: Chelsea, and Albert;
Steamboat Pier and Railway Station: Battersea Park.

Albert Bridge

Albert Bridge, a handsome new suspension bridge, crossing the river from Albert-road, which skirts the west side of Battersea Park to Cadogan Pier, and the Chelsea Embankment.
It affords the nearest means of communication between the district about Clapham and South Kensington.

Chelsea Hospital

Chelsea Bridge

Chelsea Suspension Bridge

Chelsea Suspension Bridge is another work by the designer of Westminster Bridge, and leads from Victoria- road to the east of Battersea-park, to the Chelsea Embankment and its continuation, the Grosvenor-road.
It was made in Edinburgh, and set up in its present position in 1858 at a cost of £80,000


Chelsea, S.W., on the left bank, once a quiet village three miles from London, is now a densely populated locality, and lies between the Brompton-road and the Thames, Sloane-street being its eastern boundary, while its western boundary is indeterminate, as it is still growing.
It gives its name to a parliamentary borough, which includes the Kensington and Hammersmith parishes, and is now represented by Sir Charles Dilke and Mr.J.B.Firth, Liberals.
Chelsea contains a great population of the working class.
Chelsea is Radical, while Kensington may be looked upon as Conservative; Hammersmith being a mixed parish.
the old parish church stands on the embankment close to the river, and is rich in associations ecclesiastical, historical, and literary.
The river front of Chelsea has been greatly improved by the embanking of Cheyne-walk and the construction of the Chelsea Embankment; and the admirably designed red brick houses in the Queen Anne style, lately completed on the Cadogan estate, are thoroughly in accordance with old Chelsea traditions and associations.
The principal public buildings are the Barracks, Chelsea Hospital, and the Military Asylum.
The Gardens of the Apothecaries' Company are also well worth inspection.
NEAREST Railway Stations: Sloane-square, Grosvenor-road, and Chelsea;
Omnibus Routes: Sloane-street, King's-road, and Fulham-road;
Steam-boat Piers: Cadogan Pier and Battersea Pier.

Victoria Railway Bridge

Vauxhall Bridge

Vauxhall Bridge, an iron structure of five spans, was built in 1811-16 and connects Kennington with Pimlico.
Nearest Railway Stations, Vauxhall (S.W.) and Victoria (Dist., L. & B., and L.C. & D.);
Omnibus Routes, Vauxhall Bridge-road, and Albert Embankment;
Cab Rank, Grosvenor-road

Albert Embankment.

The Albert Embankment, London, S.E., on the right bank, from a point a little below Vauxhali Bridge to Westminster Bridge.
The carriage way diverges to the right after leaving Lambeth Palace, and enters Westminster Bridge-road at the corner of Stangate; St.Thomas's Hospital, and a walk for foot passengers only, occupying the river frontage at this point.
Nearest Railway Stations, Vauxhall and Westminster Bridge; Omnibus Route, Westminster Bridge-road; Steamboat Pier, Lambeth.

Lambeth Bridge

Lambeth Bridge is perhaps, on the whole, the ugliest ever built.
It was also, when it was built, supposed to be the cheapest.
It is a suspension bridge of three spans, and one great economy in its construction consists in the use of wire cables in place of the usual chains.
It connects Westminster with Lambeth, where it lands close to the Archbishop's Palace.

Westminster Abbey

Houses of Parliament

Westminster Bridge

Westminster Bridge varies very much in appearance with the state of the tide.
It is always rather a cardboardy-looking affair, but when the river is full, and the height of the structure reduced as much as possible, there is a certain grace about it.
When, however, the water is low, and the flat arches are exposed at the full height of their long, lanky piers, the effect is almost mean.
Except, however, for the excessive vibration arising from lightness of construction, it is one of the best, from a practical point of view, in London, the roadway being wide and the rise very slight.

Westminster School Rowing

The present boathouse is situated at Battersea, about two hundred yards below the railway-bridge, and the boys travel thither in a steam-launch which carries them to their boats from Parliament Stairs in about half-an-hour.
The Westminster colour is pink, assigned to the boys by King William IV.
The crew of the first eight wear pink flannel jackets, pink caps, or straw hats with a pink ribbon.
The colours of the second eight are pink and white.

Victoria Embankment

Victoria Embankment, London, extends along the left bank from Westminster to Blackfriars, a distance of about a mile and a quarter, and was constructed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the Engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works.
The whole of the space now occupied by the Embankment was covered by water or mud, according to the state of the tide, and few London improvements have been more conducive to health and comfort.
The substitution of the beautiful curve of the Embankment, majestic in its simplicity, with its massive granite walls, flourishing trees, and trim gardens, is an unspeakable improvement on the squalid foreshore, and tumble-down wharves, and backs of dingy houses which formerly abutted on the river.
It is to be regretted that difficulties of approach make this noble thoroughfare less useful than it should be.
At Westminster and at Charing-cross, both from Northumberland-avenue and from Whitehall-place, and at Blackfriars, the approaches are all that can be desired, and are worthy of the Embankment itself; but the streets leading from the Strand, such, for instance, as Arundel-street and Norfolk-street, are both steep and inconvenient.
From Arundel-street to Blackfriars, indeed, there is no carriage way on to the Embankment.
The general appearance of the Victoria Embankment is still somewhat marred by the presence here and there of unsightly buildings, which it may be hoped will ere long be removed - and probably not even the designer of the Charing-cross Railway Station would call that useful building in any way ornamental - but it is nevertheless singularly rich in architectural features.
Somerset House, the Temple, the Adelphi-terrace, the St.Stephen's Club, the School Board House, and other fine buildings, are either on or visible from the Embankment.
It would seem from the numerous pedestals which the architect inserted in his design, that it was in contemplation to place an alarming number of statues along the road.
Possibly this plan will eventually be carried into effect.
At present the Embankment has only six statues to offer to the inspection of the critic: those of Sir James Outram at the foot of Whitehall-place; Brunel, near Somerset House; John Stuart Mill, near Norfolk-street; William Tyndale, the first English Translator of the New Testament; Robert Raikes, the originator of Sunday Schools, a short distance west of Waterloo-bridge; and Robert Burns, near Charing Cross Bridge.
In curious contrast to the modern statues is Cleopatra's Needle, which, owing to the public spirit and energy of Mr.Erasmus Wilson and Mr. John Dixon, is now a conspicuous object on the river wall at the bottom of Salisbury-street.
There is a floating swimming-bath at Charing-cross, and a Thames Police-station just below Waterloo-bridge, close to which is moored the Rainbow, now the drill ship of the Royal Naval Artillery Volunteers.
Nearest Bridges: Westminster, Waterloo, Blackfriars (all carriage-roads), Charing-cross (foot);
Steamboat Piers: Westminster, Charing-cross, Waterloo, and Temple;
Railway Stations: Westminster (Dist.), Charing-cross (Dist. and S.E.), Temple (Dist.), Blackfriars (Dist. and L.C. & D.);
Omnibus Routes: the Strand and Fleet-street.

Charing Cross Railway Bridge & Footbridges

Charing Cross (Foot) Bridge, runs along and forms a portion of the Charing cross railway-bridge, and is approached on the north side from Villiers-street, and on the south side from Belvedere-road.
It is the shortest way for foot passengers from Charing-cross and neighbourhood to Waterloo Station.

Cleopatras Needle

Cleopatra's Needle stands on the Victoria Embankment, left hand of the river.
This famous monolith of red granite, from Alexandria, originally stood at Heliopolis, and was presented to this country by Mehemet Ali in 1819.
No ministry was bold enough to face the difficulty and expense of transporting it across the Bay of Biscay, and for many years it lay half-buried by sand at Alexandria, at the foot of its still erect sister, which, according to some people, is the real original Cleopatra's Needle.
In the Alexandrian sand the English obelisk would probably have remained until the end of time (unless, indeed, the British tourist had carried it away piece-meal in the form of relics) but for the public spirit of the late Sir (then Mr.) Erasmus Wilson and Mr.John Dixon, the well-known civil engineer.
Mr.Wilson put down £10,000 for the expenses of transport, and Mr.Dixon undertook to deliver the monument in the Thames for that sum on the principle of "no cure, no pay" - no obelisk, no £10,000.
A cylinder boat was designed, in which the needle was encased, and justified Mr.Dixon's expectations by making good weather of it until it became unmanageable and untenantable in a heavy gale in the Bay of Biscay.
Abandoned by the steamer which had it in tow, after the sacrifice of six lives in a last gallant attempt to save the Cleopatra, few people doubted that the needle would find its last resting-place at the bottom of the sea.
Fortunately a passing steamer succeeded in securing it, and towed it into Ferrol, whence it was safely transferred to its present site.
Much ingenuity was shown in the machinery designed for its erection, the difficulties of which will readily be understood when it is stated that the obelisk is over 68 feet in height, and weighs 180 tons.
Nearest Steamboat Piers and Bridges, Waterloo and Charing-cross; Railway Stations, Charing-cross (Dist.& S.E.); Omnibus Routes, Waterloo Bridge and Strand.

Waterloo Bridge

It is impossible to pass under Waterloo Bridge - an edifice that the great sculptor, Canova, so admired that he declared it was worth making a voyage from the Antipodes only to look at it - without remembering the poetical halo that Thomas Hood has thrown around it by his immortal poem, "The Bridge of Sighs".

Waterloo Bridge, from a design by Dodd, the earliest of John Rennie's three, and also commonly considered the finest.
As to this there may perhaps be a question, some critics preferring London Bridge, or even Southwark, as grander if less ornate.
The perfect level, too, of the roadway in the case of Waterloo, whilst the first of all merits from a practical point of view, somewhat narrows its artistic opportunities; whilst the uniformity of the arches is considered by some to give it too much the air of "a length out of a viaduct".
In all other respects it is the handsomest bridge across the Thames: consisting of nine elliptical arches 120 ft in span and 35 ft in height, supported on piers 20 ft wide at the spring of the arches, and surmounted by an open balustrade.
It is not so wide as London Bridge by 11 ft, but is very nearly half as long again - 1,380 ft: without the approaches, which are on the Middlesex side 370 ft, and on the Surrey side 766 ft in length.
It was opened in great state on the second anniversary of Waterloo, 18th June, 1817.
There is in existence a curious print of a design for this bridge by T.Sandby, R.A., comprising a colonnade on the top of the bridge, and a classical temple at the end.
Nearest Railway Station: Temple;
Omnibus Route, Strand; Cab Rank, Wellington-street.

Blackfriars Bridge

Blackfriars Bridge is one of the handsomest in London, and would have a still better effect were not its appearance so seriously marred by the proximity of its neighbour, the Alexandra (London Chatham & Dover Railway) bridge.
It was built in 1864-9, at a cost of £265,000, from the designs of Mr.William Cubitt, although those of Mr.Page, architect of Westminster Bridge, had been selected in the first instance.
It crosses the river in five spans, the centre span being 185 feet.
The piers are of granite, surmounted by recesses resting on short pillars of polished red Aberdeen granite, and with ornamental stone parapets.
The parapet of the bridge itself is very low, which, with the extreme shortness of the ornamental pillars at the pier ends, gives the whole structure rather a dwarfed and stunted look; but the general outline is bold and the ensemble rich, if perhaps a trifle gaudy, especially when the gilding, of which there is an unusual proportion, has been freshly renewed.

Blackfriars Railway Bridge

Millenium Footbridge

Southwark Bridge

Southwark Bridge has of late years been much improved by the introduction of a little colour into the painting of its ironwork arches, which were formerly all in solemn black, and had a very heavy appearance.
The credit of being the handsomest iron bridge across the river rests between it and Blackfriars Bridge; and on the whole, though the latter is the more gorgeous, the former is perhaps the more striking.
The length is 708 ft, or little more than half that of Waterloo.
The arches, three in number, rest on stone piers; the centre arch having a span of 402 ft: the longest ever attempted until the adoption of the tubular principle - and the two shore arches 210 ft each.
From the inconvenience of its approaches this handsome bridge has been from the first comparatively valueless.

The Great Stink, Victorian (and earlier Pollution)

Rivers Purification Association

Rivers Purification Association, Limited, 232, Gresham House, E.C.
The objects of this association are to assist towns and sanitary authorities to comply with the requirements of the Rivers Pollution Prevention Act, and to undertake the work of sewage purification for town and sanitary authorities.

Cannon Street Railway Bridge

Frost Fairs on the frozen river

Doggetts Coat and Badge Race

Doggett's Coat and Badge - this wager for young watermen out of their time was instituted by Thomas Doggett, the well-known actor at Drury-lane theatre, at the first anniversary of the accession to the throne of George I., August 1, 1715.
Doggett's prize was an orange-coloured coat and silver badge, on which were emblazoned the horse of Hanover, and at his death he bequeathed a sum of money to be devoted to further prizes.
At present the Fishmongers' Company, who administer Doggett's trust, give £6 6s to the winner in addition to the coat and badge, the prizes for the fourth, fifth, and sixth men respectively, £2 2s, £1 11s 6d, and £1 6s.
the second man receives £5 5s, and the third £3 3s, derived from various sources.
The original conditions of the wager were that the six competitors to whom it was limited should be chosen by lot from the whole body of men who should put down their names as desirous of rowing.
This arrangement was, although not until the lapse of a very great number of years, deemed to be unfair, and would-be competitors now row three trial heats from Putney to Hammersmith, the first and second in each heat being entitled to row in the final, which takes place on August 1st when not on a Sunday.
The course is against tide, from the "Swan" at London Bridge, to the "Swan" at Chelsea, when the current is strongest, according to the original conditions, and when the race is really rowed under these circumstances it is a "stiffish pull".
The race in 1884 resulted as follows: Final Heat, August 1.
1. Charles Phelps, Putney
2. Alfred Thos. Redknap, Richmond
3. Charles Bowie, Richmond
4. Charles Bradshaw, Deptford
5. James Crick, Horsleydown
6. George Daniel Evans, Deptford
The following is a list of winners since the introduction of trial heats:
1870 R.Harding, Blackwall.
1871 T.J.Mackinney, Richmond.
1872 T.G.Green, Hammersmith.
1873 H.Messum, Richmond.
1874 R.W.Burwood, Wapping.
1875 W.Phelps, Putney.
1876 C.T.Bulman, Shadwell.
1877 J.Tarryer, Rotherhithe.
1878 T.E.Taylor, Hermitage Stairs.
1879 H.Cordery, Putney
1880 W.J.Cobb, Putney.
1881 G.Claridge, Richmond.
1882 H.A.Audsley, Waterloo.
1883 James Lloyd, Wandsworth.
1884 Charles Phelps, Putney.

London Bridge since 1967

London Bridge 1825-1967

London Bridge - built in 1824-27 from the designs of John Rennie, architect of Southwark and Waterloo Bridges, partly by himself, partly on his death by his son, Mr.J.Rennie.
Altogether some eight or nine designs for London Bridge were prepared by members of the Rennie family.
The cost, from various causes, was enormous, and a good deal of misapprehension seems to exist upon this point; some authorities placing it at a little under a million and a half, while others give it at over two and a half millions.
It is built of granite in five arches; the centre arch being 152 ft, the two next 140 ft, and the two shore arches 130 ft each in span.
In order to facilitate traffic, police-constables are stationed along the middle of the roadway, and all vehicles travelling at a walking pace only are compelled to keep close to the curb.
There are still, however, frequent blocks, and the bridge should be avoided as much as possible, especially between 9 and 10am, and 4 and 6pm.
Seen from the river, it is the handsomest bridge in London.
Nearest Railway Stations: Cannon-street and London Bridge;
Omnibus Routes: Cannon-street, King William-street, London Bridge, and Southwark-street.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - London Bridge

Auguste Barbier, a modern French poet, describes the Thames as seen from London Bridge in the gloomiest colours.

Un fleuve tout houleux
Roulant sa vase noire en détours sinueux
Et rappelant l'effroi des ondes infernales;
De gigantesque pont aux piles colossales.
Une marée infecte, et toujours avec l'onde
Apportant, remportant les richesses du monde.
Puis un ciel tourmenté, nuage sur nuage
Le soleil comme un mort, le drap sur le visage.
Ou parfois dans les flots d'un air empoisonné
Montrant comme un miroir sur front tout charbonné.

[ Editor's translation:

A stormy river
Rolling its black slime in sinuous turn
And recalling the dread of hellish waves
From gigantic bridge to colossal piers.
A foul tide and wave upon wave
Bringing and taking the riches of the world
Then a tormented sky, cloud upon cloud
The sun like a corpse, sheet over face
Sometimes gusts of poisoned air
Showing a blackened face in the mirror. ]

This powerful description, if it does not owe its inspiration to indigestion, must have been due to the mingled influences of rain and fog and wintry weather.
If the poet had stood upon London Bridge in the early hours of a clear summer morning he would have beheld a panorama of surpassing loveliness, and have dipped his descriptive pen in light instead of in darkness, and acknowledged the reality, opposed though it be to French tradition, that London, if not quite so beautiful as Paris, has attractions of its own, independent of its vastness, that in some respects not even Paris can surpass.

London Bridge 1666-1825

London Bridge fire in 1666

London Bridge before 1666

Tooley Street Fire 1861

Billingsgate Market

Billingsgate Market, in Thames-street, is about 300 yards east of London Bridge, and adjoins the west side of the Custom House.
The derivation of its name is matter of dispute.
All that is certainly known is that the appropriation of the site to the purpose of a fish-market took place in the year 1699 a.d., and that a fish-market it has remained ever since.
On the 27th of October, 1874, the first stone was laid of the handsome building which was to supersede the "elegant Italian structure" of Mr.Bunning, which, with its tall campanile, had long been one of the most conspicuous shore marks of the river below bridge.
The construction presented considerable difficulties, both from the necessity of carrying it out without disturbance of the daily business of the market, and from the nature of the ground on which it had to be built, and which required an immense amount of preparation in the way of a platform of solid concrete, 15 feet in thickness.
In 1877, however, the building was completed, and on the 20th of July of that year formally opened for business.
Its river facade still adheres more or less to the Italian Gothic legend, but the campanile has disappeared, and the building now presents a uniform frontage of two lofty storeys, the centre portion being thrown a little back.
The wings, which are, perhaps, artistically speaking, somewhat small in proportion to the central block, are occupied by taverns, at each of which is a daily fish ordinary.
All along the front runs a broad floating stage, alongside of which come the smaller craft by which the water-borne fish are brought up the river, and which vary in size and rig from the specially built steamer of more than 200 tons register, whose cargo has been collected from the smacks of the North Sea, to the little open barge in which cod or salmon has been lightered from the big sea-going ships in the docks of Victoria or Millwall.
The landing process begins every morning, summer and winter, at 5 a.m. when the tolling of the big bell announces the opening of the market, and a rush takes place to secure the earliest sales.
The great hall in which the sales take place, and which occupies the whole ground-floor of the centre building, is let off in 140 "stands" at a rate per week, which, by the bye-laws of the market, sanctioned by the Board of Trade, is not to exceed 9d per superficial foot.
The total weekly supply of the market averages by water 800 to 850 tons, and by land as nearly as possible double that amount, and the whole of this enormous mass has to be carried on men's shoulders from ship or machine to salesman's stall, there to be disposed of in some four hours or so, more or less.
The market is at its height from 5 a.m. to about 9, by which time the greater part of the morning supply has been cleared off; but the market remains nominally open until 3p.m.
Meanwhile, in the great dungeon-like basement below the market, a somewhat similar scene to that above is being enacted with the day's supply of shell-fish.
The staff of the market includes about eleven hundred licensed porters, besides constables, detectives, clerks, &c.; and the business, rough and riotous as it is, is conducted, so far as the official personnel is concerned, with machine-like precision and punctuality.
The utmost care, too, is taken to ensure the most scrupulous cleanliness throughout the building.

The Custom House

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - The Custom House

The Custom House may seem in our day a very prosaic place.
But this locality, unromantic, dull, tame, and eminently statistical as it may appear to the unliterary mind, is sacred to literature and to the name of Geoffrey Chaucer, the father of English poetry, the author of the "Canterbury Tales" and the "Romaunt of the Rose", who was the first that ever filled the office of Controller of Customs in England.
Let it not be supposed, however, that Chaucer received the lucrative post of controller because he was a great poet.
In those days as in ours great poets did not receive honours or rewards from the State on account of their poetic genius, and it is highly probable - inasmuch as his works were unprinted - that his contemporaries knew nothing about them, not even the king who showed him favour.
Chaucer was not a struggling man of genius, for if he had been he might have struggled and died, unlamented and unknown, but he had the good fortune to be royally connected.
He married the sister of the wife of John of Gaunt, the "time-honoured Lancaster" of Shakespeare, and mounted into office from the vantage-ground of his family relationship.

Thames Events,Pageants and Races

Tower of London

Tower of London: The most interesting relic of the past that can be seen to best advantage from the river is the Tower of London, situated on rising ground about half a mile below London Bridge.
The most conspicuous portion of the present mass of buildings and masonry, which covers some thirteen acres of ground, is the White Tower, a quadrangular keep 90 feet high, whose four turrets have been familiar to English eyes for centuries.
Some evidence exists as to the probability of a Roman fortress having occupied the present site, but it was not until 1077 that the Tower was commenced by Gundolph, monk of Bee, who afterwards became Bishop of Rochester.
The keep, or White Tower, consists of three floors besides the vaults, which were formerly used as dungeons.
The walls are from twelve to fifteen feet thick.
Each floor contains three rooms, not counting the chambers and stairs sunk into the solid wall.
The main storey was the garrison stage, held by the king's guards, and consisted of two apartments and the crypt, which was occasionally used as a prison.
Above is the banqueting floor, formerly a part of the royal palace, and St.John's Chapel, the best specimen of Norman architecture extant, which occupies two storeys of the keep.
Above the banqueting floor is the state floor, which contained the great council chamber, the lesser hall, and the galleries of St.John's Chapel, whence there was a passage to the royal apartments.
On this floor, Richard III. condemned Hastings, and Anne Boleyn and Lord Rochford were tried.
Despite the thickness of the walls and the scanty means of exit (one well-stair only allowing entrance or escape), the first prisoner immured in the White Tower broke his bondage.
This was Flambard, Bishop of Durham, treasurer to the early Norman kings, who, after making his guards drunk, slid down a rope attached to a window shaft sixty-five feet from the ground.
Years afterwards the same feat was attempted by Griffin, in the reign of Henry III., with less success, for the unlucky prisoner's coil broke, and Griffin lost his life on the spot.
In this tower for twenty-five years lived Charles of Orleans, grandson of Charles V., and father of Louis XII., kings of France.
Taken prisoner at Agincourt, he lived his mournful life until the sum of 300,000 crowns was paid for his ransom.
During the period of his captivity the unfortunate prince wrote many poems, some of which are extant.
Below the ground were the dungeons, one of which, called Little Ease, was the prison of Wyatt and Guy Fawkes.

In the largest of the four turrets which surmount the roof was incarcerated Maud, the fair daughter of Baron Fitzwalter, who resisted till her death the disgraceful advances of King John.
In the year 1663 the aspect of the keep was altered by Sir Christopher Wren.
Part of the exterior was cased with flint and mortar, two of the turrets were rebuilt, and the openings were altered into Italian windows.
Encircling, the White Tower are the inner ward and the outer ward.
The former, planned and partly built by the monk of Bee, was the original fortress, and was protected by twelve strong towers built on the wall and forming part of it.
The inner ward was the royal quarter, and comprised, besides the keep, the royal rooms, the mint, the jewel-house, the wardrobe, the queen's garden, St. Peter's Church, besides quarters for the bowmen and the constable.
It was, in fact, the king's castle, and the people had no right of access.
The outer ward lay between the vallum, or inner wall, and the outer scarp of the ditch.
It was regarded as the people's quarter, and on stated occasions the citizens claimed right of access from the king; the object, no doubt, being to guard their right to be present in the courts of justice which sat in the tower.
The King's Bench was held in the lesser hall of the keep, the Common Pleas were heard in a hall by the river, which has not survived the modern improvements.
In front of the fortress on the riverside is Tower Wharf, the work of Henry III., and one of the wonders of his reign.
The earth on which it is built had to be recovered from the Thames, and the foundations were difficult to lay.
The building was unfavourably regarded by the London citizens, and on two occasions the wall and the water-gate fell.
The king, however, persevered, and finally completed his wharf, twelve hundred feet long, and his water-gate, better known in history as Traitor's Gate.
On this wharf cannon used to be planted.

Many of the smaller towers which command the wharf and the ditch are memorable for the illustrious dead who were confined therein.
In the Devereux the Earl of Essex was immured; in the Bell Tower Queen Elizabeth.
In Bowyer's Tower Clarence was drowned, and in the Bloody Tower the two sons of Edward IV. were murdered.
The Beauchamp Tower is perhaps the most interesting nowadays, as the building has been admirably restored, and the inscriptions on the walls have been secured from obliteration.
In the north-western corner of the quadrangle is the chapel to St.Peter Ad Vincula, remarkable for the number of famous persons who have been buried beneath its stones.
Anne Boleyn and Katherine Howard were interred here, and among others, Protector Somerset, and his brother, Thomas Seymour, Lady Jane Grey and her husband, and Sir Walter Raleigh.
In another part of the tower is the Regalia, where the royal jewels are kept, and close by is the Horse Armoury, a collection of ancient and mediaeval arms and armour exhibited on wooden figures of horses and men.
The first prisoner in the tower was, as we have before remarked, Flambard, Bishop of Durham; the last were the Cato-street Conspirators (1820).
The last execution which took place there was when Lords Lovat, Kilmarnock, and Balmerino went to the block after the rebellion of 1745.
A severe fire broke out in 1841, and caused much loss in buildings, stores, and arms, but the tenements which were subsequently erected were very great improvements.
Nowadays the Tower serves as a Government store-house for rifles, bayonets, and military accoutrements generally.
The government is vested in a constable, who is always a military officer of great repute, and a lieutenant-governor, with subordinates, and the corps of the Yeomanry of the Guard, or Beefeaters.
Admission free on Mondays and Saturdays; on other days a small fee is payable for permission to visit the Beauchamp Tower, the Regalia, the Armoury, and other objects of interest.
Nearest Railway Stations: Mark-lane (Dis.) and Cannon-street (S.E.);
Omnibus Routes: Fenchurch-street and Aldgate High-street;
Steamboat Pier: London Bridge.

Poets and Poetry of the Thames - The Tower of London

But let us begin at the beginning.
The poetical memories of the Thames commence with the Tower.
All the tragic pathos of mediaeval English history is concentrated within the precincts of this gloomy pile: alike a palace, a prison, and a place of martyrdom, where the gay, the brave, the noble, and the innocent, as well as the guilty, have paid the penalty of pre-eminence, in a time when pre-eminence was always dangerous and too often fatal.
In close contiguity are three spots of classic ground, hallowed by associa- tion with the lives and labours of three great poets, one of them the greatest that the world ever saw.
The first is the Custom House, the second the church of St.Saviour's, South wark, and the third Bankside.

Tower Subway

A curious feat of engineering skill, in the shape of an iron tube seven feet in diameter driven through the bed of the Thames between Great Tower-hill (left bank) and Vine-street (right bank).
The original intention was to have passengers drawn backwards and forwards in a small tram omnibus.
This, however, was found unremunerative, and the rails having been taken up the tunnel has since been open as a footway.
Unfortunately, however, after subtracting from its diameter the amount necessary to afford a sufficient width of platform, there is not much head-room left, and it is not advisable for any but the very briefest of Her Majesty's lieges to attempt the passage in high-heeled boots, or with a hat to which he attaches any particular value.
It has, however, one admirable quality, that of having cost remarkably little in construction.
Nearest Steamboat Pier: London Bridge;
Railway Stations, Aldgate (Metrop.) and Cannon-street (S.E.);
Omnibus Routes, Aldgate High-street and Fenchurch-street.

Tower Bridge

St.Katharine Docks

St.Katharine Docks, belonging to the same company as the London and Victoria Docks, adjoin the east side of the Tower, from which they are separated only by Little Tower-hill, running from the Minories to Irongate Stairs.
They are best reached from the west from Aldgate Station down the Minories to the entrance in Upper East Smithfield, or from the east by the Leman-street Station of the Blackwall Railway.

London Docks

The London Docks belong to the same company as the St. Katharine and Victoria Docks (which see), and lie immediately to the eastward of the former, from which they are divided by Nightingale-lane, running from Upper East Smithfield to Wapping High-street.
The best means of approach is, from the west, by way of Aldgate and the Minories to East Smithfield, or from the east, by way of the Leman-street Station.
The entrance is at the corner of Nightingale-lane, where East Smithfield and Upper East Smithfield join.

Lower Pool from Rotherhithe Tunnel to Tower Bridge

The Pool of London

The Pool, the most striking and characteristic feature of the river, extends from below London Bridge to a little above the Regent's Canal.
It is divided into the Upper and the Lower Pool, the point of division being the headquarter station of the Thames Police at Wapping, a few hundred yards above the old Thames Tunnel, now part of the East London Railway.
By the bye-laws of the Thames Conservancy Board the minimum free navigable passage to be kept "as far as practicable" for vessels passing up and down the river through that portion of the Upper Pool which extends from London Bridge to Irongate Stairs, on the lower side of the Tower, is 200 feet.
At this point commence the premises of the General Steam Navigation Company, which occupy the whole of Irongate and the adjoining St.Katharine's Wharf, and the large sea-going steamers starting from which constitute one of the most important features of the home traffic of the river.
The minimum navigable passage is therefore extended here to 300 feet, at which width it continues as far as Barking Creek, about three miles and a half below Woolwich, on the opposite side of the river.
The average number of vessels lying in the Upper Pool is about 55, with an average registered tonnage of about 200 tons; in the Lower Pool about 70, with an average registered tonnage of about 150 tons.
These numbers apply only to vessels discharging in the river.
There are a great many ships that discharge in the river below the Pool; the average is about 32, with an average registered tonnage of about 150 tons, besides all the coal-laden vessels that discharge in Cory's hulks in Bugsby's Reach.

Thames Tunnel

This great, but for many years comparatively useless, work of Sir Isambard Brunel was carried under the river from Wapping (left bank) to Rotherhithe (right bank) at a cost of nearly half a million of money.
For about twenty years after its completion it was one of the recognised sights of London, and a kind of mouldy and poverty-stricken bazaar established itself at the entrance of the tunnel.
The pence of the sightseers and the rent of the stalls proved wholly insufficient even to pay current expenses, and in 1865 the Tunnel Company were glad to get rid of their white elephant at a loss of about half its original cost.
It now belongs to the East London Railway Company.
Nearest Steamboat Pier: Tunnel;
Railway Stations: Wapping and Rotherhithe;
'Omnibus Routes, Blackwall and Rotherhithe.

Fish Dinners

Fish Dinners: the typical fish dinner of London is the extraordinary entertainment offered at Greenwich - perhaps the most curious repast ever invented by the ingenuity of the most imaginative hotel-keeper.
Many courses of fish prepared in every conceivable way, followed by ducks and peas, beans and bacon, cutlets, and other viands, so arranged as to stimulate a pleasing, if somewhat expensive thirst, are washed down at these Gargantuan feeds by the choicest brands at the highest prices known to civilisation.
The effect at the moment is eminently delightful.
The sensation experienced when the bill is produced is not so pleasurable, and it has been said that there is no "next morning headache" like that which follows a Greenwich dinner.
But there is no doubt that a Greenwich dinner is a very excellent thing in its way - especially if you happen to be invited to dine by a liberal friend, who knows how to order it, and pay for it.
Only two houses can be recommended for this kind of sport - the "Trafalgar" and the "Ship".
It may be noted that when the labours of the session are over, the Ministers of the Crown dine at the "Ship", and congratulate each other on their continued existence in office.
A fish dinner of quite a different class, at which eleven kinds of fish, and a selection of joints are included in the bill of fare, is served twice a day - at 1 and 4 - at the "Three Tuns Tavern", Billingsgate, at 2s.
But although the price is low, and the accommodation a little rough, the dinner is excellent.
Saturday afternoon during the winter months, or in the very early spring, may be specially recommended for this excursion.
The flavour of the old-fashioned tavern dinner and after-dinner entertainment still hangs about Billingsgate.
A good fish dinner is also to be had at Purfleet during the season.

Surrey Commercial Dock

The Surrey Commercial Dock is situated on the peninsula between the Lower Pool and Limehouse Reach. Dock House, 106, Fenchurch-street, E.C.
The best mode of approach to the Surrey Commercial Dock System is by the Deptford-road Station of the East London Railway from Liverpool-street.

Great River Race, London's River Marathon, Millwall to Richmond

Limehouse Reach: from above Greenwich to Limehouse

Limehouse Reach extends from the Lower Pool to the beginning of Deptford Reach.
On the right bank are the Commercial Docks.
At the top of the Reach are Limehouse and Shadwell churches.
Bearings N.N.E. and S.S.W.

East and West India Docks

[The 1883 version is extensive]

East and West India Docks are situated at Blackwall between the West India Dock and Blackwall stations of the London and Blackwall Railway.
The former of these stations is the best for persons having business at the general, police, customs, wharfingers, or other offices, or on board of vessels lying in the greater part of the West India Import Dock, the West India Export Dock, or the South-West India Dock.
For those at the eastern extremity of these docks, the Millwall Junction station will be found nearer, as also for the North London Railway Companies' Docks, the Blackwall Basin, and the new dock in course of formation by the Midland Railway Company, but not forming part of the East and West India Dock Company's system, and the extreme western extremity of the East India Import Dock.
For the South-West India Docks and Basin, passengers should change at Millwall Junction; and, proceeding by tramcar, alight at South Dock station.
For the East India Export Dock, the greater part of the East India Import Dock, and the East India Dock Basin, the best station is that of Blackwall.

Trinity Buoy Wharf

Trinity Buoy Wharf is rather difficult of approach.
The best mode of access, when available, is from the Blackwall Station, across the two entrances, Old and New, of the East India Dock, then to the left along the edge of the basin and out through the little wicket-gate into Orchard-street, at the eastern extremity of which is the gate of the Trinity House premises.
When the little wicket-gate is shut, the best station is Poplar, either on the Blackwall Railway if coming from the west, or on the North London Railway if coming from the north.
In the latter case pursue eastwards the East India-road, and its continuation the Barking-road, till you reach Orchard-street on the right hand just beyond the dock.
In the former make your way along Brunswick-street and Naval-row into East India Dock Wall-road, following which northerly you will arrive at the junction of the East India and Barking roads, whence proceed as before.
Coming from the eastward, the best station is the Barking-road on the North Woolwich Branch of the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, whence the route lies westerly along the Barking-road.
The wharf itself is situate on the western bank of the embouchure of Bow Creek into Bugsby's Reach, about half-way between the entrances of the East India and Victoria Docks.
At this establishment is constructed the whole of the lighting and buoying apparatus of the United Kingdom, and of the other parts of the Empire dependent on the Trinity Board.
Application to view the establishment should be made to the secretary of the Trinity House, Tower Hill; but it is a longish day's work from any habitable part of London.

Blackwall - East India Docks

Blackwall, on the left bank from Orchard Wharf to the Isle of Dogs.
Here are the EAST INDIA DOCKS, where the principal sailing ships trading from the port of London load and discharge.
The visitor may in these docks inspect long tiers of China tea-clippers - now almost run off the line by fast steamers - and the fine passenger ships trading to the Australasian ports.
Adjoining the docks is the spacious ship-building yard of Messrs.Green, and farther down the river are the TRINITY HOUSE head-quarters, beyond which again are the ROYAL VICTORIA AND ALBERT DOCKS.
There is a railway-station on the steamboat-pier [and see Trinity Buoy Wharf).
Fares from Fenchurch-street (17 min.), 1st, 6d, 10d; 2nd, 4d, 6d; trains run each way every 15 minutes.
Steamers from Westminster, Charing-cross, Temple, and London Bridge every ½ hour.
Fares, aft, 6d; forward, 4d.
Omnibus from Bank of England.

Isle of Dogs

Isle of Dogs, on the left bank opposite Greenwich: An uninviting title euphemistically derived from "Isle of Ducks", and applied to what was till lately about the best imitation on a small scale of the Great Dismal Swamp to be found in England.
The place, it may be observed en passant, was not until late years an island at all, but simply a peninsula jutting out into the river between Limehouse and Blackwall.
Just at the beginning of the present century, however, the Corporation, which had long been exercised by the demands of enterprising engineers for permission to put the river straight and take possession of its old Scamandering bed for docks, took heart of grace, and cut a canal through the neck of the "unlucky Isle of Doggs", as Master Pepys hath it, and so opened a short cut for ships bound up or down the river.
Apparently, however, the new road was not found satisfactory, for it has been long since closed and sold to the West India Dock Company, who now use it as a timber dock.
Nearest Steamboat Piers: Mill wall (west) and Cubitt Town (east).
Ferries: Ferry-street to Greenwich Pier, and north-east corner of Commercial Docks.
Railway Station: West India Dock; Omnibus Route: Blackwall.

Millwall Docks

Millwall Docks (Office, 1, Railway-place, Fenchurch-street, E.G.) are situate on the Isle of Dogs, just south of the West India Docks, the access being by the Millwall Extension branch of the Blackwall Railway.

Deptford Reach

Deptford Reach, about a mile long, from the end of Limehouse Reach to Greenwich Ferry.
Bearings S.S.E. and E.N.E.

Greenwich Reach

Greenwich Reach runs between Greenwich and the Isle of Dogs.
Bearings S.S.E. and E.N.E.

Beaconsfield Rowing Club, in connection with the Greenwich Conservative Club.
Subscription for working members, 10s.
; members are elected by the executive.
Boat-house, Conservative Club House, Greenwich.
Colours, red and white.

Greenwich Hospital

Greenwich Hospital and Royal Naval College, Greenwich, S.E:
Greenwich Hospital was founded by William III. immediately after the death of Queen Mary, his consort, and was intended as a memorial of her virtues, and of the great victory of La Hogue; "a monument", as Macaulay says, "the most superb that was ever erected to any sovereign".
The building, a grand specimen of classical architecture, and one of Sir Christopher Wren's finest designs, was originally intended as an asylum for wounded and disabled sailors, in whom Queen Mary was greatly interested.
The first stone in the building was laid in 1695, and ten years later forty-two seamen were admitted to the benefits of the asylum.
This number in course of time was increased to something like three thousand; but in 1865 an Act of Parliament was passed offering advantageous terms to such of the pensioners as would leave, and in 1869 another Act finally disestablished King William's foundation.
When the Hospital was occupied by the pensioners it became one of the sights of London, and it is possible that a too liberal distribution of baksheesh on the part of the public may have had something to do with the deterioration which was observable in the manners and customs of the in-pensioners during the later days of their existence.
Nowadays, although one of their chief attractions exists no longer, Greenwich Hospital and Park are still well worthy a visit.
The Painted Hall contains some fine pictures of sea-fights, and there are some noteworthy statues of celebrated sailors.
The most interesting of the Greenwich sights, however, are the relics of Nelson - notably the Trafalgar coat and waistcoat.
The public are admitted free.
From Cannon-street (17 min), 1st, 10d, 1/3; 2nd, -/8d, 1/-; 3rd, -/5d, -/8d.
Charing Cross, (27 min), 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, -/9d, 1/2; 3rd, -/6d, -/9d; also by steamboat from all piers.

Blackwall Reach northbank: from East India Dock entrance to Clyde Wharf

Blackwall Reach southbank: from Dome to Greenwich

Blackwall Reach runs for rather more than a mile from Greenwich to Blackwall.
The East and West India Docks are at Blackwall.
Bearings N. by E. and S. by W.


Bugsby's Reach, from Barrier to Dome

Bugsby's Reach south bank, Greenwich Peninsula from Barrier to Dome

Bugsby's Reach north bank, Barrier to East India Dock

Bugsby's Reach, about one mile long, runs from Blackwall to the beginning of Woolwich Reach.
The Lea enters the Thames on the left bank by Bow Creek.
Bearings N.N.W. and S.S.E.

Training ship Warspite, Marine Society

Marine Society, Office, Bishopsgate-street-within.
Training ship, Warspite, off Charlton Pier, Woolwich:
The report of the society for 1881 gives the following complete account of its history and progress.
The Marine Society owes its origin to the sentiments of humanity and benevolence exerted on behalf of a number of wretched and distressed boys, who were in the spring of the year 1756 collected together by that active magistrate, Sir John Fielding, clothed at the expense of the Duke of Bolton, and sent to serve on board His Majesty's ship Barfleur, then under His Grace's command.
The utility of this humane design, in rescuing from misery and reclaiming as many as possible of this class of neglected youths from the paths of idleness, and too probably of infamy and perdition, was so obvious, that the plan was immediately followed up with the most active philanthropy by a private gentleman (Mr.Walker, of Lincoln's-inn), who had accidentally met with those lads on their way to join the Barfleur.
By subscription, which he promoted, from three to four hundred boys were in a short time clothed and provided for in a profession most likely to make them useful and creditable members of the community.
At a subsequent meeting of merchants and shipowners in June, 1756, Mr.Jonas Hanway, a merchant totally unconnected with the nobleman and both the gentlemen before-mentioned, proposed that they should form themselves into a society to give clothing to boys for the sea-service.
The proposal being readily adopted, the Marine Society was instituted; and eventually, in the year 1772, incorporated by Act of Parliament.
The boys selected for the sea service are taken from the labouring classes, the utterly destitute being the first to be admitted.
No dishonest boys are received.
Parish boys may be received to fill vacancies on board the society's ship, on payment of £4 4s.
No boys are received whose friends appear to be in a capacity to fit them out for sea at their own charge.
Various plans were at different times brought under the contemplation of the society for a more beneficial arrangement as to some receptacle for the objects of the charity, in which they might be taken care of, and receive the benefit of instruction, both religious and professional, until such time as they could be properly provided for.
In the year 1786, a proposition, originating with Alderman Brook Watson, M.P., was adopted by the society.
They first procured a merchant vessel, named the Beatty; this ship having become decayed and worn out in 1799, application was made to the Admiralty for the loan of a Government ship.
The application was complied with, and from that time the Lords Commissioners, in order to promote the views of the Marine Society, have accommodated them with one of Her Majesty's ships as a training vessel for boys.
The Warspite, a noble two-decker, formerly the Conqueror, is the ship now lent to the society.
The society holds in trust the following special funds, devoted solely to the purposes for which they were given or bequeathed:
1. Consols, £17,045, under the will of William Hickes, Esq., of Hamburg, for apprenticing poor boys and girls.
In time of war the income of this fund is appropriated, with the general funds of the society, in clothing and fitting out boys for sea, rendering them thereby fit for service in the Royal Navy.
2. Consols, £14,333 6s. 8d., ten thousand pounds of this amount being the gift of the late Isaac Hawkins, Esq.
The annual interest of this trust fund produces £430, which is appropriated every year in the month of June, in donations of £10 each to forty-three widows of captains and lieutenants in the Royal Navy.
The Marine Society is also entrusted with the payments of certain annuities to the widows of the sufferers in the engagement of [] October, 1797, under Admiral Lord Duncan, under rules and regulations transmitted by the Chairman of the Committee of Lloyd's Coffee House, on the 15th of October, 1802.

The Thames Barrier

Online Thames Tides

Barrier Closure Decision Plot

Southend Months tide, Spring & Neap

Tide Theory & Calculation

Online Diagram Tides East Coast Wick to Sheerness

Woolwich Reach

Woolwich Reach, two miles long from the bottom of Bugsby's Reach to Woolwich Ferry.
On the right (Kent) bank, Woolwich, with arsenal, dockyard, &c., and training-ship Warspite.
Opposite, North Woolwich and its gardens.

Woolwich Ferry

Woolwich Arsenal

Woolwich Arsenal: Three minutes' walk from the South Eastern Railway- station, and ten minutes from the steam-boat pier.
Visitors must be furnished with a ticket from the War Office, obtained by personal application, or by letter to the "Secretary of State for War, War Office, Pall Mall, S.W.", stating names and addresses, and declaring that they are British subjects.
Visitors with tickets are admitted on Tuesday or Thursday between the hours of 10 and 11.30am, and 2 till 4.30pm.
Foreigners must have special tickets, obtained through their ambassadors in London.
Strangers without passes are refused admission.
The Artillery Barracks, the head-quarters of the Royal Horse and Foot Artillery, are about fifteen minutes' walk from the steamboat pier, and ten minutes from the South Eastern Railway-station.
These barracks are admirably situated, facing the common where all the artillery exercises and the great reviews take place.
The band of the Royal Artillery plays frequently, in the Repository Grounds or on the common, about 5pm, from May till October.
The Rotunda, an interesting military museum, near the barracks, is open from 10 till 6 in summer, and from 10 till 4 in winter.
The Royal Military Academy, where cadets are trained for the Royal Engineer and Artillery services, is situated on the common, about one mile from the arsenal.
Woolwich Dockyard was formerly used for the construction of ships for the Royal Navy, but was closed in 1869, on the recommendation of a parliamentary committee.
From the Woolwich steamboat pier may be seen the point of the Thames facing the Beckton Gasworks, where the steamer Princess Alice sank in 1878, with upwards of 600 persons, after collision with the steamer Bywell Castle.
A "Guide to Woolwich and the Vicinity", price 2s, is published by Jackson, Kentish Independent Office, Woolwich.
From Fenchurch-street and Liverpool-street (60 min.): 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, 9d, 1/2; 3rd, 6d, 10d, for North Woolwich 1d more.
Chalk Farm, 1st, 1/-, 1/6; 2nd, 8d, 1/-; for North Woolwich same fares.
The Arsenal from Charing-cross: 1st, 1/6, 2/6; 2nd, 1/-, 1/8; 3rd, 10d, 1/2; par., 8d.
Cannon-street and London Bridge, 1st, 1/4, 2/2; 2nd, 1/-, 1/8; 3rd, 9d, 1/2; par., 8d.
Trains run also to the Dockyard from these stations at same fares.
[1883: There is a great deal more about Woolwich Arsenal]

North Woolwich Gardens

North Woolwich Gardens: On the left bank of the river, adjacent to the North Woolwich Station of the Great Eastern Railway, about half an hour from Fenchurch-street.
Almost the only survivors of the open-air places of amusement which were once so numerous, are now Rosherville and North Woolwich.
The latter, though by no means so picturesque as the lofty and tree-crowned crags of Rosherville, are prettily laid out, and in the summer-time are a pleasant enough place of resort.
A variety of entertainments of the usual class are given here during the season: in fine weather the gardens are generally thronged.
The price of admission is 6d, and the fares from Fenchurch-St. are: 1st, 1/1, 1/7; 2nd, 10d, 1/3; 3rd, 7d, 11d.

Tripcock Point to Woolwich Ferry

Galleon's Reach runs nearly north and south, rather over a mile from Woolwich to Tripcock Point. At the Woolwich end is a ferry.
Bearings N.E.½E., and S.W.½W.

Northern Outfall

Northern Outfall, the Abbey Mills Pumping Station, one of the curiosities of modern civilisation, lies on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, between Bromley-by-Bow and Plaistow.
For permission to view, apply to the Engineers' Department, Metropolitan Board of Works, Spring Gardens, S.W.
[There is an extensive description in the first edition.]

Southern Outfall Sewer

Southern Outfall Sewer, situate at Crossness Point, about two miles across the marshes from Abbey Wood Station, North Kent line.
Intending visitors will do well before taking their tickets to ascertain at what time their train will arrive, as the officials do not consider it necessary in issuing them to give any warning when the necessary change of trains at Woolwich Arsenal happens to involve a delay at that comfortable station of an hour and a half or so.
Permission to view may be obtained at the Engineers' Department, Metropolitan Board of Works, Spring Gardens, S.W.

Barking Reach: Cross Ness to Tripcock Point

Tripcock Reach, sometimes called Barking Reach, runs not quite a mile and a half from Tripcock Point (or Margaretness) to Crossness.
Barking Creek is on the left (Essex) bank, at the north-west of the reach.
On the other side are the Plumstead Marshes.
Bearings E. by S. and W. by N.

Halfway Reach: Jenningtree Point to Cross Ness

Halfway Reach, nearly two miles from Crossness - the Southern outfall - to the top of Erith Reach.
Dagenham Reach and Marsh are on the left (Essex) bank.
On the other side are the extensive Erith Marshes.
Bearings E. and N.W. by W.

Erith Reach: Coldharbour to Jenningtree Point

Erith Reach

Erith Reach runs for a mile and a half from Halfway Reach to Erith.
Bearings, N.N.E. and S.S.W.


Erith, Kent, on the right bank.
From London 16½ miles.
A station on the North Kent line 15½ miles from Charing Cross; trains take about an hour.
The straight road from the station to the river is about 300 yards, and the pier is distant ten minutes' walk.
A fly meets the trains.
Population, 8,289.
The soil is principally gravel and chalk.
Erith is not a particularly interesting village, lying in the bight between Erith Reach and Erith Rands.
It faces the flat marshes of Essex, but the country behind it is pretty and well wooded, affording many pretty walks in a pleasant part of Kent.
There are few good houses in the old part of the village, but a good deal of building, principally of villas, has of late years been going on above the station, and this is the most desirable part of Erith for residential purposes.
There is a small pier which is occasionally used by the steamboats, and an attempt at an esplanade and garden was at one time made, by private enterprise, along the river bank to the eastward, but it cannot be said that the effort was crowned with success.
The principal importance of Erith, from the river point of view, is that it is a popular Thames yachting station, the headquarters of the Erith and Corinthian Yacht Clubs, and a favourite point for starting sailing matches.
There is a public hall in Pier-road, capable of seating over 600 persons, which can be hired for balls, concerts, dramatic and other entertainments, public meetings, &c.; terms for hire may be obtained of the secretary.
The Avenue Hall is in connection with the Congregational Church, and is used for classes, lectures, &c, having sitting room for about 200 persons.
There is also a Masonic Hall (in the Pier-road), seating 250, which is fully licensed for music, dancing, &c.; the "Cornwallis " Lodge of Masons meets here.
The parish church (St.John the Baptist) is noteworthy for its ancient tower, now elaborately shored up, and for some interesting monuments and brasses.
The most important of the former is the monument of Chantrey to Lord Eardley and the altar-tomb of the Countess of Shrewsbury (1568).
The brasses of John Aylmer and his wife (1435), of John Mylner and "Margaret and Benet his wyves" (1511), and, earliest of all, that to the memory of Roger Sender (1425), will interest the antiquary.
The old steps to the rood-screen are curious.
In the Norman chancel of this church took place the meeting between the Barons and the Commissioners of King John after the grant of Magna Charta.
Bank: London and County.
Fire: the engine-house is in the Avenue-road, not far from the pier.
Hospital: Cottage Hospital, Crayford-road. 8 beds. With this is connected the Provident Dispensary, with 1,500 members.
Hotel: "Prince of Wales", Avenue-road.
Places of Worship: St.John the Baptist, and Christ Church; the Roman Catholic Church of St.Fidelis, and Congregational, Baptist, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police-station: Bexley-road, near railway-station.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, insurance), High-street.
Mails from London at 8 and 11.30am, 3.30 and 7pm, and (Saturdays) 9.30pm. None on Sunday.
Mails for London at 8.40 and 11.20am, 4.55, 8.55, and 10.50pm; Sunday, 10.20pm
Fares to London (Charing-cross): 1st, 2/6, 3/9; 2nd, 1/10, 2/9; 3rd, 1/3, 2/3.

Erith Yacht Club

Erith Yacht Club, Headquarters, Club House, Yacht Gypsy, Erith.
The object of this club is the encouragement of amateur yacht sailing.
It is managed by commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore, treasurer, secretary, and a committee of thirteen, all of whom are elected in February.
Election is invested in the committee.
Annual subscription, £1 15s.
; entrance, £1 1s.
Yachts of 10 tons entered for club races must have the Yacht Racing Association certificate of measurement.
Yachts under 10 tons are measured according to the R.T.Y.C. rule.
Burgee red, with red Maltese cross on white shield.

Corinthian Yacht Club

Corinthian Yacht Club: - Clubhouse, Erith.
The primary object of the club is the encouragement of amateur yacht sailing.
The election is by ballot in committee; three adverse votes exclude.
The affairs of the club are administered by a commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore, hon. Treasurer, secretary, and a committee of fifteen other members, with power to increase their number to twenty.
The club numbers over 500 members.
In races of this club no professional or paid hands are allowed except in the largest class, i.e. over 20 tons.
None but members of the C.Y.C. are to act as helmsmen in any race.
Entrance fee, £2 2s; subscriptions, £1 1s
Burgee, blue, with laurel wreath in gold in the centre.

Erith Rands: Crayford Ness to Coldharbour

Erith Rands, a mile and a half in length from Erith to Crayfordness at the top of Long Reach.
There is a ferry from Erith to Cold Harbour Point opposite.
The Rand Hill Shoal is in the middle of the reach.
Bearings, E.S.E. and W.N.W.

Long Reach: QEII Bridge to Crayford Ness

Long Reach extends from Crayfordness to Greenhithe, 3 miles.
Purfleet, with its powder magazines, the training-ship Cornwall, and its hotel, so well known for fish dinners, is at the west of the left (Essex) bank.
A ferry crosses here to "Long Reach Tavern", a little to the westward of which is Dartford Creek, on the right (Kent) bank, at the eastern extremity of the reach.
Stone Church is a prominent object just before arriving at Greenhithe.
Bearings, S.E. by S. and N.W. by W.


Purfleet, on the left bank, in Essex, about 18½ miles from London Bridge.
Population, exclusive of the garrison and of the training-ship Cornwall, 150.
Soil, light and sandy on chalk.
Purfleet, a hamlet of West Thurrock, is a station on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway; the average time of the trains is about three-quarters of an hour.
It is a pretty village, with some picturesque chalk hills pleasantly wooded, and with a fine view down Long Reach towards Greenhithe and the Kentish hills.
Opposite is Dartford Creek, and there is a ferry from Purfleet to "Long Reach Tavern" on the opposite bank.
A large stock of gunpowder is stored in the Government magazines here.
Below the village is moored the training-ship Cornwall.
The principal attraction which Purfleet has to offer to visitors is the "Royal Hotel", which has of late years acquired a considerable reputation for fish-dinners.
Hotel: "The Royal".
Nearest Steamboat Piers: Rosherville, about 8 miles, and Tilbury, a little farther on;
Ferry: Purfleet
Railway Station: Purfleet.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, and telegraph).
Mails from London, 7 and 8.30am, and 7pm
Mails for London, 12.35 and 9.50pm
Fares to London: 1st, 1/11, 3/2; 2nd, 1/5, 2/4; 3rd, -/11, 1/10.


Greenhithe, Kent, on the right bank at the junction of Long and Fiddler's Reaches, from London 21 miles.
A station on the North Kent Railway 20 miles from Charing Cross; express trains take about 45 minutes.
The station is 10 minutes' walk from the river at the Pier Hotel, where there is a jetty (toll 1d) recently erected in place of the old pier.
Population: 1,452.
Soil: gravel and chalk.
The Arethusa and Chichester training-ships for boys, and the Worcester, the ship of the Thames Nautical Training College, are stationed here, and here also are the headquarters of the Junior Thames Yacht Club (all of which see).
Some considerable business is done by the cement works in the neighbourhood,, not altogether to the satisfaction of some of the inhabitants, and many river pilots and masters of vessels complain loudly of the nuisance arising from the smoke of the numerous chimneys.
The principal mansion at Greenhithe is Ingress Abbey, facing the river, which was formerly the residence of Alderman Harmer, and was constructed in part of stones from Old London Bridge.
There are some good houses at the back of the village on what is known as the Terrace and in its neighbourhood.
A masonic lodge is held at the Pier Hotel.
The church is a handsome modern building in the early decorated style, picturesquely situated on the London-road.
A short distance from Greenhithe - approached either from the London-road or by a footpath immediately opposite the railway station, a few minutes' walk - is Stone Church, a well-known landmark.
The church has been recently restored by Mr.Street, who is of opinion that it was built by the same architect as Westminster Abbey.
They were certainly built at the same time, and there are many points of resemblance between them.
The chancel is remarkable for the great beauty of the carving of the arch and of the arcade on marble pillars which runs round the walls, and which Mr.Street pronounces to be "among the very best sculpture of the age that we have in this country".
Among other features of interest are some ancient brasses.
The view from the churchyard is extensive; visitors should by no means overlook the remarkably fine yew-tree which stands near the west door of the church.
There is a village club.
Subscription, for working-men, 5s per annum, or 1s 6d per quarter; honorary members, 10s per annum, 3s per quarter.
Reading-room open from 6 to 10pm, except Monday.
Smoking-room open daily from 8am, to 10pm.
Library of 1,000 volumes.
Places of Worship: St.Mary the Virgin, and Stone Church; the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel; and Congregational and Wesleyan Chapels.
Fire: Volunteer Brigade: 2 officers and 11 men.
Hotels "The Pier", "The White Hart", both in High-street.
Police: No station; 2 constables live in the village.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), High-St.
Mails from London at 8am, 12.40 and 6.30pm
Mails for London, 1.15 and 8.15pm
There is also a branch office on the Terrace.
Nearest Station and Ferry: Greenhithe.
Fares to London (Charing Cross): 1st, 3/3 4/ 6; 2nd, 2/6 3/6; 3rd, 1/8 2/9

Thames Nautical Training College

Thames Nautical Training College,
Training-ship Worcester, off Greenhithe,
and Office, 72, Mark-lane
Object: To provide properly qualified officers for merchant vessels by training cadets for a seafaring life, under an able commander and schoolmaster, with efficient subordinate officers.
The annual terms of the admission in the upper school for cadets from thirteen to sixteen years of age are £52 10s, and in the lower school for cadets from eleven to thirteen years of age, £47 5s, payable in advance, with a charge to each of £10 10s per annum for uniform, medical attendance, washing, and use of school books and stationery.
Youths only who are intended for the sea are entered on board the training college.

Junior Thames Yacht Club

Junior Thames Yacht Club, White Hart Hotel, Greenhithe, and Royal Oak Hotel, Ramsgate: the object of the club is the encouragement of practical amateur yachtsmen.
For this purpose the crews of yachts in all sailing matches must be amateurs, with the exception of one paid hand in the 5-ton class, two in the 10-ton class, and three in the 20-ton class, such hands not to touch the tiller.
Yachts limited to 20 tons only are allowed to take part in the club matches.
The officers are commodore, vice commodore, rear commodore, hon.Treasurer, secretary, and two auditors.
The committee consists of twenty members, the flag-officers being ex-officio members.
Election by ballot of the club; one black ball in three excludes.
Entrance fee, £1 is; subscription, £1 1s.
Burgee, white, with blue cross running through. Ensign red.


This reformatory training-ship of the School Ship Society is anchored off Purfleet.
As a general rule the committee do not admit boys unless the three following conditions are satisfied:
1. That the boy be sentenced to not less than three years' detention.
2. That he be not less than 13 years of age nor more than 15.
3. That he be certified as sound and healthy.
The comparative cost per head on ordinary maintenance and management is £23 5s 8d.
Funds are urgently needed, as "the amounts received on account of the Treasury allowance and the county and borough rates do little more than suffice for the maintenance of the boys and for the payments of the officers".
Visitors are requested not to go on Saturday, which is cleaning day on board.
The Cornwall was once the Wellesley; and was built in Bombay of teak in 1815, and was the flagship of Sir W.Parker and of Lord Dundonald.

QEII Bridge

St Clements or Fiddlers Reach: Broadness Point to QEII Bridge

St.Clement's Reach, sometimes called Fiddler's Reach

St.Clement's Reach, sometimes called Fiddler's Reach, runs from Greenhithe to Grays Thurrock, about a mile and three quarters.
Opposite Greenhithe on the Essex bank is Stoneness Beacon, and opposite the so-called Black Shelf, west of Grays Thurrock, is Broadness.
The tide runs very strongly round this point.
On the north of the reach is West Thurrock.
Bearings E.N.E. and W.S.W.

"Arethusa" and "Chichester"

"Arethusa" and "Chichester", Office, 25, Great Queen-street, W.C.
Two retired men-of-war, moored off Greenhithe; are lent by the Government to the Committee of the National Refuges for homeless and destitute children, the President of which is the Earl of Shaftesbury.
The Chichester was opened in 1866, and the Arethusa in 1874.
The two ships are fitted to accommodate together 400 boys, who are entered from fourteen to seventeen years of age, and to train them for a sea life either in the Royal Navy or merchant service.
The ships are entirely supported by voluntary contributions, and a visit to either of them will afford ample proof that the funds are administered carefully, and with eminently satisfactory results.


Northfleet, Kent, on the right bank, between Northfleet Hope and Gravesend Reach, 25 miles from London.
A station on the North Kent Railway, about an hour and a quarter from Charing Cross.
The station is close to the lower part of the village.
Population, 6,416. Soil, chalk.
Northfleet is a straggling village on the side of a hill, on the summit of which are the church and a quaint, old-fashioned, open, triangular space - probably once the village green - which is known by the name of the Hill.
The principal trade of Northfleet is in cement, and some shipbuilding and repairing are carried on by the river.
A prominent object both from the railway and from the river is the college, built and endowed in 1847 by John Huggens, Esq., of Sittingbourne, for the benefit of ladies and gentlemen in reduced circumstances.
It consists of 50 superior almshouses, each of the inmates receiving £1 per week.
A handsome chapel forms part of the building.
In addition to the 50 inmates, there are 40 out-pensioners who also receive £1 per week.
Perhaps the most prominent object in Northfleet is the Factory Club, a handsome building erected at the sole cost of Mr.Bevan, of the firm of Knight, Bevan, and Sturge, for the benefit of the working men of the village.
It is a large hall, with galleries at either end, in which 1,000 persons can be accommodated, and a number of rooms in the basement, with wings at the back, one of which contains the kitchen, offices, lavatories, &c., and the other a billiard-room.
The building itself is mainly erected of red and white bricks, but relieved by columns in cement of apparently mixed Italian and Corinthian styles, in addition to which there are facings and cornices of a similar material.
At each end of the building is a lofty slated tower, with a flag-staff, and margined with handsome ironwork.
The internal finishings of the large hall are executed in pitch pine; underneath one of the galleries is a bar, fitted up for the supply of refreshments; and the whole of the fittings, seats, and tables are also of pitch pine.
From the towers a splendid view may be obtained, embracing Southend and about twenty miles of beautiful scenery.
The entrance fee is 1s 3d for Messrs.Knight's men, and 2s 9d for those not belonging to that firm.
The subscription is 4d. per month.

The church of St.Botolph, approached from the Hill, stands in a churchyard full of weatherbeaten old tombstones of all shapes and sizes.
Many crumbling carvings and half-obliterated corbels on the porch and older walls of the church attest the antiquity of the structure, and on the right-hand side of the porch the curious may still discover the Rose of York or Lancaster.
The tower, which was originally built to serve the purpose of a stronghold against the incursions of pirates and river thieves, has been partly rebuilt.
The external flight of stairs leading to the tower is part of the original building.
According to Mr.E.W.Godwin, F.S.A., the church in Norman times belonged to the Archbishop of Canterbury, until it was given to the Priory of St.Andrew, Rochester, when it was in some measure rebuilt.
The original Norman church has entirely disappeared, but traces of the re-building are visible in the three westernmost arches of the nave.
These probably belong to the close of the 12th century.
The present chancel would seem to have been built about the middle of the 14th century.
The restoration of the chancel, under Mr.Godwin's superintendence, was finished in 1864.
The chancel possesses one of the architectural rarities of England, a 14th century rood screen beautifully carved in oak, on which are heads of Christ and his Apostles, much mutilated by the Puritans.
There are some fine brasses, notably one of Peter de Lacy, rector in 1375, whose body lies in the centre of the chancel, and others of William Lye (1391), and of William Rikhill and wife (1433).
The sedilia in the chancel have been beautifully restored and decorated; another set of sedilia and piscina have been partially restored, and will be found at the east end of the south aisle.
The roof is of oak and has been partly renovated; that in the chancel was new in 1864.
The registers date back to 1539.
The old parish church iron-bound chest, with six locks, is evidently of great antiquity.
In the north aisle is a curious canopied monument displaying the bewigged marble effigies, nearly if not quite life-size, of Richard Crich and Esther his wife, "erected by his sole executor".
Also in the north aisle is the monument of Dr.Edward Brown.
The doctor's will is sculptured on the marble, and by it he leaves to his "dear and loving wife sundry fields in Northfleet, and the rent of the chalk, and the profits of the cherries".
In the south aisle is a monument tablet to Walter, son of Robert, Lord Viscount Molesworth, who died in 1773, his wife (1763), and his daughters (1766 and 1772).
On the general question of epitaphs it is said of this Walter, son of Robert, in the inscription on the tablet to his memory, "Never fond of monumental compliments he forbade any use of them in regard to the carcases below."
Places of Worship: All Saints Perry-street and St.Botolph's (parish church); the Roman Catholic Church of Our Immaculate Mother and St.Joseph; and Congregational, Primitive Methodist, Wesleyan, and Wycliffe Congregational Chapels.
Police: Station, High-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, telegraph, savings bank, and insurance), the Hill.
Branch in High-street.
Mails from London, 7.15 and 11.30am, 6.45pm
Mails to London, 10.30 and 11.30am, 2.15 and 8pm. Sundays 6.30pm
Nearest Railway Station: Northfleet; Ferries: Greenhithe and Gravesend.
Fares to London: 1st, 3/6, 4/6; 2nd, 2/8, 3/6, 3rd, 1/10, 3/-.

Northfleet Hope

Northfleet Hope runs from Grays Thurrock to Northfleet, nearly north and south, about a mile and a half.
There is at the west side of the Hope a shoal with as little as three feet of water in places at low tide.
At Grays Thurrock and at Northfleet there are very extensive cement works, and at the former place is moored the Exmouth training-ship.
Bearings N. and S.

Northfleet Light

Northfleet Light: this, the first of the Trinity House lighthouses, is an iron pillar-light illuminated by gas.
It was transferred to the care of the Trinity House by the Thames Conservancy in 1870.

Grays Thurrock

Grays Thurrock, a small town on the left (Essex) bank, rather more than 23 miles from London Bridge; a station on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Rail- way, 20½ miles from London; the trains average about three-quarters of an hour.
Population, exclusive of the training-ships, about 4,000.
Light soil on chalk.
The principal trade of Grays is in bricks, and, especially, lime and cement.
The cruciform church is dedicated to St.Peter and St.Paul.
It contains a tablet to the memory of the schoolmaster and boys of the training ship Goliath, who were drowned during the fire which destroyed that ship in 1876.
About a century ago, Wm.Palmer, Esq., left property in London, now amounting to about £900 per annum, for the purposes of education in Grays, and a few years ago, at the cost of about £7,000, schools were erected to accommodate 140 boys and 75 girls, who obtain their education at a small charge.
The training ships Exmouth and Shaftesbury {which see) are moored in the river off Grays.
The former is under the Metropolitan Asylums Board, the latter under the London School Board.
A new police-station was opened in 1880.
Bank: London and Provincial.
Hotels: "the King's Arms" and "The Railway".
Places of Worship: Church of St.Peter and St.Paul, Congregational Church, and Chapels of the Primitive and United Methodist. Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, insurance).
Mails from London , 6.50 and 7.15am, 6pm;
Sundays, 9am,
For London, 12.10am, 4.45, and 9pm; Sundays, 4.30 and 9pm
Nearest Steamboat Pier: Rosherville about 3 miles, and Tilbury, a little lower down on the Essex side;
Railway Station: Grays.
Fares to London: 1st, 2/3, 3/9; 2nd, 1/8, 2/10; 3rd, 1/1, 2/-.

Exmouth Training Ship

Exmouth Training Ship, Grays Thurrock.
Commander, Captain Bourchier, R.N., formerly Captain-Superintendent of the Goliath.
(Office, 37, Norfolk Street, W.C.).
On the destruction by fire, in December, 1875, of the Goliath training ship, which had been founded and carried on by three out of the thirty London Unions for about six years, the managers of the Metropolitan Asylum Board, at the request of the Local Government Board, undertook to provide and manage a training ship, in the advantages of which the whole of the metropolitan unions and parishes were to be entitled to participate, and towards the expenses of which all now contribute.
The object of the ship, which provides accommodation for 600 lads, is to take healthy and otherwise suitable boys, from the ages of 12 to 15, from the Metropolitan Poor Law schools, educate them, and train them for service in either the Royal Navy, Army, or mercantile marine.


The industrial School ship of the London School Board has been stationed at Grays since July, 1878, and is certified for 350 inmates, 70 of whom may be Roman Catholics.
The boys are sent to the Shaftesbury by two justices, or a stipendiary magistrate in the metropolis, and are children whose cases come under the provisions of Sections 14 and 16 of the Industrial Schools Act, 1866.
A child may also be sent to an industrial school under Section 12 of the "Elementary Education Act of 1876", where an attendance order has not been complied with, and where the parent satisfies the court that he has used all reasonable efforts to compel the child to attend school.

Northfleet Hope: Tilbury Ness to Broad Ness

Tilbury Docks

Rosherville Gardens

These popular and well-conducted gardens are on the high road to the west of Gravesend, and can be reached direct from the steamboat pier.
The admission is 6d, and there is a constant succession of amusement throughout the day; dancing on the circular platform from 2 o'clock to 11 being a special and favourite feature.
Besides the tea and shrimps so dear to the heart of the Gravesend excursionist, other refreshments of a more substantial and stimulating character can be obtained at very reasonable rates.
The extent of the grounds, which are tastefully laid out and produce abundance of flowers, is about 20 acres.
There is a conservatory about 200 feet long, a bijou theatre, a maze, museum, "baronial hall", occasionally used for dancing, but more often for purposes of refreshment.
There is a very good fernery and a bear-pit, and some 10 miles of walks are held out as additional inducements to the excursion public.
The peculiar situation of Rosherville - it being an old chalk quarry - has lent itself admirably to the landscape gardener's art, and the result is a really pretty and remarkable diversified garden, in which it is quite feasible to pass that "Happy Day" which in the advertisements is always coupled with the name of Rosherville.
For railway and steamboat arrangements, see Gravesend and Steamboats.

Gravesend Reach

Gravesend Reach

Gravesend Reach is about three miles and a half in length, and runs from Northfleet to Coal House Point.
The first lighthouse of the Trinity House is at Northfleet.
Bearings E.S.E. and W.N.W.

PLA Control at Royal Pier, Gravesend

The pilot-station at Gravesend is the chief rendezvous of all the various classes of men licensed to conduct ships into and out of the River Thames.
This station represents the point of division between the functions of river and sea pilotage.
The outward-bounder, after being brought from the docks under the care of a river-licensed man, lands him, and comes under the charge of a man whose license qualifies him to take her to sea.
The inward-bound reverse the process.
The pilotage of the River Thames is now wholly under the management of the Trinity House of London.
Until 1853 their authority as respects vessels hailing to or from the southward was divided with the fellowship of the Cinque Ports, but now the two bodies are consolidated.
The Trinity House licenses pilots from Gravesend outwards to the northward, who give up charge at Orfordness, or southward as far as Dungeness, and vice versa, besides certifying special qualifications for particular coasts, British or foreign, towards which a Thames pilot may have occasion to go.
To obtain a sea-license a candidate must not be more than thirty-five years of age, and must have served at sea three years as mate or master in a square rigged ship.
Applicants thus far approved are put upon the register, and as vacancies occur come forward for examination as to their knowledge of the coast and channels, the depths of water, tides, dangers, sea-marks, &c.
The Elder Brethren of the Trinity House are the examiners, the nature of whose duties in buoyage and beaconage, and marine surveying, affords exactly the kind of experience required for such a task.
The examination passed, the license under seal of that corporation is granted, and the newly-made pilot, having first paid his fee of admission, goes to Gravesend and takes his turn as a Channel or sea pilot.
A license for the river is obtained in a manner somewhat similar, except that there are several classes of qualifications, each securing a particular kind of license.
The highest class enables the holder to insist on the acceptance of his services, to the exclusion of one of an inferior grade, in any vessel not exempted from compulsory pilotage.
Another class has authority to conduct passenger steamships passing inward or outward on coasting or on short foreign voyages; while a third class is employed solely in ships which, though not compelled by law to employ a pilot, prefer to do so.
The remuneration of the pilots, whether above or below Gravesend, is dependent upon the distance piloted, and the draft of water in feet of the vessel, subject to a deduction when steam has been employed.
The sea-pilots may not take less than the legal rate, but some of the river-pilots may make their own bargain.
They work in rotation according to turn, but if a pilot is chosen by any shipowner for a particular ship, his name is taken off the turn list until he has fulfilled his selective engagement, when he comes on turn again at the bottom of the roll.
There are two waiting-rooms on the Terrace Pier, and two steam-launches in attendance, the one on the sea, the other on the river division, the expenses of which are defrayed by a fund to which the men subscribe.
Those who go seaward have to be landed from their ships by local boatmen.
The whole number of pilots holding licenses for the River Thames is about 500, of whom 200 are exclusively for service above Gravesend.


Crimps may be said to be practically an extinct order of reptile.
Jack's ship is now boarded on arrival at Gravesend by the officers of the Board of Trade, who provide him with a passage straight home if he wishes it, and he is next awaited in the dock by the employees of the Sailors' Home.
If their regime does not suit him, the private lodging-houses he prefers are under the strictest sanitary and police surveillance; and when his money is out and he wants a ship, the only means by which he can obtain one is through the Shipping Office.
Finally, if in spite of these tender surroundings he contrives, as he still occasionally does contrive, to procure his own ultimate ejectment from some unlicensed den in the minimum of clothing, and without even the minimum of coin, he has still the refuge of the "Straw House".
Thus while blood-suckers of various breeds still ply their trade with more or less success at Jack's expense - a fact for which Jack has assuredly nowadays no one to thank but himself- the "crimp", whose specialty it was, after having sucked the blood, to dispose of the carcase to some sea-going skipper in want of a crew, has no longer any raison d'etre, and has therefore practically ceased to be.


Gravesend, Kent, on the right bank, from London 27 miles.
A station on the North Kent Railway, 24 miles from Charing Cross.
Express trains take about an hour.
The station is close to the centre of the town, and about 10 minutes' walk from the Town Pier.
Flys meet the trains.
There is another route from Tilbury to Fenchurch-street, by express about 45 minutes.
Ferry steamers ply between Tilbury station and the wharf in West-street.
Population, 20,413.
Soil, chalky.
Gravesend, anciently, according Domesday Book, Gravesham, is, owing to its position as the gateway of the port of London, one of the most important towns on the river.
All foreign-going ships are compelled to stop here and take on board pilots, and, on homeward voyage, Custom House officers.
The river here narrows to the width of about half a mile, and the narrow channel is day and night full of shipping of every class and description, from the stately ironclad to the fussy tug, from the clean-cut China clipper to the picturesque if clumsy Dutch galliot, and from the graceful schooner yacht to the ungainly hay-barge.
The shipping in the reach brings many visitors to Gravesend, for although it is no longer the custom, as it was extensively some years ago, for emigrants and other travellers to embark and disembark at Gravesend, it is still a convenient place for the last God-speed on the outward voyage or the first welcome home.
It is well to remark in this connection that the Gravesend waterman is a personage in any dealings with whom it is desirable to keep the weather-eye open.
Fancy fares are almost invariably demanded, and the smallest opportunity of laying the blame of the overcharge on the state of the weather or of the water is taken the utmost advantage of.
There is, however, no reason why there should be any real difficulty in regard to this matter.
A table of fares, with special regulations for luggage, is issued by the Corporation of Gravesend, and to it watermen are bound to adhere.
The list will be found at the end of this article.
From the river Gravesend, unlike most riverside towns, presents an attractive appearance.
The town rises rapidly from the riverside to the hill which is crowned with the well-known windmill; and the cliffs towards Rosherville and Northfleet, and the well-wooded rising ground towards Chalk and Cobham, "add greatly to the beauty of the view."
Gravesend has, since the days of Elizabeth, been incorporated as a municipal borough, and the town is governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors.
Courts of Quarter Session are held here; the present Recorder is Standish Grove Grady, Esq.
The Parliamentary borough was constituted by the Act of 1867, and includes the parishes of Gravesend and Milton and a portion of Northfleet.
The number of voters on the register in 1880 was 3,286.
The borough is at present represented by Sir Sydney Waterlow, a Liberal.

The principal streets are High-street, Harmer-street, Wind- mill-street, and the Milton and New roads, some of which contain good shops.
The most favourite residential portions of the town are along the Milton-road, on the cliffs about Rosherville, and at the streets at the back of the town, which cluster about Windmill Hill and lead into the open country.
The town-hall, where the business of the municipality is transacted, and where petty and quarter sessions are held, is a handsome building in the High-street, and behind it is the market-place extending to Queen-street.
There are four piers: the Rosherville, just below the well-known gardens - this is a landing-stage, and nothing more; the ferryboat-pier in West-street; the Town Pier, at the bottom of High-street (toll for promenade 1d), which combines the business of a steamboat-pier and landing-stage, with a somewhat feeble effort in the direction of bazaar keeping.
This pier is covered in, and is occasionally utilised for amusements, as is also the case with the Royal Terrace Pier, still lower down the river, which stands in well-arranged grounds of its own (Toll, 2d).
Gravesend belongs to the Chatham military district.
There are extensive barracks in Wellington-street, Milton, and a rifle range in Denton Marsh, on the east of the town, which was for a time closed, but which, after many difficulties and some litigation, has been again restored to its original objects.
The forts at Tilbury, New Tavern Fort at Gravesend, as well as Shorne Fort, are included in the Gravesend district.
The 1st Administrative Brigade and the 1st corps of that brigade of Kent Artillery Volunteers have their headquarters in the town.
The office of the Customs Department is close to the river at the bottom of Harmer-street.
The pilot-station is at the Terrace Pier, and the harbour-master's office and that of the mercantile marine are in Whitehall-place, where also are the offices of the London and St.Katharine and Victoria Docks, that of the East and West India Docks being in Milton-place.
There is a theatre in the New-road, which does not appear to be overburdened with patronage, and the pretty and attractive gardens at Rosherville are mainly supported by excursionists (see Rosherville Gardens).
The public hall is in New-road, nearly opposite the theatre, and contains, besides reading-room, club-room, and refreshment department, a large hall, which is available for entertainments, lectures, &c.
The assembly-room, in Harmer-street, can be hired for one night at £3 3s, and for two nights at £5 5s, including gas.
There is also a lecture-hall at Milton.
The free library and reading-room is in Church-street.
The reading-room of the St.Andrew's Waterside Mission is at the foot of the Town Pier, and is open on week-days from 9 to 9, and on Sundays from 2 to 6.
The Gravesend Club, which has its quarters at the Nelson Hotel, New-road, numbers about seventy members.
Entrance, £1 1s; subscription, £1 1s.
Election is by ballot of members; one black ball in ten excludes.

Gravesend is well supplied with schools, and one of the handsomest buildings on the hill above Milton is Milton Mount College, an institution founded in 1870 by the Rev.Wm.Guest for the training of the daughters of Congregational ministers.
The college is intended to give a high literary culture at low terms, especially to those young ladies who purpose becoming teachers.
The school depends for its support on subscriptions as well as on the payments of pupils.
In connection with the college is Milton Congregational Church and Lecture Hall, in which several societies in association with the church hold their meetings.
At Gravesend are the headquarters of the Nore Yacht Club at the New Falcon Hotel; and of the New Thames Yacht Club, who have a club-house at Clifton Marine Parade; and most of the important races of the leading London yacht clubs finish in Gravesend Reach.
Masonic lodges are held at the Town Hall and at the Old Falcon Hotel.
Varchall's Charity: this trust is shortly as follows: David Varchall, an old inhabitant of Gravesend, by his will dated 15th September, 1703, left certain property lying by the waterside in trust, after his wife's death, to raise out of the rents £20 yearly, to be paid quarterly to the master of the Free School (now the National School) for ever to teach twenty poor boys, of whom ten were to be sent from Gravesend and ten from Milton by the churchwardens and parishioners of each parish.
Also to lay out a sum of money to buy clothes for these twenty poor boys, and to pay the surplus to buy clothes for so many other poor people in Gravesend and Milton, as the respective churchwardens and parishioners should think fit.
The rents of the properties now yield a surplus averaging about;£100 per annum, which is divided equally between the parishes, and about Christmas the Vestries examine each applicant for clothes, and send a list of approved persons to the clerk, who gives them each a ticket authorising them to receive, at any shop in their own parish, useful clothing to the extent of so many shillings; these are collected and paid by the trustees.
There is a notice appended to the ticket that if the ticket be used for any other goods except clothes (such as liquor, &c.) it will not be paid.
By a decree in Chancery the number of trustees is fixed at fourteen - seven for each parish; five to be a quorum.
Vacancies are to be filled up by the trustees, but so that there be never less than five trustees.

Pinnock's Charity: Henry Pinnock, of Milton next Gravesend, gentleman, by his will dated the 13th of August, 1624, gave and bequeathed unto the poor people of the parishes of Gravesend and Milton the sum of £3, to be distributed indifferently, at the discretion of the churchwardens and overseers of the said parishes, without any other dole.
Likewise he gave and bequeathed unto the churchwardens and overseers of the parishes of Gravesend and Milton aforesaid, for ever, for the time being, certain messuages or tenements with gardens in Milton aforesaid; so that the said church- wardens and overseers do term the said messuages for ever by the name of "Saint Thomas's Houses", and do for ever convert, take, employ, and keep the same houses, with their appurtenances, to and for the only use and behoof, and for the better relief and maintenance of such poor decayed people as shall from time to time be or dwell in the said parishes, and to no other use, intent, or purpose.
He further bequeathed unto the said churchwardens and overseers two acres of marsh ground, and other hereditaments at Grays Thurrock, in Essex, to the only use and stock of the said poor of Milton and Gravesend, and to keep them at work; and that the trustees shall, during their natural lives, have the placing and displacing of the ancient poor people, into and out of the said houses.
There are now ten tenements called "Saint Thomas's Houses", and four more are in course of erection out of funds derived from charitable legacies.
The present poor people who are occupants number 37.
With a view of establishing a fund for the endowment of the charity and in memory of the late Prince Consort, a fund was established in 1863 called "the Albert Memorial Endowment Fund", which now consists of nearly £1,400 Consols, the income of which is divided equally between the inhabitants of the houses.
The Orphans' Home, South-street, West-square, London, and 35, Harmer-street, Gravesend, was opened in 1867 for 10 children.
There are now 214 orphans within its shelter - 65 in the Branch Home, Harmer-street, Gravesend, the rest in the Parent Home, West- square, London.
The Gravesend family consists of the little ones and the delicate ones of the flock, with a few older and stronger girls to do the work of the house.
There is no assured income, and no funded property belonging to the institution.
There are no managing expenses; the services of the architect, the legal adviser, the medical attendants, the secretary, and superintendent, are all given gratuitously; so that every penny which is contributed to the Home goes direct to the support of the children.
The average cost of each child's maintenance is £15 a year.
More than a hundred orphans are awaiting their turn for admission.
The Children's Home, Milton, for the rescue and nurture of orphan and neglected children, is a certified industrial school, providing accommodation for 150 boys.
In connection with the Children's Home, Bonner-road, London; Edgworth, Lancashire; and Hamilton, Canada.

Many pleasant excursions may be made from Gravesend, some of the prettiest country in the county lying within easy reach.
The woods of Cobham should certainly be visited, especially in the season when the rhododendron thickets are in bloom.
But at all times of the year the woods are beautiful.
Cobham Hall, the seat of the Earl of Darnley, is an interesting Elizabethan building, containing a fine picture gallery and a very perfect gilded music-room attributed to Inigo Jones.
Cobham church also presents many points of interest.
Fine views are obtained on the road from Gravesend to Rochester (7 miles) over Gad's Hill.
Maidstone is about three-quarters of an hour from Gravesend by the North Kent Railway, and a little beyond Maidstone are the celebrated Farleigh and Wateringbury hop-gardens.
In the summer the steamer can be taken to Southend or Sheerness, from which latter point steamers run up the Medway to Rochester and Chatham.
Banks: London and County, and London and Provincial, both in High-street.
Fair: October 24th.
Fire: the Volunteer Brigade consists of captain, superintendent, and ten members.
Three manual engines, two hand, hose and reel.
Hydrants are fixed throughout the town.
Fire-engines, escapes, and fire-annihilators are kept at the Town Hall.
Hotels: "Clarendon", "Falcon", "Old Falcon", "Rosherville", all facing the river.
Places of Worship: Christ Church, Milton next Gravesend; Holy Trinity Church, Milton next Gravesend; St.George's (parish church of Gravesend); St.James's Church, London-road; St.Mark's, Rosherville; St.Peter and St.Paul (parish church of Milton); the Roman Catholic Church of St.John's, Milton-road; Waterside Mission, St.Andrew's; Bethel (for sailors and watermen, Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes), West-street.
Gravesend also contains Congregational, Free Church, Primitive Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan Chapels, and a Jewish Synagogue.
Police: the station is at the Town Hall in High-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), 144 and 145, Milton-road.
Mails from London, 8am, 2.05, 5.10, and 10.45pm
Mails for London, 9.30am, 1, 4, 8, and 12pm
Receiving offices, 80, High-street, 38, New-road, 27, Wrotham- road, and at Denton.
There is also a telegraph-station at the Terrace Pier.
Nearest Railway Station, Steamboat-pier and Ferry: Gravesend.
Fares to Charing Cross: 1st, 3/6, 4/6; 2nd, 2/8, 3/6; 3rd, 2/1, 3/-.
To Fenchurch-street (via Tilbury): 1st, 2/6, 3/9; 2nd, 1/11, 2/10; 3rd, 1/4, 2/-

Gravesend Watermen's Fares

For one personExceeding one
between Broadness Point and Gray's, and Lower Hope Point below Gravesend: Over the water directly, and to and from any steamboat, ship, or vessel, opposite, or near to any public plying place between Broadness Point and Grays, and Lower Hope Point aforesaid, both inclusive, one person1s6d. each
From the Town Quay to or from Gladdish's  Wharf on the west, and to and from all steamboats, ships, vessels, and places  lying and being between the same, and from the Town Quay to and from all steamboats, ships, vessels, and places  lying and being between the same, one person1s.6d. each
From the Town Quay at Gravesend, westward, to or from any steamboat, ship, vessel, or place between it and:-
- the Red Lion Wharf1s 6d9d each
- Northfleet Creek2s 6d1s 3d each
- Broadness Point or Grays3s 6d1s 9d each
From the Town Quay at Gravesend, westward, to or from any steamboat, ship, vessel, or place between it and:-
- the Red Lion Wharf1s 6d9d each
- Northfleet Creek2s 6d1s 3d each
From the Town Quay at Gravesend, eastward, to and from any steamboat, ship, vessel, or place between it and:-
- Denton Mill1s 6d9d each
- Shorne Mead Battery2s 6d1s 3d each
- Coalhouse Point3s 6d1s 9d each
- Halfway Lower Hope5s 0d2s 6d each
- Lower Hope Point Battery6s 6d3s 3d each

Watermen bringing the same passengers or any of them back from any steamboat, ship, vessel, or place, to be paid only one half the fare above stated by such person or persons for the back passage.
The above fares in all cases to include passengers' luggage or baggage, not exceeding fifty-six pounds for each passenger.
All beyond that weight to be paid for at or after the rate of 6d. for each fifty-six pounds.
Watermen detained by passengers stopping at steamboats, ships, wharves, and other places, to be paid for time or distance, according to the rate herein set forth respectively, at the option of the waterman.
For a full boat-load of passengers' luggage or baggage, the same fare as for carrying eight passengers: for half a boatload, the same fare as four passengers.
Time for a pair of oars:
For the first hour, 2s; for the second hour, 1s; and for each succeeding hour, 1s.
For the day, the day to be computed from 7 o'clock in the morning to 5 o'clock in the evening from Michaelmas Day to Lady Day, and from 6 o'clock in the morning to 8 o'clock in the evening, from Lady Day to Michaelmas Day, 12s.

Gravesend Hackney Coach Fares

Gravesend Hackney Coach Fares to be affixed in a conspicuous position in the interior of every carriage licensed by the Urban Sanitary authority.

By distance - From the Town Terrace, or Commercial Piers, to the North Kent Railway Station, or vice versa1s 0d
From the piers or railway station to Rosherville Gardens, or Pier, or Perry-street1s 6d
To Springhead2s 6d
From the King-street stand to the Denton boundary, or any place between the west side of Windmill and High streets, and south of the old Dover-road; or to the Rosherville boundary, or any place between Windmill and High- streets, and south of the Old road1s 6d
From the piers or railway-station into Old Dover-road, Constitution- crescent, Leith Park, West Hill, Shrubbery, South Hill, White Hill roads, or Old Sun-lane1s 6d
Except in the above cases, for any distance not exceeding one mile1s
for every additional half-mile, 6d
Half back fare if the parties return in the same carriage.
By time - Between 6am, and 10pm for every hour or any less time, from the time of hiring to the nearest stand after discharged2s 6d

Half-fare additional may be charged between 10pm and 6am, When more than two persons may be and are carried, 6d. to be paid for every additional person for the whole hiring.
Two children under ten years of age to be counted as one adult; a single child under ten free.
No driver to carry more than six persons in a carriage drawn by horses, or more than two in one drawn by mules or asses.
Luggage free up to twenty-eight pounds; over that weight, 2d. for every additional fourteen pounds, or fractional part thereof.
Carriage drawn by a goat to carry only three children under six years.

Nore Yacht Club

Nore Yacht Club, New Falcon Hotel, Gravesend:
Object: To promote yacht and naval architecture; to encourage amateur seamanship and yacht racing in classes of 40 tons and under; and to establish yachting accommodation on metropolitan waters.
Officers: commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore, and honorary treasurer and secretary, who, with twenty members, form the committee.
Election by ballot in committee; nine votes must be recorded: one black ball in eight excludes.
Burgee, light blue, dark blue cross through it, gold anchor in centre, red ensign.

Tilbury Fort

Tilbury Fort is in Essex, opposite Gravesend.
The original Tilbury Fort was built by Henry VIII. in 1539, and when Elizabeth's army was encamped at West Tilbury was but a small building.
King Henry's Fort was considerably enlarged by Charles II., when the Dutch fleet were making themselves very officious in the Thames and Medway.
There is not much to see in Tilbury Fort, the principal object of attraction being the room in the old gateway once occupied by Queen Elizabeth.
At Tilbury is a station of the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, and a steam-ferry to Gravesend.
Fares to Fenchurch-street: 1st, 2/5, 3/9; 2nd, 1/9, 2/10; 3rd, 1/2, 2/-; and see Gravesend.

Lower Thames Crossing Tunnel

Lower Hope Point to Coalhouse Point

The Hope, or Lower Hope, runs about three nautical miles, almost due north and south, from Coal House Point, about two miles below Gravesend, to the Mucking Light at the beginning of Sea Reach.
Both banks are here very flat and marshy, the Mucking Flats being on the left (Essex) and Cliffe Marsh on the right (Kent).
Just beyond Coal House Point is the Oven Spit and Ovens Buoy. Bearings N.E. and S.W.

Mucking Flat Lighthouse

Mucking Flat Lighthouse, Sea Reach: Built of iron upon a hollow pile foundation.
A temporary light was first exhibited from this position in October, 1849, and the present structure was built in 1851.
It is painted black and white in alternate horizontal bands, and is connected with the shore by a long footbridge, also built on piles and coloured white.
The height of the light tower from base to vane is 66 feet, and its central lamp burns at 40 feet above high water.
The light is under occultation once in every half minute, and the apparatus used is lenticular, giving forth a white beam with red sectors.
A fog bell is sounded during foggy weather.
There are two keepers employed in tending the station, who, having their dwellings at hand, with coals, light, and furniture provided for them, and living with their families, have a much more comfortable billet than their neighbours at the Chapman lower down.

Ovens Buoy

Ovens Buoy: A 20-foot conical buoy, made of iron, and painted black.
It is situated in Gravesend Reach, three miles below Gravesend, at the edge of the Oven Spit on the Essex (left) bank, and marks a depth of water, at low-water spring tide, of 9 feet.
It is moored with 15 fathoms of chain.
This buoy has only been retransferred to the Trinity House recently, having, in 1865, been transferred to the Thames Conservancy.

Thames Haven Cattle Station

Thames Haven (Essex).
Thames Haven Company, Limited, 8, London-street, E.C.
The business of this company is the landing and housing of foreign animals and the forwarding of them to the London cattle market.

Sea Reach

Sea Reach runs east and west front the Mucking to the Nore, being about 12 nautical miles.
The banks are, for the most part, flat and shoaly, with hills rising behind, and the river here rapidly widens.
On the north (Essex) side of Sea Reach, approaching the Nore, are Canvey Island; the Chapman Light; the Leigh Middle, with its two buoys; Southend; and the West and Middle Shoebury buoys, at the edge of the Maplin Sands.
On the South (Kent) is the Blyth Sand, extending some six nautical miles, with three buoys; the Yantlet Middle with its buoy; the Jenkin Buoy; and the Nore Sand and buoy.
A little distance above the Nore the Medway enters the Thames at Sheerness, the Sheerness Middle and Grain Spit being marked by buoys.
Bearings E.S.E. and W.N.W.

Spit Buoy

Spit Buoy: A 6-foot can-buoy, made of wood, and painted black.
It is situated in Sea Reach, off Leigh, and inside Southend Pier to the westward.
It marks 6 feet of water at low-water spring tide. It is moored with 6 fathom of chain.
This buoy belongs to the Trinity House.

East Blyth Buoy.

East Blyth Buoy - A 16 foot conical buoy, made of iron, and painted with black and white stripes.
It is situated in Sea Reach, nearly opposite the Chapman Light, on the edge of the Blyth Sand, and marks a depth of water, at low water spring tide, of 21 feet.
It is moored with 18 fathoms of chain.

Middle Blyth Buoy

Middle Blyth Buoy: A 16-ft. can buoy, made of iron, and painted with black and white stripes.
It is situated in Sea Reach, a short distance below Thames Haven, on the edge of the Blyth Sand, and marks a depth of water, at low-water spring tide, of 20 ft.
It is moored with 18 fathom of chain.

Jenkin Buoy

Jenkin Buoy: An 8-foot cylinder buoy, made of iron, and painted with black and white chequers.
It is situated in Sea Reach, to the westward of the Nore Sand, and marks a depth of water, at low- water spring tide, of 21 feet.
It is moored with 12 fathoms of chain.
The Jenkin buoy belongs to the Trinity House.

Coryton: Holehaven, Coryton, Gateway Port to Lower Hope Point

Canvey Island

Canvey Island (Essex) is situated on the Thames, about 12 miles below Graves end, and is close to Hole Haven, or Holy-Haven, and not far from Thames Haven.
There is a very comfortable and unobtrusive inn, where boating men are frequently accommodated with bed and board.
The population of the island, purely agricultural, is about 300.
The very pretty little church is dedicated to St.Katherine.
There is a coastguard station on the island, and Benfleet station is on the land side about three miles from the water.
There is a fine shell bay and beach, which nearly at all times of the tide is a most pleasant walk close to the sea.
Nearest Railway Station: Benfleet, on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, about 1 hour 30 minutes from London;
Steamboat-piers: Thames Haven and Southend.
Railway fares: Benfleet to London, 1st, 3/9, 6/3; 2nd, 2/10, 4/9; 3rd, 1/11, 3/10.

Chapman Lighthouse

Chapman Lighthouse is an iron screw-pile structure, painted red, built on Chapman Head, in Sea Reach.
It shows towards the eastward a red light over the sand called the River Middle, and a white light in the safe channel; to the westward its light is wholly white, and is designed to lead vessels clear of a danger called the Scar.
The piles have each a Mitchell's screw at the lower end, by means of which they were driven into the sand when the structure was built, in 1851.
Above the wash of the water, a six-sided chamber contains the accommodation for the keepers, two in number, which is surmounted by a six-sided lantern, enclosing a Dioptric or Lenticular apparatus of the second order, in the centre of which is the source of light, a fountain lamp, with four concentric wicks burning colza oil.
The light since January, 1881, is occulting, disappearing twice in quick succession every half minute.
The total height of the building from base to vane is 74 feet, and the light is exhibited at an elevation of 40 feet above high water.
Three keepers are employed: two on duty and one on shore, and the relief is effected once a month, by a steamer from the Trinity depot at Blackwall, so that each man serves two months at the lighthouse, and has one month in three on shore.


Southend, Essex, on the left bank at the mouth of the Thames, from London about 43 miles.
A station on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, about 1 hour 45 minutes by ordinary trains, and 1 hour 10 minutes by fast trains, from Fenchurch-street.
The station is 5 minutes' walk from the Terrace; flys meet the trains.
Population, about 5,000. Soil, clay and gravel.
The West of London, at least, has for many years had a very erroneous idea of this pretty little town.
It has been looked upon as a sort of Whitechapel-on-Sea, and comic writers have lost no opportunity of making capital out of the cockneyism and vulgarity which they have assumed to be particularly rampant in Southend.
It will be a surprise, therefore, to most visitors to find a clean, quiet, well-built, well-arranged, and old-fashioned watering-place, with most of the advantages, and with comparatively few of the drawbacks to be found in many more pretentious places.
It is no doubt true that Southend is a favourite place for excursionists, and that 'Arry occasionally descends upon the place in his thousands, but he confines himself for the most part to the old town, which is by the side of the river (or sea, as the natives prefer to call it), where he finds every accommodation in the way of taverns, cheap dinners, ninepenny teas, oysters in the season (which here appears to be July), the toothsome cockle, and the succulent whelk, and it is scarcely necesary to add, the domestic shrimp and "crease".
'Arry is also to be found on the pier, where, arrayed in rainbow tweeds, he delights in fishing for dabs, and endeavouring to persuade himself that the telescope which he is always eager to borrow is of the smallest assistance to him.
The beach, too, is a favourite place for excursionists, and the bathing-machines are extensively patronised.
That the strict rules of decency are not observed so well as could be wished, is unfortunately not peculiar to Southend.
As to these matters, English arrangements are almost universally bad, and Southend is no better and no worse than its more aristocratic rivals.
But the bulk of the excursionists to Southend are the children who come down in large and happy parties in charge of schoolmaster or parson, for "a day in the country", and whose enjoyment of the place, and of the unwonted fresh air - for Southend air is fresh and invigorating - is of itself a pleasure to watch.

Even in the fullest and most lively part of the season, and in the very crisis of a big excursionists' day, that part of Southend on the cliff from the Royal Hotel to St.John's College, is as quiet and decorous as the Lees at Folkestone.
Indeed, the front of Cliff Town is remarkably like the Lees in the earlier days of Folkestone as a watering- place.
Along the front of Royal-terrace, and extending to the sea-wall below, is the Shrubbery (admission 2d)
This pleasant and shady retreat is an exceedingly good instance of how much can be effected with a piece of waste cliff by a little expert landscape gardening.
A local and enthusiastic writer thus describes the Shrubbery, not without a touch of gush:
"Here are many cool grots, fairy dells, and leafy bowers, where one may enjoy the latest novel from Mudie's, or the enchanting aspect seaward, to be seen through the leafy apertures formed by the surrounding trees.
During the gloaming the promenade is crowded by the elite, who have assembled to listen to the bewitching notes of the nightingale."
This is, perhaps, too poetical a description, but there can be no doubt that the Shrubbery is a great addition to the attractions of the town, and that its views of Sheerness, the Kentish Hills, and the varying stream of traffic that ebbs and flows past Southend are both cheerful and picturesque.
In addition to the Old Town and Cliff Town, Southend has two other suburbs, the Park Estate at the back of Cliff Town, and Porter's Town some little distance eastward of the railway-station.
The new portions of the town are in nearly all cases well planned and carefully laid out.
Prittlewell, an ancient village, of which, in fact, Southend is only a hamlet, is distant a mile and a half inland.
The church at Prittlewell is large and handsome, mainly perpendicular, but containing remains of much earlier work.
The tower is considered to be one of the finest in the county.
One of the great institutions of Southend is the pier, one of the longest, if not the longest in England.
The tide receding for nearly a mile has necessitated the extension of the pier to a distance of a mile and a quarter.
A tramway runs the entire length, and the tram-cars would be even more useful than they are if more frequent journeys were made.
The fare each way is 3d.
The pier toll is 1d
Southend Pier not only enjoys the distinction of being one of the longest piers extant, but affords accommodation to perhaps the smallest music-hall and stage ever seen.
During the season concerts take place within its canvas walls in the afternoon and evening.

The public hall in Alexandra-street is a convenient building, seating upwards of 500, and provided with a stage and all appliances for theatrical performances.
St.Stephen's Convalescent Home, in connection with St.Stephen's, Poplar, was opened in 1876 for the accommodation of 8 or 10 respectable women or children, at a charge of 8s to 10s per week.
The Milton Hall Convent is a Home for poor old and infirm people and orphan and incurable children.
It is supported by voluntary contributions of money and food, and is a branch of the Hammersmith Institution of the Sisters of Nazareth.
A masonic lodge (Priory, 1,000) meets at the Middleton Hotel close by the station.
The country about Southend is somewhat flat, but is well wooded, and affords many good walks and drives.
Leigh (which see), 4 miles; Shoebury (which see)> 5 miles; Hadleigh, 6 miles; and Rayleigh, 8 miles, are favourite land excursions, while steamers run via Sheerness, to Chatham and Rochester, a pleasant trip of about two hours.
There is one drawback to Southend, and, in truth, a somewhat serious one.
The service of trains is by no means all that it should be, and the arrangements generally at the squalid Fenchurch-street station are simply deplorable.
The fares are certainly low, but little else can be said in favour of the line.
Bank:Sparrow, Tuffnell, and Co., High-street.
Hotels: "Royal", facing the sea; "Hope", Old Town; " Ship", Old Town; "Middleton", close to railway station.
Places of Worship: All Saints, Porter's Town; St.John the Baptist (parish church); and St.Mary the Virgin, Prittlewell; the Roman Catholic Church of Our Lady and St.Helen, Empress; Trinity, Reformed Church of England; and Railway Baptist, Congregational, Independent, Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police: Station, Alexandra-street.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), Alexandra-street.
Mails from London, 7 and 9.15am, and 6.45pm
Mails for London, 8.35 and 11.05am, and 1.35 and 7pm, Sunday, 6.30pm
The Receiving Houses at Marine-parade, Park-street, and Porter's Town are cleared a quarter of an hour earlier.
Nearest Railway, Steamboat Pier, and Ferry: (steamer to Sheerness in sum- mer), Southend.
Fares to Fenchurch-street, 1st, 4/4, 7/-; 2nd, 3/- 5/-; 3rd, 2/2, 4/4.

Crow Stone

The Crow Stone: An obelisk on the Essex bank, about a mile westward of Southend, marks the limit of the jurisdiction of the Thames Conservancy; an imaginary line being drawn across the river here to Yantlet Creek in Kent.


Coastguard: the Thames which is in the Harwich district is shared between the two divisions of Southend and Sheerness, the greater portion being under the former, which extends from Shoeburyness round by Tilbury and Gravesend to Cliffe Creek, beyond which the Sheerness division continues in the direction of the sea.

River Middle Buoy

An 8 foot can buoy, made of wood, and painted black.
It is situated in Sea Reach, on the Leigh Middle Sand, to the westward of Southend Light, and marks fourteen feet of water at low-water spring tide.
It is moored with twelve fathoms of chain. This buoy belongs to the Trinity House,

River Middle Buoy, East

An 8 foot convex-bottomed conical buoy, surmounted by staff and diamond, made of iron, and painted black with white rings.
It is situated in Sea Reach, to the eastward of the Leigh Middle Sand, and marks twenty-three feet of water at low water spring tide.
It is moored with twelve fathom of chain. This buoy belongs to the Trinity House.

Alexandra Yacht Club, Southend-on-Sea.

Club-house, Public Hall, South-end.
Election by ballot; five members form a quorum; one black ball in five excludes.
Entrance fee for yacht owners, £1 1s.; non-yacht owners, £2 1s.
; subscription, £2 2s.
Members residing beyond two miles from the club pay only £1 1s.
Officers: Commodore, vice-commodore, rear commodore, hon.secretary.
The committee consists of the officers and 12 members, three to form a quorum.
Red ensign; burgee blue, with the arms of the county of Essex.


Leigh, Essex, on the left bank, from London about 42 miles.
A station on the London, Tilbury, and Southend Railway, about one hour and a half from Fenchurch- street.
Population: 1,688. Soil: loam, clay, and gravel.
Leigh is a picturesque fishing village situated on a creek of the Thames, and of but little importance.
Behind the village, which is built close on to the river, rises a somewhat steep hill, on which are the church, the post-office, and some few houses.
the church, which is dedicated to St. Clement, is a large building in the perpendicular style, with a handsome and lofty tower, which is a well-known landmark, and commands an extensive prospect.
It contains a few brasses, notably that to Richard Hadock and wives (1453) in the north aisle.
In the chancel is a bust of Robert Salmon (died 1641), curiously painted, and with an inscription in Latin and English setting forth the fact that he had restored the ancient art of navigation, which had been almost lost.
the church also contains an ancient alms-box, with three massive locks, inscribed, "I pray you the pore remember."
Just below the church, on the way to the river, are the school buildings.
Places of Worship: St.Clement's, and Wesleyan Chapel.
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance), half-way down the hill, between the church and the village.
Mails from London 10.45am, Mails for London, 11.20am, and 7pm
Nearest Railway Station: Leigh;
Steamboat Pier and Ferry: Southend.
Fares to London: 1st, 4/1, 6/10; 2nd, 3/-, 5/-; 3rd, 2/1.

Maplin Sands

Maplin Sands begin just to the eastward of Southend and extend to beyond the Maplin Light.
They are on the north side, and are well buoyed.

Isle of Grain

Grain, Isle of: A grazing district, bounded by the Thames and Medway, and opposite Sheerness, which is about a mile and a half distant.
An important portion of the defences of the Thames and Medway is furnished by the forts and batteries on the island.
Being very difficult of access, the Isle of Grain is very little visited, and, indeed, offers but scant attraction.
The island is connected with the North Kent Railway at Higham, the terminus in the Isle of Grain being Port Victoria (which see).

Grain Spit Buoy

Grain Spit Buoy - A 6-foot can buoy, made of wood, and painted black.
It is situated on the Grain Spit, on the Kentish side to the entrance to the Medway, and marks a depth of water, at low water, spring tide, of 8 feet.
It is moored with 6 fathom of chain.
The weight of the sinker is 8 cwt.
The Grain Spit Buoy belongs to the Trinity House.

Sheerness & the Medway Approaches


Sheerness, Kent, on the right bank, at the mouth of the river, from London about 46 miles.
A station on the Sittingbourne branch of the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway; about two hours from London.
The station is five minutes' walk from the steamboat-pier, and about twenty minutes' walk from the post-office.
Population, 13,956. Soil, London Basin with sand.
Sheerness is a fortified dockyard and garrison town, barring the mouth of the Medway, and the fortifications are of considerable importance and mount a large number of heavy guns.
The dockyard is only of secondary importance, owing to the fact of its basins being too small to accommodate the large iron ships of the present time.
Vessels of a smaller class are repaired and fitted, and wooden ships are occasionally built.
In Sheerness Dockyard is the only naval barrack in England.
It has accommodation for 1000 men.
The visitor who is desirous of seeing what an English dockyard of the first class is like should take a steamer to Chatham.
Admission to Sheerness Dockyard is easily obtained - the only requisite being that the name of the visitor should be inscribed in a book at the principal entrance.
Casual visitors, however, not being allowed to enter the workshops, practically miss the most interesting part of the show.
For more extended facilities, application should be made to the Captain-Superintendent.
The older part of the town, which is in fact Sheerness proper, and which contains the dockyard, railway station, &c, is known as Bluetown, and has been supplemented of late years by three suburbs known as Miletown, Bankstown, and Marinetown, the three being generically known as Sheerness-on-Sea.
It appears to have been the intention of Sir Edward Banks - who founded Bankstown, and whose private residence has since been converted into the "Royal Hotel" - and of the land societies who are responsible for the erection of Marinetown, to found a watering-place in emulation of Southend over the way.
The effort, however well intended, has not been crowned with a brilliant success.
There is a long and well-built sea-wall, which, as to its frontage, is trim and orderly enough; but the back of the embankment, which presents itself to the view of Marinetown, is but an untidy and shabby piece of work.
The shingly beach affords good bathing.
There are bathing-machines and a swimming-bath, available for gentlemen, at all times of the tide.

Miletown contains one building of great interest to the Wesleyan connection.
The chapel in Hope-street was built and used by the Rev.John Wesley, the founder of the great Wesleyan community.
It is a wooden edifice, and 40 years ago was removed from Bluetown to its present site.
There is a handsome building at the corner of Trinity-road, known as the Victoria Hall, containing accommodation for concerts, theatrical, and other enter- tainments, and capable of seating about 1,200.
The Literary Institute, with reading-room and smoking-room (admission 1d), occupies a portion of the upper floor.
The institute has a library of about 2,500 volumes.
A similar institution, for the benefit of the garrison, is situated close to the entrance to the Royal Artillery Barracks, and is a building containing, on the ground floor, a large room for games, &c, where bagatelle-boards, dominoes, &c., are provided.
At one end of this room there is a refreshment bar, at which refreshments, except intoxicating liquors, may be obtained.
On the upper floor is a large reading-room, with newspapers and periodicals.
This room is also fitted up as a theatre, and here theatrical representations take place, as well as concerts and penny-readings, by officers, non-commissioned officers, and men.
There is a library of 1,800 volumes of history, biography, fiction, &c.
There are quarters for the librarian in the building, and adjacent to it is the fives court, gymnasium, and quoit-ground.
The whole is managed under the regulations laid down for the purpose in the Queen's Regulations and Orders for the Army.
A Freemasons' lodge meets in the Victoria-buildings.
The 13th Kent Artillery Volunteers have their head- quarters at Sheerness.

Steamers run daily in the summer to Chatham, Rochester, and Southend.
Sheppey Cliffs are worth a visit, and there are some curious little villages in the island; otherwise the excursionist must at present rely on the train which joins the main London, Chatham, and Dover Railway at Sittingbourne, and affords ready access to the Kentish coast, &c.
The line from Higham across the Isle of Grain gives Sheerness another convenient route to London.
Bank: London and County, High-street, Bluetown.
Hotels: "Fountain", Blue-town, close to pier and station; "Royal", Banks-town.
Market Day: Saturday.
Places of Worship: Dockyard Chapel, Holy Trinity, and St.Paul's (parish church); the Roman Catholic Church of St.Henry and St.Elizabeth, and Catholic Apostolic Church; Baptist, Bible Christian, Congregational, Primitive Methodist, and Wesleyan Chapels.
Police Station: Railway-road, close to station .
Postal Arrangements: Post Office (money order, savings bank, telegraph, and insurance): Head office, High-street, Mile-town; Branches in High-street, Blue-town, and Redan-place, Marine-town.
The Blue-town and Marine-town branches also transact insurance business.
Mails from London at 7 and 10.30am, 7pm
Mails for London at 7.50 and 10.45am, and 2.30, 7.20, and 8.20pm.
On Sundays, 7am from London, and 6.10pm for London.
Nearest Bridge: Rochester;
Station and Ferry: Sheerness.
Fares to Victoria, Holborn Viaduct, and Ludgate: 1st, 8/-, 12/-; 2nd, 6/-, 9/-; 3rd, 3/6, 6/-.
Fares to Charing Cross: The same.

Nore Light

Nore Light, about 50 miles from London Bridge.
The Nore light-ship is the first sea light to be passed on leaving the port of London.
It is the first in order of seniority among its kind, for at this station the first light-ship set afloat on the coast of England was permanently laid in the year 1730.
The original hull was that of a sloop, with a large lantern at each end of a yard laid across the mast.
An improvement in the method of illumination in 1825 rendered one lantern sufficient, incorporate with the mast, and showing a "fixed" light.
In 1855 for purposes of distinction, the light was made "revolving".
After seven years' service in one commission, the ships are brought into port for a thorough overhaul.
The Nore lightship was built of wood at Limehouse 40 years ago, and is 96 feet long by 21 broad; her tonnage, 156; hull, mast-head, and globe painted red, and the name "Nore" in large white letters on each broadside.
The hollow globe at the mast-head, 6 feet in diameter, made of bent laths, is characteristic of such craft by day; it is never removed unless when the ships are driven from their stations.
About 10 feet below it hangs the lantern, an octagonal glass case, framed in copper, and fitting round the mast like a great gem ring, housed on deck by day, and hoisted as high up the mast as the shrouds will permit by night.
On deck forward is a powerful windlass - a necessary provision for managing the heavy cable, which is composed of very short links; the iron if 1⅝ in thick, and of sufficient length to veer out 100 fathoms if required.
On a netting attached to the bumpkin (an apology for a bow sprit) is a sail neatly stowed ready for use if required; and at the stern, furled close to a jigger mast, is another sail.
These are used in ordinary times to steady the ship when it is blowing hard, or in case of breaking adrift and being driven to sea (which has never yet happened) they would enable her to run to an anchorage.

Around the mast and fitting on to the deck is a circular wooden chamber into which the lantern is lowered in the daytime, affording convenience for cleaning it and trimming the lamps.
Passing down to the lower deck is a companion ladder, serving both for officers and crew.
The latter are lodged forward, and occupy all the 'tween deck space from the mast to the bows of the ship.
Their hammocks, chests, and lockers are along the sides of the berth, and a good broad table down the middle, with a bench seat at each side of it.
Amidships, near the mast, is the cooking stove, a large grate whose warmth must be particularly acceptable in hard weather.
Close against the mast is a clockwork machine, set in motion by a descending weight, whose office is to turn an iron spindle-rod laid against the mast, and so contrived that when the lantern is hoisted into its place it sets the light revolving in the manner to be presently described.
Immediately behind the mast, after passing the companion ladder, a small passage-way leads to the captain's cabin and the store-rooms.
On the right, in large lockers breast-high, the bread and provisions are kept; on the left is the principal store, where the oil, cotton wicks, and spare lamps are deposited.
Here are four or five cylindrical cisterns, each containing 100 gallons of colza oil, a bench, and a set of bright copper measures, and a black-board ruled into suitable spaces for a record in chalk of the quantities drawn off.
Two or three spare lamps and reflectors hang from the beams, all ready for use; and a trimming-tray, with scissors, holders for wicks, and glass cylinders, and other appliances used by the lamp-trimmer when performing his daily task, lies here in the place provided for it.

From the passage a door opens into the stern cabin, a snug little den for the use of the officer in command, neatly but plainly furnished, with a library for the use of the crew, the books of which circulate throughout the service.
Below this deck is the hold, in which water tanks, spare cables, and some few tons of ballast, keep the vessel steady.
The principal function for which a light-vessel is placed is, as the name implies, the exhibition of a warning or a guiding light at night.
To prevent confusion with lamps or fires on shore or on board other vessels, a distinguishing character is given to the light, which, in the case of the "Nore", is called the revolving half-minute character.
The effect to be produced is that a brilliant flash shall pass before the eye of the observer every 30 seconds, which is accomplished in the following manner:
Argand lamps, fitted each within a paraboloidal reflector, and slung upon gimbal work to counteract the vessel's rolling, are arranged in three groups of three lamps each on a frame within the lantern, and surrounding the mast.
The property of this kind of reflector is that it gathers all, or nearly all, the rays into a parallel beam of light, and when in position this beam is thrown towards the horizon.
The three in a group are cornered together with their rims in one plane, like a triple-barrelled opera glass, so that the blended beams of three lamps reach the observer at the same time.
The framework which carries the three groups runs on wheels on a circular rail, and its inner ring which encircles the mast is cogged upon one edge.
When the lantern is hoisted these cogs come into connection with the cogged head of the iron spindle laid beside the mast, which is kept turning by machinery below the deck, as before explained, and sets the frame in motion.
If there were only one group of lamps the frame must revolve very fast to bring the beam round in half a minute, and the lamps would flare; but by placing three groups the speed is reduced to one-third.
To put this description into a homely shape: the sea-gull flying over the lantern sees three bright spokes of a wheel going slowly round and round, while if he drops down on to the water he will get a spoke in his eye every half-minute from sunset to sunrise.

From stem to stern, deck, lantern, lamps, cabin, and utensils, are all kept scrupulously clean and bright.
The crew who are charged with this duty number eleven in all, but only seven are on board at one time, the master or mate, two lamplighters, and four seamen.
Once a month the relief steamer comes down from Blackwall, brings the shoremen back, and takes others away.
The master and mate take month about, the rest have two months on board to one on shore.
Provisions and water are renewed monthly by this vessel, and stores are kept up to service requirements.
There is plenty of work in keeping a look-out, keeping all clean, especially the lantern, lantern-glass, lamps, and reflectors, and in keeping very neat and careful records of the state of wind and weather, barometer, &c., and of the daily and nightly expenditure of oil and stores.
The men have, nevertheless, a good deal of leisure, which some of them employ in mat-making, some in shoe-making, some in a kind of cabinet work or in toy-making.
They live as a rule to a good age, and are entitled to a pension when past work.
The cost of this vessel with apparatus complete was £5000, and its maintenance may be stated at £1200 a year.

Nore Sand Buoy

A 7-ft. can-buoy, made of wood, and painted with black and white stripes.
It is situated in Sea Reach, on the northern edge of the Nore Sand, and marks a depth of water, at low-water spring tide, of 16 feet. It is moored with 10 fathom of chain.
The Nore Sand Buoy belongs to the Trinity House.

Sheerness Middle Buoy

An 8-foot, convex-bottomed, conical buoy, made of iron, and painted black, and surmounted with staff and globe. It is situated at the edge of the Middle Ground Shoal, at the entrance to the Medway, and marks a depth of water, at low-water spring tide, of 20 feet.
It is moored with 10 fathom of chain. The Sheerness Middle Buoy belongs to the Trinity House.


Fortifications, the first land defences above the Nore are at Sheerness, where forts and batteries of considerable power guard the entrance to the Medway, and where also further protection is given by men-of-war and floating batteries.
At Cliffe, and on the Lower Hope, is Cliffe Fort; Coal-house Fort is a little higher up on the other side of the river; and nearly opposite again, on the Kentish side, Shorne Fort.
The three last-mentioned are all important buildings, very strongly armed, and would probably prove quite equal to the task for which they are intended.
There are batteries, earthworks, and other defences at Gravesend and Tilbury, the real strength of which is matter for conjecture.

Port Victoria

Almost unnoticed except by Kentish men, and by those chiefly who inhabit the district of the Isle of Grain, the Hundred of Hoo, and the country generally in the neighbourhood of the Medway estuary, a railway branching from the South-Eastern line, or rather from its tributary, the North Kent, at Higham, five miles east of Gravesend, has been made to the southern side of the Yantlet Creek, nearly opposite Queenborough, including a maritime station and wharf, which, by permission of Her Majesty the Queen, has been named Port Victoria, was in 1884 celebrated by a visit from London; a large party of gentlemen interested in the development of the new and important scheme having started for that purpose from Cannon-street.
The distance is thirty-eight miles, the new line being thirteen miles long, and its terminus less than two miles from the mouth of the Medway.
At Port Victoria, as the terminus is called, will be established, by the South-Eastern Railway, a port which will open a new and shortened route to the Continent, and which will greatly assist the American traffic of such vessels as those belonging to the Monarch line of the Royal Exchange Steam Shipping Company, the National line, and other great steamship companies requiring deep-water anchorage.
Fares to Charing Cross; 1st, 7/3, 10/9; 2nd, 5/2, 7/9; 3rd, 3/-, 5/6.

Isle of Sheppey

The Isle of Sheppey on the north coast of Kent, about 11 miles long and 4 broad, is bounded on the north and west by the Thames and Medway, and on the south by the Swale.
The principal places in the island are Sheerness and Queenborough.
The Sheppey oyster fishery is of considerable importance, and its headquarters are at Cheyney Rock House.

River Medway & Sheerness

Thames Essex Coast


Shoebury, a small village six miles from Southend by road, important only on account of its artillery barrack, and the big gun ranges across the Maplin Sands at Shoeburyness.
Here some of the most important experiments in connection with the rapid development of modern ordnance have taken place, and here annually in August assemble the Artillery Volunteers, to go through much harder work, and to compete for much less valuable prizes, than their more fortunate and fashionable brethren of the rifle at Wimbledon.
Except to those actually interested in gunnery, or as a drive on a summer afternoon from Southend, there is no reason to recommend a visit to Shoebury.

Shoebury Middle Buoy

Shoebury Middle Buoy, an 8 foot cylinder buoy, made of iron, and painted black.
It is situated about a mile and a half to the eastward of the West Shoebury Buoy, and marks 27 feet of water at low- water spring tide.
It is moored with 10 fathom of chain. The Shoebury buoys belong to the Trinity House.

Shoebury West Buoy

Shoebury West Buoy, an 8 foot cylinder buoy, made of iron and painted black.
It is situated on the north side of Sea Reach, to the eastward of Southend Pier, on the edge of the Maplin Sands, and marks 24 feet of water at low-water spring tide. It is moored with 12 fathom of chain.

Thames Kent Coast

Estuary and the Nore",1

For the Dictionary entries not assigned Geographically see Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames which has a full index; PDF