(Medway and Harwich etc omitted)

Note. - Throughout the following Work, the Soundings are those taken at low Water, Spring Tides: the Bearings and Courses are Magnetic, or by Compass, and the Distances are in Nautic Miles, of 60 to a degree. The Variation allowed is Two Points and a Quarter West.
It may be proper to premise, that the Sands in the River Thames frequently change their shapes and situations, thereby rendering many of the marks to avoid them, obsolete, we shall endeavour to give such description as is adapted to the present time, leaving the Mariner to make such alterations as may hereafter be found necessary.

Links to the latest mini charts from the Port of London Authority for comparison




The Upper Pool from London Bridge to Wappingness, lies nearly S.E. and N.W.
Off the Custom-house is a shoal; and at Horsleydown-middle-tier, a hard shelf, on which are only 6 feet.
Just above Fountain-stairs also is a shoal, which almost dries at low water; to avoid this, you must keep well over towards the ships at Wappingness.
If bound downward with an adverse wind, warp down with the first of the flood; but with favourable winds, wait until nearly high water, so as to reach Cuckold's Point at the beginning of ebb, and be ready to work through Limehouse Reach.



The Lower Pool extending from Wappingness to Cuckold's Point, lies nearly east and west.
Just below Hanover-stairs is a shoal, which runs down as far as Pitcher's Point; you will avoid it by keeping over to the northward; and below Limekiln Dock is another, which extends as far as Limehouse Hole Stairs.
Between the Horse-ferry and Ratcliff-cross you may moor along the north side, but in the lower part of this Reach the ebb tide runs strong.



Limehouse Reach lies about S.S.W. and N.N.E.
Just below Limehouse-hole, and at a little distance from the eastern shore, lies Limehouse Rock, on which are only 4 feet.
Off the fifth mill a shoal begins, and runs downwards below all the mills.
This shelf extends about one-third over the river: on the upper part of it are 6 or 7 feet; and the lower part almost dries at low water: you will avoid it by keeping Deptford New Church just open to the westward of the clock in the King's Yard.
From the shore below Cuckold's Point, a mud bank extends one-third of the way over the river.
Abreast of the King's Anchor Wharf, and nearly in shore, is a shoal, which almost dries at low water; without it, and also alongside of the Sheer-hulk, are 16 or 17 feet.
In order to avoid this shoal, keep Limehouse saw-mill a large sail's breadth open of Cuckold's Point.
At the Red-house are 15 feet, From the moorings upwards, to a berth above Greenland-dock, you may anchor, and moor with a kedge in 12 and 11 feet; and in Limehouse-hole are 16 feet.
Vessels going through the ISLE OF DOGS CANAL,
will observe, that when a blue flag with a white dagger in the middle, is hoisted at each end of the Canal, at half flood, vessels may enter.
No vessel is, on any account, to enter the canal under sail, and each is to be provided with proper towing lines and warps.
The transit rates are -
for every ship of 200 tons, or upwards, 2d. per ton.
100 or under 200 tons, 1½ per ton.
Vessels of from 50 to 100 tons, 10s. each.
Vessels carrying sail, 20 to 50 tons, 5s. each.
Lighters, barges, or boats rowed through, 1s. each.



Greenwich Reach lies winding in a circular direction from S.S.E. to E. by N. and at Deptford-creek a shoal begins, and runs down almost to the west end of Greenwich town; it nearly dries at low water; outside this shoal are 13 or 14 feet.
Greenwich Upper-shoal lies with Greenwich-church on with the Faggot-wharf, and the northernmost end of the King's Store-house on with the end of the Isle of Dogs.
The mark to lead you clear of it is, Woolwich-church kept just open of Crowley's-wharf.
Off Crowley's-wharf, and close in shore, is another shoal, which you will avoid by keeping the King's-yard Clock open to the northward of the Isle of Dogs, until Blackwall-reach comes open from below the Ferry-house on the Isle of Dogs, in several berths upwards, you may anchor in 14, 15, and 18 feet, but the best anchorage is, with the Observatory open to the westward of Greenwich-hospital, in 15 or 16 feet.



Blackwall Reach lies N. by E.¼E. and S. by W.¼W.
When you are about to enter this reach, you must take care to avoid the shelf which lies off Saunders-ness, by keeping the Storehouse-clock in the King's-yard at Deptford open of the Isle of Dogs, until you open Blackwall-reach.
You must afterwards give the point a good berth, to avoid a shoal which runs one-third over the river.
Abreast of the Upper-jetty is a shoal, with 6 or 7 feet on it; also a flat on the west side, opposite the Folly-house.
The tide, more especially the ebb, sets strong in this part.
The best anchorage is abreast of the Chalk stones, in 17 or 18 feet, mooring to the eastward, with Crowley's clock open of Saunders-ness; and to anchor to the westward, keep the clock on with the Ness.
You may also anchor on the west side from the upper part of Blachwall to the Folly-house, in 12, 13, and 14 feet.


Bugsby's Reach lies about S. by E.½E. and N. by W.½W.
From the shore, all the way between Bow creek and Hook-ness, a shelf extends about one-third over the river, on which are only 5 or 6 feet.
To go clear of this shelf, keep Charlton church on with the clump of trees, until you bring Deptford New-church on with a high tree which stands in a field at the upper part of Blackwall-reach.
Charlton church on with the sluice, will lead you clear of Charlton-shoal, on which are only 4 or 5 feet.
The best berth for anchoring in Bugsby's-hole is, with the two cupolas of Greenwich hospital open, Greenwich-church just open of the hospital, and Woolwich-reach just open; you will then have 13 or 14 feet.
There is also good riding just above the Orchard-House-causeway, in 14 feet.



Woolwich Reach lies E.S.E.¼S. and W.N.W.¼N. and is generally shoal, having from Bugsby's-hole to where the king's ships lie, not more than 9 feet at low water; to the eastward of the upper Sand Wharf is a bank of 4 and 5 feet, extending downward, nearly as far as the upper moorings; the mark for this is, a large house on a hill, in one with the corner of the wharf.
Woolwich-shelf is on the north side of of the reach; beginning at Ham-creek:, and extending down below the point opposite Woolwich; it is about half a cable's length from the shore, and has only 3 feet on it.
The long-mark for this shelf is, a large house in Blackwall open of Hook-ness: when you bring the Upper Water-gate, or the broad street open, you are below it.
The best place to anchor is, with a white house open of the lower part of the King's-yard, or with the Front-street open in 16, 17, or 18 feet.
At the Hulks-moorings are 15 or 16 feet.



Gallions Reach lies N.E. by E. and S.W. by W. and has an extensive shoal in it beginning at the lower part of the Warren, and extending down along the east shore almost to the point: it is above one-third over the river, and has, on some parts, only 4 or 5 feet.
The mark to go clear of this shoal is, Woolwich-clock kept on with the point, until you bring Deval's-house to bear W.b.N.
Be careful to give Maggot-ness a good berth in passing.
The best anchoring in this reach is below the trees, in 12, 13. or 14 feet.
There is also good riding between the Lower-house and the Creek, in 16, 17, and 18 foot.



Barking or Tripcock and Halfway Reaches bend round circularly and lie from Maggot-ness to Crossness E.S.E.½E. and from Crossness to Gillingham Point nearly S.E.
Within the first direction is Barking-shelf: its upper end lying off the creek's mouth; the thwart-mark for it is Barking-church and the Tower-house in one, or the creek open.
The thwart-mark for the lower end is, the Tower-house on the corner, just open of the Powder-house on the south side.
In order to go to the southward of the shelf, keep the barn on Devals-house on with Maggot-ness, until you get down to the Sluice; then haul over mid-channel, until you bring the south edge of Purfleet on with Jenningtree-point: this mark will carry you clear of the shoal which extends from the Leather-bottle-point.
The mark to lead you through to the northward of Barking-shelf to the innermost, or southernmost tree in Gallion's kept on with Maggot-ness.
Be careful to give the point below Barking-creek a good berth.
On the upper end of the shelf are 5 or 6 feet, and on the lower end are only 2 or 3 feet.
The next is Dagenham-shoal, extending downward from the lower part of Gallions to Barking-creek; the thwart-mark for this is, Dagenham-church on with the Upper sluice.
The mark to lead you clear of it is, Purfleet on with Jenningtree-point, until Barking-church comes open of Dagenham-point.
In Gallions there is good anchorage off Tripcock-trees in 12 and 13 feet.
The best mark for anchoring in Halfway reach is, Jenningtree-point, on with Coldharbour-point, towards the north side, or Barking-church a sail's breadth open of Dagenham-point, in 17 or 18 feet, or a little above the Ferry-house, in 21 feet.
In Halfway-reach there is a shelf lying on the northern side a little below the Breachhouse, you will readily avoid this by keeping mid-channel.
Close to the south shore, a little below the Powder-house, is a shoal, which you will avoid by keeping the hill at Purfleet on with Jenningtree-point.



Erith Reach lies about S. by W. and N. by E.
In this reach are two shoals, with only 6 or 7 feet on them ; the first begins off Jenningtree-point, and extends down as a middle ground, having a wreck upon it.
The mark for going clear of this shoal is, Barking-church within a sail's breadth of the point below the Breach-house, or Rainham-church on with Rainham-ferry-house, until Erith-church comes on with the south Pile-work, or the westernmost house in Erith comes on with the Faggot-wharf.
The latter mark will lead you clear of the lower shoal.
You may anchor in Erith-hole any where between the church and the town, in 3, 4, or 5 fathoms.
With the church bearing W.S.W. there is good anchoring in 5 fathoms.
When you are in Erith-hole, or off Erith-church, and bound upwards, you should proceed with the westernmost house in Erith on with the Faggot-wharf, until Rainham-church comes on with Rainham Ferry-house; then steer with this mark on, until you draw near to the north shore, and have passed the wreck that lies nearly half way over the river from Jenningtree-point: when you have brought Barking-church within a sail's breadth of the point below the Breach house, you may steer for Halfway-reach.
At three-quarters flood, ships of 10 or 12 feet water may go between the point and the wreck, giving the point a small berth.
If you are at anchor in Longreach, with a ship which draws 16 feet or upwards, you should defer the weighing of your anchor until you see the water up to the lower Chalk-wharf at Purfleet; which it will be at about an hour and a half's flood.
By this precaution you will, with greater safety pass through the Rands and Erith-reaches, which are shoal, more especially the latter, and consequently dangerous.



Rand's Reach lies about E.S.E. and W.N.W.
In entering this reach, bring a barn, which stands below Erith-town, on with a tall tree; and keep them so until you bring the upper Chalk-wharf at Purfleet on with Crayford-ness.
This mark will lead you clear to the southward of the Rand-hill-shoal, on which are only 6 or 8 feet.
This shoal lies nearly in the middle of the river, and about one-third down the reach.
The mark for the upper end is, Jenningtree-point on with the point at Cold-harbour; and the mark for the lower end is, Dartford church on with the upper breaches.
The leading-mark through the Channel to the northward of the Rand-hill is, the lower wharf at Purfleet on with Crayfordness.
In this channel are 19 or 20 feet.
In the channel to the southward of the shoal, are from 13 to 22 feet.
Ships that are going upwards through the south channel, should, after passing the Rand-hill, steer more out towards the middle of the river; because from the shore at Erith-town runs a flat; and also from, the point opposite to Erith stretches out a shelf, extending nearly one-third over the river, which must be attended to by those who pass through the north channel.

LONG REACH (Upper), LONG REACH (Lower) MODERN PLA mini charts


Long Reach lies about S. S. E.½E. and N. N. W.½W.
Off Crayford-ness a shelf begins, and extends down to Dartford-creek, called Dartford-sand; it extends about half a cable's length from the shore, and has only 2 feet on it.
To avoid this sand, keep Erith-church open until you open Dartford-creek.
You can then steer down the reach as you please; for it is all clear, and you may anchor in any part with 5, 6, or 7 fathoms.
From the Rands, the tides set strong upon the Chalk-wharfs at Purfleet, inclining to the eastern shore; when half way down, it then stretches towards Greenhithe.
lies E. N. E. turning round Broadness to the southward.
As a shoal-ridge runs off from the northern point at the lower end of Long-reach, you must be careful in passing to give it a good berth.
Along the east side of this reach a shelf extends about half a cable's length from the shore, on which are only 4 or 5 feet.
It begins about half way down the reach, and extends to Broadness.
The mark to go clear of this shoal is a small red-tiled house, which stands near to the causeway at the lower part of Grays-town, kept just open of Broadness; or by keeping Gray's Thurrock open of the point.
On the opposite side of the reach lies Black-shelf.
It begins near to the creek below St Clement's church, and extends down to the house above Grays.
The mark to go clear of it is, West Tilbury-church on with the red-tiled house before-mentioned.
This shelf is steep, and dries at low water.
The tides both flood and ebb, set strongly upon it; and therefore going near to it will be attended with danger.
When you are in the channel, between Broadness and Black-shelf, keep in the tide-way.
In every part of this reach the tide runs very narrow, and there is an eddy on the east side during the flood-tide; therefore you must not stand far over to the eastward when you are turning up.



Gray's Reach or North Fleet Hope lies about S. a little E. and N. a little W.
In this reach are two shoals; one beginning at the upper point, and extending down the west shore.
It projects about a cable's length from the shore, and has only 3 or 4 feet on it.
The other shoal begins a little above the lower point, and runs down to the point; it is about half a cable's length from the shore, and has only 5 or 6 feet on it.
As the ebb-tide sets into the bight at Northfleet; you should be careful, when coming down with little wind, to guard against its operations.
Between Northfleet and Gravesend the ground is hard and bad.
From Mid-channel off Grays, proceed S.½W. toward Northfleet-church, until you get the west end of Gravesend open, with that bearing S. E. you will enter Gravesend-reach.



Gravesend Reach lies E.S.E. and W.N.W. and has three shoals in it, two on the north, and one on the south side.
The first lies close to the north shore, abreast of the second Barways, and below the upper point.
Another shoal is on the north side, off the Coal-house-battery; it extends about half a cable's length from the shore, and has about 9 or 10 feet on it.
The thwart-mark for this shoal is the east end of East Tilbury-church on with the Coal-house.
The shoal on the south side begins just below the New-tavern, and extends about a quarter of a mile downwards; it stretches about a cable's length from the shore, and has only 4 or 5 feet on it.
The mark for keeping clear of this shoal is, Gravesend-church open to the northward of the Block-house.
Here the tides are rapid and the water deep.
And as the ships which ride in Gravesend-reach generally lie in the middle of the channel, or between it and the south shore, vessels going either up or down, should, especially in the night time, keep well over towards the north shore.
As the tides in this reach are strong, and as the ground, between Gravesend-town and Northfleet-hope, is hard, those who anchor in that part should give their ships a good scope of cable at once, lest their anchors come home, and damage ensue.
By order of the Trinity-house, buoys have been affixed to anchors, in the following situations:
two off the New-tavern-causeway, one-third the breadth of the river from the Gravesend side;
two off the Lower-causeway at Tilbury-fort, one-third the breadth of the river from the fort;
two off Gladwell's-hard, one-third the breadth of the river from Gravesend west end;
and two off the Upper-causeway near Tilbury-fort, one third the breadth of the river from the Essex shore;
and at night, six lights are thus placed:
one off the Upper-causeway,
one off the Lower-causeway,
one at each of the two upper buoys,
and one at each of the two lower buoys;
to these are added two guard boats,
one to the upper and one to the lower buoys, who hail every ship before they drop their anchor.
It is recommended that ships should be kept as nearly midchannel as possible, and not come to anchor within half a mile of the west end of the town, or the same distance below the New-tavern, which situations are marked out by the white nun buoys, otherwise they may damage their vessels or displace the buoys; and when informed by the guard boats that the hawsers for communication are stretched across the river, you are by no means to attempt passing them - for the expences attending such attempt, or re-placing the buoys, will fall on any person who shall drive them from their positions.

lies about N. E. and S. W.
The Oven-shelf begins at the upper Hope-point, and extends downwards about a quarter of a mile.
It lies close in shore, aud dries at low water.
You clear it by keeping Gravesend-steeple just open of thy point, until East Tilbury-church bears W. by N.
Mucking-flat extends about half a cable's length off from the west shore in the bight, aud stretches to Shell-haven.
In working down, you may stand, off and on, in 5, 6 and 7 fathoms.
As the flood tide is slack on the east side of this reach, and close to the shore no tide at all, you should be careful, when working upwards, not to stand too far over to the eastward; for the ship's head getting into less tide than the stern, may occasion her missing stays, and running on shore.
The ebb here is strong.
lies E. S. E. a little southerly.
On the south side from the lower Hope-point, the Blyth-sand begins, and stretches down to Yantlet-creek.
This sand abreast of Holly-haven, extends almost one-third over the river, and partly dries at low water.
In the channel, between this part and Holly-haven, are 9 or 10 fathoms.
The leading mark to go clear of Blyth-sand is, West Tilbury-mill kept well open to the northward of Chadwell-church.
The north shore, from Shell-haven to Holly-haven, is steep; but the edge of Blyth-sand, from the upper end to a little above Holly-haven, is so flat, that you may, with a turning wind, stand towards it into 5 or 4 fathoms.
The Scars lie on the north side; beginning at Holly-haven, and stretching down to the Scar-houses extend, about a cable's length from the shore, and are nearly dry.
The haven's mouth kept open, will carry you clear of them.
In working down here, you may stand towards Blyth-sand into 7 or 6 fathoms; but as the north side is very steep, you must not, in standing towards it, come into less than 10 or 9 fathoms.
The Chapman begins a little below the Scars, and stretches down to Leigh-town; it extends full ½ a mile from the shore, and dries at low water.
The thwart-mark for the Chapman's head is, Hadleigh-church and Castle in one; they are then on with the middle of a large square field.
There is a red buoy now fixed about 60 feet to the westward of the wreck of a brig, with the following marks: Leigh-church N. by E.½E.; the Nore-light S. E.½E. the easternmost house in Canvey-island, N. W. by N. and Pitsey-church just open to the northward of it.
The course from abreast of Holly-haven to the red buoy will be E. S. E. about 4 miles, and from thence S. E. by E. 5½ to the Nore-light this will carry you between the two shoals called the Middle-grounds, one of which lies to the northward, is a mile long, narrow, and directly before the entrance to Leigh-haven; this Bank dries and has shallow water all round it, the mariner must therefore be careful not to approach too near it: there is a passage behind it into Hadleigh-bay, but it is intricate, and filled with shoals.
The Nore-middle lies to the southward, commencing near Yantlet-island, and extending 2½ miles in the direction of the Nore-light, having 2 fathoms water over it, its upper end lies with Lee-church, bearing N. by E. distant 2½ miles ; its lower end with St. James's-church in the Isle of Grain, S. W. ¼W. distant 2 miles; and the Nore light vessel, S.E. by E. 2 miles.
About ¾ of a mile from the south end of the Nore-middle is a white buoy, lying on the Nore-sand in 3 fathoms water, with the eastern mill near Southend on with the eastern end of Southend-terrace, bearing N.½W., and the Nore-light S. E. by E.½E. distant 2 miles.
Ships that stand over the Nore-middle, when turning up with a floodtide, should tack as soon as they deepen their water on the north side of it; but the south shore being very flat, such precaution, with respect to it, is unnecessary.
at the east end of which the light-vessel lies, in 3¼ fathoms, extends about W. N. W.½N. and joins the Blyth-sand off Yantlet-island: the whole of this space is shallow, and may be properly called the Nore-flats.
There are two patches on it which dry; before the southernmost of these, lies the white buoy already described, and to the westward is 1he other patch, which runs in a parallel direction to the Nore-middle.
There is a swashway between these patches, with 2 fathoms water, and a channel between them and the middle, with 3½ and 4 fathoms.
is computed to be 41 miles distant from Londonbridge.
The marks for the vessel at the end of this sand are, Minster-church on with the eastern-most part of a triangular field, by some called Mizen-hedge, bearing S.S.W.¼W. the Garrison Point at Sheerness nearly W. by S. and Great Wakeringchurch N.N.E.
There is a buoy on the Larboard side of the channel, beating from the Nore light, N. by W. ¼W. distant 1¼ miles.
This is the Shoebury-knock buoy marked No. 1, painted black, and lies in 3 fathoms - always to be left on your Larboard side; from it the black tail beacon bears E.¼S. distant 6 miles.


The tides flow at the Nore, on the change and full days of the moon, half an hour past twelve o'clock, and the water rises about 14 feet.
At Holly-haven it flows three quarters past twelve o'clock, and the water rises 15 feet.
At Purfleet it flows three quarters of an hour past one o'clock, and the water rises 17 feet.
At Cuckold's Point it flows half after two o'clock,
and at London Bridge at three-quarters past two, and the water rises 18 feet.
With respect to the setting of the tides, it may, with propriety, be observed, that in all rivers the stream does not immediately turn round the several points; but, in passing out of one reach into another, it has a tendency towards the shore opposite that point, round which it must turn by degrees, until it runs in the direction of the new channel.
The distance to which the water will go beyond the several points, before it runs exactly in the direction of the new channel, will depend upon the three following things: namely -
the velocity of the stream,
the width of that part of the river,
and the difference of the direction of the reach out of which the water is passing, and that of the reach into which it is then entering.
Where the river is narrow, the motion of the water rapid, and the difference in the direction of the two reaches considerable, the water will run with some degree of violence against the shore which is opposite to the point; and the resistance which it will there meet with, from the solid shore, and the rising of the water thereby occasioned at that place above its due level, will make it run obliquely across the channel again, towards the opposite shore, considerably above or below the point, according as it - happens to be flood or ebb tide.
A due consideration of the foregoing remarks will assist the mariner in his endeavours to prevent such damage as might otherwise flow from the operation of the tides.


Vessels bound to Sheerness, will observe there is between the Isle of Grant and the western part of the Nore-sand, a swashway, with 3 and 4 feet at low water, which, as the tide rises, serves as a channel for small vessels, the mark being Queenborongh Church aud Sheerness Hulk in one; but the best passage into Sheerness Harbour is between the Nore Sand and the Cant, the latter being an extensive flat, drying to a considerable distance from the land; to go clear of this flat, bring the Salt-pan houses a sail's breadth open of Sheerness Garrison Point, this mark will carry you over the bar in 16 feet, or more, at low water.
From Sheerness is a pier, jutting out about 300 feet westward; at the Lappel also is a tide pier, 20 feet wide.
No vessel should venture over or too near this pier, there being only 4 feet over it when the tide is up; in day time its situation can easily be observed, and at night a light is fixed on its eastern end.
The best anchorage at the Awe is to the eastward and southward of the light, or between Sheerness bar and the Nore Sand, having from 6 to 9 fathoms, the marks being Minster Church S. W. by S. and the Nore-light N.¾W.
To sail from thence into the Medway, bring on the marks for entering, before you bear up, Sheerness point being steep to, and make allowance for the contrary tide, which commonly sets strongly in towards the back of the garrison.



1817: Description of the Buoys and Beacons, from the Nore through the Sledway to Orfordness

Shoebury-knock buoy. No. 1, blacklies in 3 fathoms to be left on the larboard side
Nore-light vessel3¼ fathoms starboard.
Blacktail beaconlarboard.
Cant buoy, whitelies 4 fathoms starboard.
West buoy of the Oaste, No. 27, red4 fathoms starboard.
East buoy of the Oaze, No. 26, white3 fathoms starboard.
Buoy of the Mouse, No. 2, black4 fathoms starboard.
Foulness or Maplin buoy, chequered black and white2¼ fathoms larboard.
Horns or Shoe beaconlarboard.
Buoy on the Middle, No 3, black3 fathoms starboard.
Whitaker Spit buoy, red, with staff and triangular vane3 fathoms larboard.
South buoy of the Swin Spitway, blacklarboard.
Gunfleet beaconlarboard.
Gunfleet buoy, No. 9, black4 fathoms larboard.
Middle hook buoy, chequered black and white3 fathoms starboard.
Buoy of the heaps, white with a vane3 fathoms starboard.
Sunk-light vessel, sloop rigged8 fathoms starboard.
Buoy S.E. Spit of West Rocks, black and white,
with words, 'West Rocks'
3¼ fathoms larboard.
Buoy of the Cork-ledge, white,
with words, 'Cork-ledge' on it
2 fathoms larb
Buoy of the Lower-rough, No. 10, red3½ fathoms larboard.
Buoy on the South Ship-head, white4 fathoms starboard.
Buoy on the North Ship-head, red4 fathoms starboard.
Buoy on Baudsey-sand, chequered black and white4 fathoms, starboard.
Buoy on the Cutler, black4½ fathoms larboard.
Buoy on the west end of the Middle-ground, black4½ fathoms larboard.
Buoy on the east end of the Middle-ground, black3¼ fathoms larboard.
Buoy on the S. W. end of the Whiting, white3¼ fathoms starboard.
Buoy on the Elbow of the Whiting, white3 fathoms starboard.
Buoy on the N.E. end of the Whiting, No. 11, white3 fathoms starboard.
Buoy of Aldborough Knaps, chequered black and white,with a vaneon either side.

to a fair berth between the buoy of the Mouse and the Blacktail-beacon, the course is E. 6½ miles, and from thence to abreast of the Shoe Beacon E. by N. the distance 5¼ miles.
The buoy on the Mouse, No. 2, is black; it lies on the west end of the sand in 4 fathoms, and must be left on the starboard side.
The MOUSE is now joined to the WEST-BARROW, and extends in an E. and W. direction above 4 miles; a shallow but broad flat then commences, and connects the West to the East Barrow, which ends nearly parallel to the White Buoy of the Heaps.
There are channels between the EAST and WEST-BARROWS, but with not more than 3 and 4 feet; the passage therefore for ships is between the Barrows and Maplin Sands, being called the West Swin.
From the Mouse Buoy the Blacktail Beacon bears W.N.W.½W. distant 2½ miles, and Foulness Buoy bears N.E.½N. distant one mile and a half.
From the Blacktail Beacon the Shoe Beacon bears E. by N. distant 6 miles.
In Working Down From The Nore, stand to the northward into 9 or 10 fathoms, and towards the OAZE into 6 or 7 fathoms; and when you reach the Blacktail-beacon, if convenient, you may anchor; but when you get down as low as the Mouse, you must not stand into less than 10 fathoms on either side; in the mid-channel are 12, 13, and 14 fathoms.
From abreast of the Blacktail to the Shoe-beacon, the course is from E.½N. to E. by N. and the navigation somewhat difficult; you must be careful, in running from the Warp, not to go too far to the southward, lest the tide should drift you to the starboard of the Mouse.
The course from the Shoe-beacon to the buoy on the Middle is N.E.¼E. distant 4 miles.
In turning from the Shoe-beacon to the buoy on the Middle, you may stand to the Barrow into 8 fathoms, and towards the Maplin-sand into 5 or 6 fathoms.
Between the Shoe-beacon and the buoy on the Middle, there is good anchorage all the way, in 9, 8, 7, and 6 fathoms.
The buoy on the south-west end of the Middle, No. 3, is black, and lies in 3 fathoms bearing from the Whitaker-buoy S. by W.½W. distant one mile, and from the ShoeBeacon N.E. by E. distant 4 miles; from the Middle-buoy to the chequered buoy, of the Hook, the course is E.½N. distant 2½ miles; this direction will carry you right through the East-Swin or King's-Channel, clear of every danger to abreast of the Sunklight; from the buoy of the Hook, to the eastern white buoy of the Heaps, the course is E.S.E.¾E. distant 3¾ miles.
The MIDDLE and the HEAPS form one sand; extending from the buoy on the south-west end of the Middle to the buoy on the east end of the Heaps, between them on the hook of the Middle is a chequered buoy, No. 8, black and white, lying in 3 fathoms, from it the Middle-buoy No. 3, bears W. S. W.¾W. distant 2½ miles; the Whitaker-buoy W.N.W.¼W. 2¼ miles; and the buoy of the Heaps E. by S. 3½ miles.
The buoy on the east end of the Heaps is white, has a vane upon it, and lies in 3 fathoms; the marks for it are the Tower on the Naze N.N.E.½E., and the Sunk-light E.¼N., Holland Church N. and the Gnnfleet-beacon N.E.½E.
There is a channel between the Middle and Barrows Sands called the Middle-deep, being 6 miles long and one mile broad, with from 4½ to 10 fathoms in it - the mariner must be careful the ebb tides do not drift him into it, or upon the Barrow-flats.

The passage between the Whitaker and the Buoy of the Middle is narrow, but with 6 and 7 fathoms water - pass to the northward of the Black Buoy and between it and the Whitaker Buoy: this latter lies in 3 fathoms water, is coloured red, and has a staff and triangular vane upon it; from it St. Peter's Chapel bears N.W. by N., the Shoe Beacon S.W.¼W., the Buoy of the Middle S. by W.½W., the Naze Tower N.E.¾E., and the Gunfleet Beacon E. by N. distant 9¾ miles.
The Swin buoy of the Spitway is black, and in 2½ fathoms water.
The marks for it are, a cupola on a building at St. Osyth on with the east side of a Martello Tower bearing north, the Whitaker buoy S.W. by W., and the Wallet buoy of the Spitway N. by W.½W.*
The Wallet buoy of the Spitway is red, and lies in 3 fathoms.
Brightlingsea-church just open to the right of a 3 ridge-roofed low building bearing N.½W.
The Naze Tower N.E. by E.½E. and the Swin buoy of the Spitway S. by E.½E. *
* The above are the present marks for the Swin and Wallet buoys, which have lately been removed about ¼ of a mile to the eastward of their former situations.
The Spitway is a passage out of the Swin into the WALLET, or to the Maldon River, between the eastend of the Buxey and the west end of the Gunfleet, and has about 9 feet in it.
The entrance to Maldon is obstructed by several shoals, some of which dry and others with very little water over them: your course from the Spitway to the River is N.W.½N.
There is good anchorage and deep water behind the BUXEY, there is also a passage for small vessels to the westward of the Buxey leading to the river Crouch, but the best channel to this River is to the southward of the Buxey: on the Maplin-sand you will perceive a buoy which you must leave to the larboard, and at the western end of the Buxey is another buoy, in this passage are from 1¼ to 4 fathoms.

The GUNFLEET sand lies E. and E. by N. about 12½ miles, and is 1½ mile broad; the beacon is 8 miles E.¼N from the Swin-buoy of the Spitway, and the buoy on the east end of the sand lies about 4¾ miles E.N.E. from the beacon; the edge of the sand between them is somewhat curved.
Part of this sand at the back of the beacon is named the East-knock, and dries at low springs: to the westward are other patches which also dry; and near the north-west extremity is the West-knock, which is covered only at 2 hours flood.
The Gunfleet-buoy is black, (No. 9.) and lies in 4 fathoms: the mark for it is the tower which is on the Naze-land, the easternmost of the three trees, and Waltonhall, a white house standing farther inland, all on with each other, and bearing N.W.½N., Harwich-lights N. by W., Baudsey-church N.N.E.¼E., the Sunk-light E., and the beacon W.S.W.
The channel between the Middle and the Heaps to the southward, and the Gunfleet to the northward, is about 2 miles wide, but between the S.W. buoy of the Middle and the Whitaker buoy, the channel is not more than half a mile in breadth.
As there are 5 fathoms close to the Middle and Heaps, you should not come nearer to any part of them than into 7-fathoms; between the Middle-ground and the Buxey are 4, 5, 6, and 7 fathoms; and between the former and the Gunfleet are 6 and 8 fathoms.
Four and half miles nearly south of the buoy of the Gunfleet, lies the N.E. part of the Sunk; this is a long, narrow ridge, being a continuation of the Oaze and Knock John, running circularly at the back of the Mouse and Barrow, with a channel a mile wide between, upon this bank are numerous patches of sand, which dry at low ebbs, the westernmost being called the Oaze.
The SUNK-SAND is steep-to on both sides, extending about E.N.E. and W.S.W. a considerable portion of which is dry at low ebb.
A vessel is placed at the east end of this sand, and will show a light in the night, and a flag at the mast-head during the day, and in foggy weather a bell will ring every half-hour, striking six times every ten minutes, to distinguish her from other ships.
From this light or vessel the beacon on the Gunfleet bears W.N.W. 5½ miles, the Naze Tower, N. N. W.¼W. 9¼ miles, the buoy on the north-east end of the Gunfleet N. by W. 4 miles, the red buoy of the Rough N.N.E.¼E. 8 miles, the white and black chequered buoy on the Baudsey-sand N.N.E.¾E. 12 miles, Orfordness N.E.¾N. 20 miles, the S.W. buoy on the Shipwash N.E.¼E. 8¼ miles, and the Longsand-head E. S. E. 4 miles.
In working through the King's-Channel do not bring the light to the northward of east, as the buoy of the Heaps bears from the light about W.½S.
South-eastward of the Sunk and Knock John, is the Long sand, an extensive bank, running nearly parallel, and stretching to the Girdler; between them is the channel named the Sunk and Black Deeps, at present but imperfectly known.

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