Kingston Tides, from GaugeMap
The troughs show the high tides reversing a big flow,
and the following peaks are the backed up flow surging back down.
The changes in level are much less obvious:
Tiny changes in level mark the high tides - but the effect on current is enormous.
Think of the tidal energy involved in the above graphs. A flow of 50 tonnes a second was stopped in its tracks fairly rapidly and then as the tide effect ebbed a peak flow of 150 tonnes a second surged back down. And that was caused by a change in level of probably 20cm.
1889: Three Men in a Boat Jerome K Jerome's heroes started from Kingston going up to Magna Carta Island on their first day.
The quaint back streets of Kingston, where they came down to the water's edge, looked quite picturesque in the flashing sunlight, the glinting river with its drifting barges, the wooded towpath, the trim-kept villas on the other side, Harris, in a red and orange blazer, grunting away at the sculls, the distant glimpses of the grey old palace of the Tudors, all made a sunny picture, so bright but calm, so full of life, and yet so peaceful, that, early in the day though it was, I felt myself being dreamily lulled off into a musing fit. I mused on Kingston, or "Kyningestun," as it was once called in the days when Saxon "kinges" were crowned there. Great Caesar crossed the river there, and the Roman legions camped upon its sloping uplands. Caesar, like, in later years, Elizabeth, seems to have stopped everywhere: only he was more respectable than good Queen Bess; he didn't put up at the public-houses ... Many of the old houses, round about, speak very plainly of those days when Kingston was a royal borough, and nobles and courtiers lived there, near their King, and the long road to the palace gates was gay all day with clanking steel and prancing palfreys, and rustling silks and velvets, and fair faces. The large and spacious houses, with their oriel, latticed windows, their huge fireplaces, and their gabled roofs, breathe of the days of hose and doublet, of pearl-embroidered stomachers, and complicated oaths. They were upraised in the days "when men knew how to build." The hard red bricks have only grown more firmly set with time, and their oak stairs do not creak and grunt when you try to go down them quietly ... I got out and took the tow-line, -
Histories and Antiquities of Kingston-upon-Thames, A Anderson, 1821 -
This Bridge is undoubtedly the oldest on the river Thames except London Bridge.
It is mentioned in a record of the Eighth year of Henry III.
This Bridge being almost the only passage over the Thames, was frequently liable to be destroyed, during the time of any intestine commotions, to cut off the communication between Surrey and Middlesex. This is known to have happened in the wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, and in Wyatts rebellion, when it was broken down by order of the privy council, to prevent his passing into Middlesex.
The Bridge in its present state is an ordinary structure of Timbers so inartificially put together, as would warrant us in pronouncing that, whatever changes it hath undergone in it's materials, from frequent repairs, there hath been no deviation from the plan on which it was originally built. The supporters, which are more than twenty in number, on each side, occupy the space of an hundred and twenty-six yards, exclusive of about forty yards of masonry employed at both ends.
On the 9th of August, 7 Hen. III, the bad state hereof being represented to the King, he committed the custody of it, and the inspection of it's repairs in future, to Henry de St. Alban and Matthew Fitz-Geffery de Kingston; with a special precept directed to the Bailiffs of the Town, and the Sheriff of the County, to furnish them completely with all such materials as from time to time should be necessary.
In the year following, the King issued his writ to the Sheriff to give seisin to the said Matthew de Kingston of the house belonging to the Bridge, with the Charters and other Muniments respecting the same.
John Lovekyn, who died 4 Aug. 42 Edw. III. 1368, left 10/- for repairing the Butting of the Bridge.
In 50 Edw. III. that Prince, by letters patent dated 30 April, vested the custody of the Bridge and Causeway, gone to ruin and decay, in the Bailiffs of the Town for the term of fifty-one years, with a power to Hugh Taverner and John Waigne (the Bailiffs probably of that year) and their successors, of taking certain Tolls for ten years from the date thereof.
In 27 Hen. VI. the king, in consideration of the ruinous and dilipidated state of the Bridge at that time, and of the Causeway thereof, granted to the Bailiffs and approved men of Kingston, and to their successors, the custody of the said Bridge and Causeway for the further term of fifty-one years; with his royal licence dated 2 Feb. 1448-9, to take a certain Toll of all goods passing by and under the said Bridge to the said Town, for Sale.
In 7 Eliz. 1565, Robert Hammond, one of the Bailiffs of the Town, settled lands to the value of 40/. per annum for the future support of the Bridge, and for exempting it from tolls; in remembrance of which the following distich was inscribed on a rail about the middle of the bridge:
"1565, Robert Hamond, Gentleman Bailiff of Kingston heretofore, He then made this Bridge toll free for erermore."
But the rails of the bridge having been re-placed, this is not now to be seen. Instead thereof, on a stone inserted in the brick-work on the north side of the abutment at the west end, is this Inscription:
"Robert Hamond, Gent, sometime Bayliff of this Towne of Kingston, made this Bridge tolle free, November the 15th, 1565."
The year before this gift of Hamond, the revenue of the bridge, including the toll, was about £25 per annum. In 1374, £53.10s. ... in 1791, £30.
The revenues are in the hands of two bridge-wardens chosen annually.
Aubrey says the length is 168 yards. The Middlesex side was considerably widened about the year 1791.
1170: The Charter Quay archaelogical dig revealed that the island of Kingston
was carefully planned as a "new town" in about 1170.
The Market Place was laid out south of an
existing settlement around All Saints Church, and four bridges were built to
cross the Thames (Kingston Bridge), the Hogsmill (Clattern Bridge), the
Downhall Ditch (Barre Bridge) and an eastern arm of the Hogsmill (Stone
Bridge). Clattern Bridge survives,
albeit widened and strengthened. The other two have long since disappeared.
1224: Kingston Bridge of timber.
1318: the bridge is in dangerous condition
1449: A grant of pontage (right to charge tolls) granted to the bailiffs and good men of Kingston for repair of the bridge and causeways.
1539: Leland –
Yn the old tyme the commune saying ys that the bridge, where the commune passage was over the Tamise at olde Kingstone, was lower on the Ryver then it is now. And when men began the new town yn the Saxon Tymes they toke from the very Clive of Come Park Side & builde on the Thamise side: and sette a new bridge hard by the same.
1567: In a MS of 1710 –
The great wooden bridge hath twenty interstices: two in
the middle wide enough for barges. On a
post in the middle of this bridge is this inscription in brass:
‘1567: Robert Hamon, Gentleman, Bayliffe of Kingstone, heretofore hathen made this Bryge tollfre for evermore’.
Hamon endowed the bridge with £40 annually. It had 22 Pierres of wood, and in the middle two fair seates for passengers to avoid carts and to sit and enjoy the delightfull prospect.
1651: The council of state ordered a drawbridge.
The Old Kingston Bridge -
The Old Kingston Bridge
1745: April 27th, The Evening Post reported that at Twickenham Bridge -
Last week a woman that keeps the King's Head alehouse, Kingston, in Surrey, was ordered to be ducked for scolding, and was accordingly placed in the chair and ducked in the river Thames in the presence of two or three thousand people.
In my humble opinion there is only one class of people who deserve ducking more than a scold - and that is anyone who would want to watch!
1758: A Description of The Thames, Binnell & Griffiths
KINGSTON in Surry, is joined to Kingston-Wick in Middlesex, by a wooden Bridge. This Town was originally called Moreford; but afterwards Kingston, for being the Place where Athelstan, Ethelbert, and Edwin, were crowned Kings, and received their imperial Sceptres, fitting in a Chair, upon a Stage in the open Market-Place. At present it is a large and well inhabited Corporation, governed by Bailiffs, &c. enjoying large Immunities, and distinguished, by its Appointment, for one of the Places where the Assizes of the County shall be kept, and where the Justices keep one of their quarterly Sessions. Its Market is much frequented by Mealmen and Higlers, who resort thither to buy up the great Quantities of all Sorts of Grain, Poultry, and other Provisions, brought thither every Saturday, by the Conveniency of their wooden Bridge.
1802: Picturesque Views on the Thames, Samuel Ireland -
THE old wooden bridge of Kingston consists of twenty arches ; it was originally supported by a toll, but in 1567 was endowed with lands amounting to forty pounds per annum, for the repairs, &c. from which time the toll has been taken off.
Kingston Bridge 1802 Ireland
The history and antiquities of the ancient and royal town of Kingston-upon Thames by William Downing Biden (1852) -
View of Kingston before the destruction of the wooden Bridge -
View of Kingston before the destruction of the wooden Bridge
1802: "A new arch much wanting: the present navigation arch very dangerous, several barges having been sunk across the bridge."
1802: Report of certain Impediments and Obstructions in the Navigation of the River Thames, William Tatham
I understand the obstructions here have been matters of great and frequent deliberation between the counties of Middlesex, Surry, the city of London, and the town of Kingston, and that many and various opinions have been given. It strikes me, that if we sever these four interests, and confine ourselves solely to the River Navigation, on our parts, we shall settle the business. I beg leave to observe, that above the bridge, on the Middlesex shore, there is a shoal of about 100 yards, or more, and a strong ayte, which will admit of a cut and embankment down to the foot of the bridge. I would' propose, at this place, to render this cut a complete side navigation along the Middlesex shore, and to pass the cut and towingpath under the buildings at the bridge end in Hampton Wick.
By this measure, a safe passage would be completed, from the lower to the upper sheet of water, without endangering the bridge or the barges in striking against each other. The people of Kingston might, if they thought proper to do so, pursue a similar method, on their side, for the accommodation of the town; nor would it be a very difficult matter to dock or wharf the whole of their commerce.
Below the bridge, on the Middlesex side, I should recommend the continuation of the side-cut down into the good water below, and a small gate at the outfall of such cut, I apprehend this would be an efficient remedy; and when it is considered that the property at the foot of the bridge (if purchased) might be greatly improved by the measure. I am persuaded that it would, ultimately prove the cheapest, if not a pecuniary gain.
1825: A new Kingston Bridge was built
1828: New bridge opened -
It is built of Portland stone, and consists of five elliptical arches, the centre arch being 60 feet span by 19 in height, and the side arches 56 and 52 feet span respectively. The abutments are terminated by towers or bastions, and the whole is surmounted by a cornice and balustrade, with galleries projecting over the pier; which give a bold relief to the general elevation. The length of the bridge is 382 feet by 27 feet in width. It is of chaste Grecian architecture, from the design of Mr. Lapidge, to whose courtesy we are indebted for the original of our engraving. The building contract was undertaken by Mr. Herbert for £26,800 and the extra work has not exceeded £100 a very rare, if not an unprecedented occurrence in either public or private undertakings of this description. The first stone was laid by the Earl of Liverpool, November 7, 1825, and the bridge was opened in due form by her royal highness the Duchess of Clarence, on July 17, 1828.
1830: House of Commons Journal Volume 85 Luno, 8 die Februarii; Anno 11 Georgii IV ti Regis
A Petition of the Bailiffs and Freemen of the town of Kingston-upon-Thames, in the county of Surrey,
was presented, and read;
setting forth, That the Petitioners have, under the sanction of an Act of the sixth year of His present Majesty, built a Bridge across the river Thames, from the town of Kingston-upon-Thames aforesaid, to the hamlet of Hampton Wick, in the county of Middlesex;
but, from the inadequacy of the funds granted by the said Act, they have been unable to complete the whole of the necessary approaches thereto, or to purchase certain houses and buildings requisite to be taken for forming the same, and which, by the terms of the said Act, they are restricted from purchasing, unless with the consent of the owners thereof, after the expiration of five years from the passing of the said Act;
and that the necessity of the present application did not appear until a meeting of the said Bailiffs and Freemen, as Commissioners of the said Bridge, held on the third day of December last, …
and that from the dangerous and difficult approach to the said bridge, on that side thereof situate in the county of Surrey, great inconvenience must arise to the inhabitants of the said counties and to the public at large, if provision be not made for completing the same in the present Session of Parliament;
and praying, That leave may be given to bring in a Bill for the same.
Ordered, That leave be given to bring in a Bill accordingly: And that Mr. Charles Pallmer and Mr. Denison do prepare, and bring it in.
1831: Kingston Bridge from the NEW AND COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE COUNTIES OF SURREY & SUSSEX by Thomas Allen (possibly by Nathaniel Whittock –
Kingston Bridge, 1831
1846: a resident of Wick suggested -
the removal of the carts and waggons left under the arch of the bridge, tenanted at night by vagabonds and people of the worst description
1859: The Thames, Mr & Mrs Hall
Kingston is among the oldest of English towns; and is said to have
been "the metropolis of the Anglo-Saxon kings". It is dificult to say what
is meant by "metropolis of the Anglo-Saxon kings". The metropolis of
the kings of Wessex, to whom Kingston belonged, is always understood to
have been Winchester. But the kings would not necessarily be crowned
there, as that ceremony might take place anywhere within the boundaries
of their kingdom. Kingston seems, however, to have been a famous place
when the Romans found and conquered the Britons in this locality.
Some writers have advanced arguments for believing that the "ford" which Caesar crossed was here, and not at Walton; and indications of barrows, fosses, and ramparts of Roman origin, are to be found in many places in the neighbourhood. It is more than probable that a bridge was here constructed by the Romans.
The Saxons followed in due course, and here they had many contests with their enemies the Danes; but A.D. 838, Egbert convened at Kingston an assembly of ecclesiastics and nobles in council, *
* "This record, in which the town is called 'Kyningestun, famosa ilia locus', destroys the supposition that it did not receive that appellation till the reign of King Athelstan, and proves that it was a royal residence, or at least a royal demesne, as early as the union of the Saxon heptarchy." - Lysons.
and here, undoubtedly, some of the Saxon kings were crowned:
"The townisch men", says Leland, "have certen knowledge that a few kinges were crounid there afore the Conqueste."
Its first charter was from King John, and many succeeding sovereigns accorded to it various grants and immunities.
During the war between Charles I. and the Parliament, Kingston was the scene of several "fights", being always on the side of the king.
The town is now populous and flourishing, although without manufactures of any kind. Since the establishment of a railway, villa residences have largely increased in the neighbourhood; and the two suburbs, Surbiton and Norbiton, are pretty and densely-crowded villages of good houses.
The church has suffered much from
mutilation and restoration; it is a spacious structure, and was erected
about the middle of the fourteenth century, on the site of an earlier
edifice. Amongst the monuments is a fine brass, to a civilian and his
wife, of the year 1437. *
* It is to the memory of Robert Skerne, of Kingston, and Joan, his wife; she was the daughter of the celebrated Alice Pierce or Perrers, mistress to Edward III., and afterwards wife to Sir William de Wyndesore. This brass abounds with beautiful details of costume, and records the day and year of Robert's death: —
May he in heaven rejoice who lived on earth sincere.
Who died upon the fourth of April, in the year
Of Christ, one thousand twenty score and thirty-seven.
Of existing antiquities there are but few: county historians, however, point out the sites of the ancient Saxon palace, "the castle", the Jews' quarter, and the Roman town, Tamesa; and the game of "foot-ball", it is said, is still practised by the inhabitants on Shrove Tuesday, in commemoration of one of the feats of their ancestors, by whom the head of a king-assassin was "kicked" about the Saxon town.
But perhaps the most interesting object now to be found in Kingston is "the King's Stone". It had long remained neglected, though not unknown, among disregarded heaps of debris in "the new courtyard", when it occurred to some zealous and intelligent antiquaries that so venerable a relic of remote ages was entitled to some show of respect. It was consequently removed from its degraded position, planted in the centre of the town, and enclosed by a "suitable" iron railing. It is now, therefore, duly and properly honoured, as may be seen by the engraving. *
THE KING'S STONE
* The stone formerly used to stand near the church-door, and was from time immemorial regarded
as that upon which the Saxon Kings of Wessex were inaugurated according to the old Teutonic custom
— a custom long prevalent in Germany and the northern nations, and still adopted in the coronation of
the sovereigns of England; the old sacred stone of Scone, on which the Scottish kings were crowned,
was brought from thence by Edward I., in 1296, and placed beneath the English chair where it
Kingston is expressly mentioned, in a charter of King Edred, A.D. 946, as the royal town where consecration is accustomed to be performed. Speed records the coronation of nine sovereigns here;
the first was Athelstan, by Aldhelm, Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D.. 924,
followed by his brothers Edmund and Edred;
then came Edgar, Edward the Martyr, his brother Ethelred II.,
and Edmund II., in A.D. 1016.
Two intervening kings, Edward the Elder, and Edwy, are stated by the same author to have been also crowned here, but this is more conjectural than strictly historic.
Some writers have deduced the name of the town from the stone, thus — King's-stone; but the proper derivation is clearly obtained from its name, which means simply "a manor belonging to the king". The kings had manors scattered all over the country, many of which still bear the name of Kingston, which does not necessarily imply a town. In fact, manor is perhaps the best translation of the word tun.
Athelstan, the first of the Saxon kings crowned at Kingston, was the first of the race who placed on their coins the title of King of all England. The various kingdoms of the heptarchy had by this time been consolidated, but he never actually possessed the whole kingdom.
We engrave two specimens of his silver pennies, on one of which he is styled "Athelstan Rex Saxorum", and on the other, "Athelstan Rex totius Britanniae".
Both inscriptions are in an abbreviated form.
Kingston Bridge, to which we now conduct the tourist, is a convenient and graceful structure, erected from the design of M. Lapidge, and opened, in 1828, by the Earl of Liverpool, then High Steward of the borough. It took the place of an ancient wooden bridge, the successor, it is said, of one which the Saxons built to replace that which the Romans had constructed.
1870: Kingston Bridge toll free (see 1567 above! Though I suppose it was technically a different bridge, and it was a few yards away from the old bridge) -
Kingston Bridge Toll Free, 1870
1870: Kingston Bridge, Henry Taunt -
Kingston Bridge, Henry Taunt, 1870
© Oxfordshire County Council Photographic Archive; HT00678
1880: William Morris, Putney to Kelmscott -
Rowed on as far as Teddington Lock where Biffen's men were dismissed. Eliza [housemaid] left the Ark and went home by train from Hampton Court Station. Hired a man to tow and went on without incident to Kingston. Hove to for tea on the [Right] bank just above Kingston about 7 o'clock. During tea man and pony from Oxford arrived and took the party in tow.
1889: Jerome K Jerome started his river trip here.
A reconstructed log of his trip.
It leaves out the funny bits - but its not sad or dull because his humour shines through!
The quaint back streets of Kingston, where they came down to the water's edge, looked quite picturesque in the flashing sunlight, the glinting river with its drifting barges, the wooded towpath, the trim-kept villas on the other side, Harris, in a red and orange blazer, grunting away at the sculls, the distant glimpses of the grey old palace of the Tudors, all made a sunny picture, so bright but calm, so full of life, and yet so peaceful, that, early in the day though it was, I felt myself being dreamily lulled off into a musing fit. I mused on Kingston, or "Kyningestun," as it was once called in the days when Saxon "kinges" were crowned there.
Dickens's Dictionary of the Thames names the Kings crowned at Kingston as:
901: Eadweard [ the elder, Ēadweard se Ieldra, son of Alfred the Great ]
923: Adelstan [ Æþelstān the Glorious ]
943: Eadmund [ Edmund I, Eadmund the Deed Doer, Edmund the Magnificent ]
946: Eadred [ Edred ]
955: Eadwig, [ Edwy All Fair ]
975: Eadweard [ II, Edward the Martyr ]
978: Ædelred [ Æþelræd, Ethelred the Unready(ie badly counselled), father of Edward the Confessor ]
[ I, John Eade, feel I owe it to the family to point this out. ]
1889: Jerome K Jerome continues -
Great Caesar crossed the river there, and the Roman legions camped upon
its sloping uplands. Caesar, like, in
later years, Elizabeth, seems to have stopped everywhere: only he was more
respectable than good Queen Bess; he didn't put up at the public-houses. .
. . Many of the old houses, round about, speak
very plainly of those days when Kingston was a royal borough, and nobles and
courtiers lived there, near their King, and the long road to the palace gates
was gay all day with clanking steel and prancing palfreys, and rustling silks
and velvets, and fair faces. The large
and spacious houses, with their oriel, latticed windows, their huge fireplaces,
and their gabled roofs, breathe of the days of hose and doublet, of
pearl-embroidered stomachers, and complicated oaths.
They were upraised in the days "when men
knew how to build". The hard red bricks have only grown
more firmly set with time, and their oak stairs do not creak and grunt when you
try to go down them quietly ...
I got out and took the tow-line ...
1890: Kingston Bridge, Francis Frith -
1890: Kingston Bridge, Francis Frith
1896: View from Kingston Bridge, Francis Frith -
1896: View from Kingston Bridge, Francis Frith
1906: G.E.Mitton -
The present Kingston Bridge is very narrow, and its convenience is not increased since a double line of tramways has been laid across it.
1914: Kingston Bridge was widened from 25 to 55 feet between the parapets.
2001: Engineers strengthened the existing bridge and built a new one alongside in mirror image, reopened by HRH The Duke of Kent on Friday 29th June.
2003: Kingston Bridge was illuminated -
Kingston Bridge illuminated
This is about celebrating the great things we have in Kingston. Kingston Bridge is a beautiful part of the town and the lighting scheme will show it off at its best, whilst brightening up the river walk for visitors to the bars and restaurants there.
There is said to be a slipway on the Left bank half way between Kingston Bridge and Raven's Ait
I can't find it
1859: The Thames, Mr & Mrs Hall
As we approach Kingston, we pass the new buildings of the company
which supplies the Surrey side of London with water. The edifices
themselves are by no means picturesque; nevertheless, as objects that
cannot fail to attract the eye of all voyagers, we have thought it well to
engrave them. The locality in which they are placed is called "Seething
Wells"; and they are "The Chelsea and Lambeth Water-works". *
* The hot spring at Seething Wells was once thought an almost infallible remedy in certain cases of ophthalmia.
WATER-WORKS, SEETHING WELLS
For the following detailed analysis of the Thames water, at Kingston, we are indebted to the kindness of Mr. Henry Witt, F.C.S., Assistant Chemist to the Government School of Mines: —
|Grains in the Imperial Gallon.||Sulphate of Lime||4.506||Carbonate of Lime||9.616||Carbonate of Magnesia||0.970||Chloride of Sodium (common salt)||1.661||Chloride of Potassium||trace||Carbonate of Soda||1.950||Organic matter||1.631||Suspended Clay||3.603||Carbonate of Ammonia||0.0034||TOTAL||23.9404|
But the composition of the water varies at different seasons of the year. The following represents the average composition at Kingston, as deduced from a large number of analyses, made by Mr. Witt, throughout the year 1856: —
|Grains in the Gallon|
|Maximum||Minimum||Mean||Total impurity||28.148||18.37||23.488||Suspended matter||4.41||1.17||3.054||Organic matter||1.63||0.55||1.050||Dissolved Salt||22.108||16.65||19.404||Common Salt||3.87||2.065||2.633||Lime||10.91||6.487||7.884|
These analyses show how excellent in quality is the water now
supplied to London from Kingston, or rather Thames Ditton, by the
Chelsea and Lambeth Water Companies.
The shallow wells of London cannot but be condemned as drinking waters, on account of their almost invariable contamination with sewage; the deep wells which sink into the chalk are inconveniently hard; but the Thames water at Kingston is sufficiently free from organic matter to be perfectly wholesome as a beverage, and sufficiently soft not to give rise to serious inconvenience on that account.
The water is pumped into large subsiding reservoirs; whence, after remaining about six hours, it passes on to the filters. These are large beds of sand, gravel, &c., through which the water passes at the rate of about 6¼ gallons per square foot per hour.
The filters are composed of the following strata in a descending order: —
|No.||Feet||Inches||1. Fine sand||2||6||2. Coarser ditto||1||0||3. Shells||0||6||4. Fine gravel||0||3||5. Coarse gravel||3||3|
After complete filtration, the purified water is pumped up to a
covered reservoir on Putney Heath, whence it descends by gravitation
to London, passing over the river in two iron tubes, supported by a new
bridge, recently erected for the purpose between Putney and Fulham.
The two new subsiding reservoirs comprise an area of three acres, and are each capable of containing ten million gallons of water. The two filter-beds adjoining comprise an area of two acres, and are each capable of filtering ten million gallons in twenty-four hours. The two high level covered reservoirs on Putney Heath are two and a half acres in extent, and hold twenty feet deep of water. They command a service of 170 feet above Trinity high-water. The aggregate nominal engine power employed in pumping is 700 horses. The average quantity of water pumped daily is about 6,900,000 gallons.