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HAMMERSMITH BRIDGE

Hammersmith Suspension Bridge 1827 © MOTCO
Suspension Bridge at Hammersmith
Designed by & executed under the direction of
Wm Tierney Clark Esqre. opened in 1827.
Drawn by J.D. Harding. Engraved by George Cooke 1827.
London, Published by Longman & Co. Paternoster Row, J. and A. Arch, Cornhill & G. Cooke, Hackney.

[HAMMERSMITH] SUSPENSION BRIDGE

This bridge, the first of its kind thrown over the river Thames, is certainly superior in solidity and appearance to the Brighton Pier, which is built upon the same principle. The architectural beauty of the masonry is a great improvement to the hitherto clumsy masses of stone introduced into other erections of a similar description, and the whole edifice forms a highly ornamental feature to the river Thames.

The want of such a convenient communication was long felt, the only previous connexion of the Surrey with the great western and northern roads being Putney and Kew bridges; the deficiency is now, however, supplied, and a direct road established, whereby a considerable saving in time, distance, and expence is effected. The line of road on the Surrey side of the bridge leads directly to Barnes common, whence roads branch off to all the south and south-western parts of the kingdom.

The distance from London to Richmond, by Hyde Park corner, is also considerably shortened, and an easier communication is made to Kingston, through which lies the great road to Portsmouth.

The first meeting respecting the building of this bridge took place in the month of February 1824, when a plan of it was submitted by W. T. Clark, Esq, engineer to the West Middlesex Water Works Company; and at this meeting sixteen hundred shares at £50 each were subscribed.

In the month of July the committee of management made their report, in which it appeared, that they had, with permission of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, negotiated with Mr. Hoare, the proprietor of the Barn-Elms estate on the Surrey side, it being leasehold, and held under the Dean and Chapter, consisting, of a mansion, grounds, and farms, and containing 455 acres, 1 rod, 18 poles; the other property belonging to Mr. Hoare, being copyhold and freehold, consisting of about fifty acres. The sum asked was £40,190., exclusive of fixtures; and the house and the timber on the estate were required to be taken at a valuation. The sum given was £35,000 for the estate; and the purchase of a copyhold meadow containing 6 acres, 3 rods, 10 poles, for the sum of £700, which, together with the amount of fixtures and timber, was paid in July 1825.

The Royal assent to the Bill was given July 9th, 1824; by the Act £10,000 were required by the Corporation of London to be invested in the 3 per cents consols, in the name of the trustees appointed by the Act, which, together with all dividends, were to be returned.

The following persons were appointed to the various stations appertaining to the affairs of the bridge: Messrs. Blake and Co. solicitors; Mr. W. T. Clark, engineer; Mr. W. Leonard, surveyor; Mr. R. Holl, secretary.

By the Act, the Company were empowered to raise the sum of £80,000 in £50. shares, to be considered as personal estate. The Committee were also empowered to raise a further sum, not exceeding £20,000 by subscription among themselves, or among new subscribers, or by mortgage, or by granting annuities, such annuitants not to be considered proprietors.

On the 7th of May 1825, the foundation stone of the north tower was laid by His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, with masonic ceremony. The coffer dam being fitted up as an amphitheatre in which the stone was suspended. At four o'clock the Royal Duke arrived, the officers of the Grand Lodge assembled at the Latymer School Room, and the Lodge was opened by the master and officers of the Caveat Lodge, No. 231. The procession then walked from the School-room to the Broadway, down Angel lane in Masonic order. On arriving at the entrance, the procession divided and took their station right and left, and the Duke passed to the platform.

The ceremony of laying the stone commenced after three cheers had been given to his Royal Highness. The grand treasurer delivered to him a bottle containing the coins of the reigning sovereign; also a brass plate, to be placed over the cavity, with the following inscription:
"This foundation stone of a Bridge of Suspension over the river Thames, from the Hamlet of Hammersmith, in the County of Middlesex, to Barnes, in the County of Surrey, was laid with due masonic ceremony, by His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, Most Worshipful Grand Master, on Saturday, May the 7th, 1825.
W. T. Clark, Esq. Engineer ; George, William, and Stephen Bird, and Capt. Brown, Royal Marines, Contractors.
Mr. Robert Holl, Past Grand Secretary, Clerk and Secretary."
On the stone being lowered, the Duke scattered the corn, and said, "As I have poured the corn, the oil, and the wine, emblems of wealth, plenty, and comfort, so may the bridge tend to communicate prosperity and wealth from one end of the island to the other, God bless the King."

The procession then returned nearly in the same order, and His Royal Highness dined with a numerous company at the Coffee house.

The work proceeded rapidly, and after the masonry was finished to a certain height, two massive chains were fixed from the hold down piers and attached to the buttresses, which formed the supporting chain, and on which a platform of wood was erected for the workmen. On this platform the main chains were drawn up and fixed together with bolts.

The bridge was opened to the public on the 6th of October, 1827.

The suspension towers are of stone, and designed as archways of the Tuscan order; the part below the road way to low water is boldly rusticated. The towers are 48 feet above the level of the road way, 22 feet thick, and 14 feet wide. The road way is slightly curved upwards, and is about 18 feet above high water mark. The width of the carriage way is 20 feet, with foot ways 5 feet wide, guarded by a light wooden fence. The chains which support the bridge are 8 in number, composed of wrought iron bars, 5 inches deep and 1 inch thick, 4 of these have 6 bars in each chain, and 4 have only 3 bars in each, making a total of 36 bars, which make a diss or curvature in the centre of about 29 feet; from the vertical rods is suspended the platform which supports the road-way, formed of timber, covered with chalk and flints. The chains pass over rollers fixed in frames on the suspension towers, and are secured to the hold-down piers on each side by bolts.

The approaches on each side are provided with octagonal lodges, or toll houses, with appropriate lamps and parapet wall, terminated with stone pillars, surmounted with ornamented caps. A communication to the works of the hold-down piers is provided under the toll houses on each shore to facilitate the repairs of the iron work. The extreme length to the back of the piers on shore is 822 feet 8 inches, supporting 688 feet of road way, being 135 feet more than the Menai Bridge, which is built on the same principle, over the Bangor Ferry, in Wales. The dimensions are as follows:—
the extent of water way between the suspension towers rising from the river 400 feet 3 inches;
the distance between them and the river on shore 142 feet 11 inches;
the distance on the Surrey side is 145 feet 6 inches.

The road way on the Surrey side was formed from the soil brought from the excavation made for the St. Catharine Docks. The weight of the iron used in this bridge is about 350 tons, and was principally manufactured at Gospel Oak, near Birmingham.

The actual cost was £45,341-10s-9d. In June 1828, the annual meeting of the Shareholders was held at the Crown and Anchor: the engineer's report stated, that no part of the chains, or the bridge, had been injured by the traffic which had gone over it. A dividend of 20s per share was declared on the profits and surplus capital.

First Hammersmith Bridge
See Marlow for the only surviving British Bridge by William Tierney Clark.

1827: Metropolitans Improvements -

 

Hammersmith Suspension Bridge 1827
Hammersmith Suspension Bridge, 1827

1828: -

 

Hammersmith Suspension Bridge 1828 © MOTCO
Suspension Bridge, Hammersmith. W. Westall A.R.A. delt. J. Baily sculpt.
Published 1828 by R.Ackermann, 96 Strand, London.

1829: A Tour on the Banks of the Thames, A Pedestrian -

Hammersmith presents itself to our view, situated on the west side of the great western road, and stretching down from thence to the river, over which a suspension bridge of iron has been erected, which has been, and still continues to be, deservedly admired by all who have made it their business or their pleasure (and they are numerous) to visit and inspect it.

It is of light construction, and beautiful in appearance, reflecting infinite credit alike on its original projector, and on the engineer under whose direction it was constructed, for the beauty of its execution; more especially as the work was completed considerably below the estimate and within the time stipulated — a thing of such rare occurrence, that when it does happen, its remembrance should not be lost for want of being mentioned.

1831: First Hammersmith Bridge -

Hammersmith Bridge, Whittock, 1831
Hammersmith Bridge, Whittock, 1831

 

1834: A Tour on the Banks of the Thames by A Walton -

Hammersmith presents itself to our view, situated on the west side of the great western road, and stretching down from thence to the river, over which a suspension bridge of iron has been erected, which has been, and still continues to be, deservedly admired by all who have made it their business or their pleasure (and they are numerous) to visit and inspect it.

It is of light construction, and beautiful in appearance, reflecting infinite credit alike on its original projector, and on the engineer under whose direction it was constructed, for the beauty of its execution; more especially as the work was completed considerably below the estimate and within the time stipulated — a thing of such rare occurrence, that when it does happen, its remembrance should not be lost for want of being mentioned.

1836: -

Hammersmith Bridge, Tombleson, 1836
First Hammersmith Bridge, Tombleson, 1836


Cambridge ahead of Oxford at Hammersmith Bridge, 1866

1870: The boatrace going under the old Hammersmith Bridge -

Boatrace at First Hammersmith Bridge, 1870
1870: The boatrace going under the old Hammersmith Bridge

1881: The Championship of the Thames - with Hammersmith Bridge in the background -

Championship of the Thames, 1881
Championship of the Thames, 1881, Hanlan v Laycock

1885: First Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt -

First Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt, 1885
First Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt, 1885
© Oxfordshire County Council Photographic Archive; HT2348

The replacement of the bridge was in 1885-6. A temporary obstruction here caused difficulties for the boatrace - which was probably only poetic justice because it may well have been overloading by the 11,000 - 12,000 spectators during previous boat races that damaged it in the first place!

1868: Every Saturday boat race report -

Hammersmith Bridge is impassable and almost invisible, every available inch of standing or hanging room, from the pavement to the chains, close covered with expectant sight-seers, till the roadway sinks, under the pressure, eighteen inches below its orthodox level, and makes us fear a repetition, on a colossal scale, of the great Yarmouth catastrophe of twenty-five years ago.

In 1885 it was therefore decided that the crew which were on the Surrey station should go through the Surrey arch while the other crew should use the main arch. This gave a very great advantage to the winner of the toss, choosing the Surrey station, for not only would the total distance travelled be substantially less, but the Middlesex crew would need to make two fairly tight turns to negotiate the main arch causing rudder drag. There were various estimates of the benefit to the winner of the toss, but the popular view was about 1½ to perhaps as much as 2 lengths.
In 1886 it was agreed to try to use the one 50 foot wide arch for both boats. However since the general opinion seemed to be that the chances of threading it with the boats level was low, it was agreed that if there was a clash the race would be restarted above the bridge, and in that case a second finish above the usual finish would be used. To rub in the general opinion about coxes the umpire's launch would carry a spare full set of blades for each boat.
Thus encouraged the coxes set to work. Oxford won the toss and chose Surrey. Cambridge led off the start and were about ½ length up. But then Oxford came back and the lead changed hands. Cambridge then came back on them - and (who would believe it?) the crews were level as they came to the narrow arch at Hammersmith!
Both coxes managed it perfectly. The situation was sketched -


The two Boat Race eights threading the Hammersmith Bridge, 1886

Bridge finances -

[Hammersmith Bridge] cost £85,000, the cost including the construction of three and a quarter miles of approach road. £80,000 was raised in 1824 from the issue of 1600 £50 shares and in 1880 the sum distributed among the shareholders (almost the same as the compensation provided by the Metropolitan Board of Works, because the reserve fund and arbitration and other terminal costs were equal) was £112,400. Since a complete dividend record is available for the intervening years, an internal rate of return can be calculated. It was only 2.51% and for most of the time until the 1870s the £50 shares were worth less than £35, a poor investment.

1885: Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames -

A suspension bridge, with carriage road, spans the river at this point, and was for many years a favourite and cheap grand stand on the University Boat-race day. Regard for the public safety has induced the authorities to close it during the race. It is now (1885) being rebuilt.

1887: Opening of the current elegantly styled bridge
688 feet long, 33 feet wide Two river-towers of wrought iron clad in highly ornamental cast iron support steel suspension chains from which the narrow carriageway is hung. The footways are cantilevered out from the main structure.
Engineer: Joseph Bazalgette. Contractor: Messrs Dixon, Appleby and Thorne

1890: Current Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt -

Current Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt, 1890
Current Hammersmith Bridge, Henry Taunt, 1890
© Oxfordshire County Council Photographic Archive; HT00339

[ NB The first bridge had the very square stone pillars, and the iron more ornate supports belong to the second (and current) suspension bridge. ]

Hammersmith Bridge

 

Lewis Carroll at Hammersmith Bridge
Lewis Carroll at Hammersmith Bridge

Hammersmith Bridge,1960, Francis Frith
Hammersmith Bridge,1960, Francis Frith

Hammersmith Bridge,1960, Frank Runacres
Hammersmith Bridge,1960, Frank Runacres

Hammersmith Bridge © 2005 Doug Myers
Hammersmith Bridge © 2005 Doug Myers

 

Hammersmith Bridge PLA
Hammersmith Bridge going upstream

Note where the channel is!

Tides this week

 
 
 
 
Upstream to Chiswick Eyot




Introduction
Estuary
PLA
QEII Br
Barrier
Tower Br
Custom Ho
London Br
; Frost Fairs
Cannon St Rb
The Great Stink
Southwark Br
Millenium Br
Blackfriars Rb
Blackfriars Br
Waterloo Br
Charing Cross Rb
Westminster Br
Lambeth Br
Vauxhall Br
Victoria Rb
Chelsea Br
Albert Br
Battersea Br
Battersea Rb
Wandsworth Br
Fulham Rb
Putney Br
Hammersmith Br
Barnes Rb
Chiswick Br
Kew Rb
Kew Br
RICHMOND
Twickenham Br
Richmond Rb
Richmond Br
TEDDINGTON
Kingston Rb
Kingston Br
Ditton Slip
Hampton Br
MOLESEY
SUNBURY
Walton Br
Desborough Cut
SHEPPERTON
Chertsey Br
CHERTSEY
M3 Br
Laleham Slip
PENTON HOOK
Staines Rb
Staines Br
Runnymede Br
BELL WEIR
Magna Carta Is
OLD WINDSOR
Albert Br
Datchet
Victoria Br
Black Potts Rb
ROMNEY
Eton
Windsor Br
Windsor Rb
Windsor Slip
Elizabeth Br
BOVENEY
Dorney Lake
York Cut
Summerleaze Fb
MonkeyIsland
New Thames Br
BRAY
Bray Slip
Maidenhead Rb
Maidenhead Br
Below Boulters
BOULTERS
Cliveden
Hedsor
COOKHAM
Cookham Slip
Cookham Br
BourneEnd RFb
Quarry Woods
A404 Br
MARLOW
Marlow Br
Bisham
TEMPLE
HURLEY
Medmenham
Culham Ct
Aston Slip
HAMBLEDEN
Temple Is
Fawley Ct
Remenham
Regatta
Phyllis Ct
Henley Slip
Leander
Red Lion
Henley Br
Angel on Br
Landing
Hobbs Boatyard
Hobbs Slipway
MARSH
Hennerton
Bolney
Wargrave
Shiplake Rb
R.Loddon
SHIPLAKE
Sonning Br
SONNING
Dreadnought
K&A Canal
CAVERSHAM
Reading Br
Caversham Br
Reading Slip
Purley
MAPLEDURHAM
Hardwick Ho
Whitchurch Br
WHITCHURCH
Hartswood Reach
Gatehampton Rb
Goring Gap
Goring Br
GORING
Swan
CLEEVE
Moulsford
Moulsford Rb
Papist Way Slip
Winterbrook Br
Wallingford Br
BENSON
Shillingford Br
R.Thame
DAYS
Burcot
Clifton Hampden
Clifton Church
Clifton H Br
Barley Mow
Long Wittenham
CLIFTON
Appleford Rb
Sutton Courtenay
Sutton Br
CULHAM
Culham Cut Fb
Abingdon Slip
Abingdon
Abingdon Br
ABINGDON
Nuneham Rb
Nuneham
Nuneham Park
Radley Boats
SANDFORD
Rose Island
Kennington Rb
Isis Br
Iffley Mill
IFFLEY
Oxford Rowing
Isis
Donnington Br
Riverside Slip
Boathouses
Punting
Lower Cherwell
Upper Cherwell
Islip
Head of River
Salters Steamers
Folly Br
Bacons Folly
Oxford Fb
Osney Fb
Weir stream
Osney Rb
Bullstake Stream
Osney Marina
OSNEY
Osney Br
Four Rivers
OLD RIVER
CANAL
Medley Weir Site
Medley Fb
Bossoms
Perch
Trout
GODSTOW
Godstow Nunnery
Godstow Br
Thames Br
KINGS
River Evenlode
EYNSHAM
Swinford Br
Oxford Cruisers
PINKHILL
Farmoor
Stanton Harcourt
Bablock Slip
Arks Weir Site
NORTHMOOR
Harts Fb
//Rose Revived
Newbridge
//Maybush
River Windrush
below Shifford
SHIFFORD
Shifford Fb
Tenfoot Fb
Trout Inn
Tadpole Br
RUSHEY
Old Mans Fb
RADCOT
Radcot Cradle Fb
Swan Inn
Radcot New Br
Radcot Old Br
GRAFTON
Eaton Hastings
Kelmscott
Eaton Fb
BUSCOT
Bloomers Hole Fb
Trout Inn
St Johns Br
ST JOHNS
Halfpenny Br
Marina Slip
LIMIT
Inglesham
Hannington Br
Kempsford
Castle Eaton Br
Marston Meysey
A419 Br
Cricklade
SOURCE?
THAMES HEAD
SEVEN SPRINGS