Stow's Headings are in CAPITALS; My added editorial headings are in Lower case;
[Non river, omitted section headings are in square brackets];
Links to original text are thus: Stow
THE SURVEY OF LONDON
River Aspects Only
[INTRODUCTION by H.B. Wheatley] Stow
NORDEN'S MAP OF LONDON, 1593 Stow
A SURVAY OF LONDON. 1603 Stow
THE SURVEY OF LONDON CONTAINING THE ORIGINAL, ANTIQUITY, INCREASE, MODERN ESTATE, AND DESCRIPTION OF THAT CITY
[Roman Origins of London] Stow
[WALL ABOUT THE CITY OF LONDON] Stow
Canute's invasion Stow
[About the wall] Stow
OF ANCIENT AND PRESENT RIVERS ... Stow
The River Thames Stow
The River of Wells Stow
[City Water Supply] Stow]
[THE TOWN DITCH WITHOUT THE WALL OF THE CITY] Stow
BRIDGES OF THIS CITY Stow
Origins of London Bridge
1176: London Bridge in Stone Stow
London Bridge Chapel and houses Stow
1212: Fatal Bridge Fire Stow
1282: Frost Stow
Bridge Repairs Stow
1381: Collection for Bridge Repairs Stow
1381: Invasion by Wat Tyler Stow
1395: Jousting on Bridge Stow
1396: Royal Procession, fatalities in crowd Stow
1426: London Bridge North Tower Stow
1450: Invasion by Jack Cade Stow
1471: Thomas Fawconbridge burns Gate and all 13 houses Stow
1481: House collapses into river Stow
1553: Bridge shut against Thomas Wyat and the Kentish men Stow
Description of London Bridge Stow
[Other Bridges] Stow
[GATES IN THE WALL OF THIS CITY] Stow
[POSTERN OF MOREGATE] Stow
[POSTERN OF CRIPPLEGATE] Stow
[POSTERN OUT OF CHRIST'S HOSPITAL] Stow
Water Gates (landing places) Stow
BRIDGE GATE [i.e. London Bridge] Stow
OF TOWERS AND CASTLES Stow
1078: The Tower of London Stow
The Lion Tower Stow
Events at the Tower of London Stow
1263: The Queen prevented from passing under the bridge Stow
Description of the Tower of London Stow
TOWER ON LONDON BRIDGE Stow
TOWER ON THE SOUTH OF LONDON BRIDGE Stow
[BAYNARD'S CASTLE] Stow
[THE RIGHTS THAT BELONGED TO ROBERT FITZWALTER] Stow
[TOWER OF MOUNTFIQUIT] Stow
[OF SCHOOLS AND OTHER HOUSES OF LEARNING] Stow
[HOUSES OF STUDENTS IN THE COMMON LAW] Stow
[OF ORDERS AND CUSTOMS] Stow
[OF CHARITABLE ALMS IN OLD TIMES GIVEN] Stow
[SPORTS AND PASTIMES OF OLD TIME USED IN THIS CITY] Stow
[OF WATCHES IN THIS CITY, AND OTHER MATTERS COMMANDED, AND THE CAUSE WHY] Stow
[HONOUR OF CITIZENS, AND WORTHINESS OF MEN IN THE SAME] Stow
[THE CITY DIVIDED INTO PARTS] Stow
[OF PORTSOKEN WARD, THE FIRST IN THE EAST PART] Stow
TOWER STREET WARD Stow
[ ALDGATE WARD ] Stow
[ LIME STREET WARD ] Stow
[ BISHOPSGATE WARD ] Stow
[ BROAD STREET WARD ] Stow
[ CORNEHILL WARD ] Stow
[ LANGBORNE WARD, AND FENNIE ABOUT ] Stow
[ BILLINGSGATE WARD ] Stow
BRIDGE WARD WITHIN Stow
[ CANDLEWICK STREET WARD ] Stow
[ WALBROOK WARD ] Stow
[ DOWNEGATE WARD ] Stow
[ WARDS ON THE WEST SIDE OF WALBROOKE, AND FIRST OF VINTRY WARD ]Stow
[ CORDWAINER STREET WARD ] Stow
[ CHEAPE WARD ] Stow
[ COLEMAN STREET WARD ] Stow
[ BASSINGS HALL WARD ] Stow
[ CRIPPLESGATE WARD ] Stow
[ ALDERSGATE WARD ] Stow
[ FARINGDON WARD INFRA, OR WITHIN ] Stow
[ BREAD STREET WARD ] Stow
[ QUEENE HITHE WARD ] Stow
Queen Hithe or Edred's hithe Stow
Floating Corn Mills Stow
Salt wharf, Timber wharf, Brookes wharf & water works Stow
[ CASTLE BAYNARD WARD ] Stow
[ THE WARD OF FARINGDON EXTRA, OR WITHOUT ] Stow
BRIDGE WARDE WITHOUT Stow
[THE SUBURBS WITHOUT THE WALLS ] Stow
[ LIBERTIES OF THE DUCHY OF LANCASTER ] Stow
THE CITY OF WESTMINSTER Stow
Westminster Abbey Stow
Westminster Abbey Fire Stow
[ Monuments of Kings and Queens and others ] Stow
Sanctuary at Westminster Stow
Parish Church of St Margaret Stow
The Palace of Westminster Stow
1236 & 1242: Flooding Stow
1299: Fire Stow
[ GOVERNORS OF THE CITY OF LONDON; Stow
[ PARISH CHURCHES ] Stow
[ HOSPITALS IN THIS CITY ] Stow
[ NOW OF LEPROSE PEOPLE, AND LAZAR HOUSES ] Stow
[ THE TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT OF THIS CITY, SOMEWHAT IN BRIEF MANNER] Stow
[ ALDERMEN AND SHERIFFS OF LONDON ] Stow
[ OFFICERS BELONGING TO THE LORD MAYOR'S HOUSE ] Stow
[ THE SHERIFFS OF LONDON; THEIR OFFICERS ] Stow
[ OF THE MAYOR'S AND SHERIFFS' LIVERIES SOMEWHAT ] Stow
[ SOMEWHAT OF LIVERIES ] Stow
[ First causes of Cities ] Stow
[ THE SINGULARITIES OF THE CITY OF LONDON Stow
[ APPENDIX ] Stow
[ FITZSTEPHEN'S DESCRIPTION OF LONDON ] Stow
[ OF THE SPORTS ] Stow
[ Stow's INDEX ] Stow
This version contains only the river aspects of the 1603 2nd edition as Stow left it. It does not set out to be complete but useful in finding the history of the river. Other sections of interest have links to the Gutenberg version
The map was badly damaged by a central fold. I have repaired it as best I can, however central details should be checked against the original
Norden's map of London 1598
a - Bushops gate streete; b - Papie; c - Alhallowes in the wall; d - S. Taphyns;
e - Sylver streete; f - Aldermanburye; g - Barbican; h - Aldersgate streete;
i - Charterhowse; k - Holborne conduct; l - Chauncery lane; m - Temple barr;
n - Holbourn; o - Grayes Inn lane; p - S. Androwes; q - Newgate;
r - S. Iones; s - S. Nic shambels; t - Cheap syde; u - Bucklers burye.
w - Brode streete; x - The Stockes; y - The Exchannge; z - Cornehill.
2 - Colman streete; 3 - Bassings hall; 4 - Honnsditche; 5 - Leaden hall;
6 - Gratious streete; 7 - Heneage house; 8 - Fancshurche; 9 - Marke lane;
10 - Minchyn lane; 11 - Paules; 12 - Eastcheape; 13 - Fleetstreete;
14 - Fetter lane; 15 - S. Dunshous; 16 - Themes streete; 17 - Lodon Stone;
18 - Olde Baylye; 19 - Clerkenwell; 20 - Winchester house; 21 - Battle bridge;
22 - Bermodsoy streete.
In the year 1016, Edmund Ironsides reigning over the West Saxons, Canute the Dane bringing his navy
into the west part of the bridge, cast a trench about the city of London, and then attempted to have won it by assault,
but the citizens repulsed him, and drove them from their walls.
Also, in the year 1052, Earl Goodwin, with his navy, sailed up by the south end of the bridge, and so assailed the walls of this city.
William Fitzstephen, in the reign of King Henry II., writing of the walls of this city, hath these words: "The wall is high and great, well towered on the north side, with due distances between the towers.
On the south side also the city was walled and towered, but the fishful river of Thames, with his ebbing and flowing, hath long since subverted them."
By the north side, he meaneth from the river of Thames in the east to the river of Thames in the west, for so stretched the wall in his time, and the city being far more in length from east to west than in breadth from south to north, and also narrower at both ends than in the midst, is therefore compassed with the wall on the land side, in form of a bow, except denting in betwixt Cripplegate and Aldersgate; but the wall on the south side, along by the river of Thames, was straight as the string of a bow, and all furnished with towers or bulwarks (as we now term them) in due distance every one from other, as witnesseth our author, and ourselves may behold from the land side.
Anciently, until the Conqueror's time, and two hundred years after, the city of London was watered, besides the famous river of Thames
on the south part, with the river of Wells, as it was then called, on the west;
with the water called Walbrooke running through the midst of the city in the river of Thames, serving the heart thereof;
and with a fourth water or bourn, which ran within the city through Langborne ward, watering that part in the east.
In the west suburbs was also another great water, called Oldborne, which had its fall into the river of Wells;
then were there three principal fountains, or wells, in the other suburbs;
to wit, Holy well, Clement's well, and Clarkes' well.
Near unto this last-named fountain were divers other wells, to wit, Skinners' well, Fags' well, Tode well, Loder's well, and Radwell.
All which said wells, having the fall of their overflowing in the aforesaid river, much increased the stream, and in that place gave it the name of Well.
In West Smithfield there was a pool, in records called Horsepoole, and one other pool near unto the parish church of St. Giles without Cripplegate.
Besides all which, they had in every street and lane of the city divers fair wells and fresh springs; and after this manner was this city then served with sweet and fresh waters, which being since decayed, other means have been sought to supply the want, as shall be shown. But first of the aforenamed rivers and other waters is to be said, as following:
Thames, the most famous river of this island, beginneth a little above a village called Winchcombe, in Oxfordshire; and still increasing, passeth first by the University of Oxford, and so with a marvellous quiet course to London, and thence breaketh into the French ocean by main tides, which twice in twenty-four hours' space doth ebb and flow more than sixty miles in length, to the great commodity of travellers, by which all kind of merchandise be easily conveyed to London, the principal storehouse and staple of all commodities within this realm; so that, omitting to speak of great ships and other vessels of burthen, there pertaineth to the cities of London, Westminster, and borough of Southwark, above the number, as is supposed, of 2000 wherries and other small boats, whereby 3000 poor men, at the least, be set on work and maintained.
That the river of Wells, in the west part of the city, was of old so called of the wells, it may be proved thus:-
William the Conqueror in his charter to the college of St. Marten le Grand, in London, hath these words:
"I do give and grant to the same church all the land and the moor without the postern, which is called Cripplegate, on either part of the postern; that is to say, from the north corner of the wall, as the river of the Wells, there near running, departeth the same moor from the wall, unto the running water which entereth the city."
This water hath long since been called the river of the Wels, which name of river continued; and it was so called in the reign of Edward I., as shall be shown, with also the decay of the said river.
In a fair book of parliament records, now lately restored to the Tower, it appeareth that a parliament being holden at Carlile in the year 1307, the 35th of Edward I.,
"Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, complained, that whereas in times past the course of water, running at London under Oldborne bridge and Fleete bridge into the Thames, had been of such breadth and depth, that ten or twelve ships navies at once, with merchandise, were wont to come to the foresaid bridge of Fleete, and some of them to Oldborne bridge: now the same course, by filth of the tanners and such others, was sore decayed; also by raising of wharfs; but especially, by a diversion of the water made by them of the new Temple, for their mills standing without Baynardes Castle, in the first year of King John, and divers other impediments, so as the said ships could not enter as they were wont, and as they ought:
wherefore he desired that the mayor of London with the sheriffs and other discreet aldermen, might be appointed to view the course of the said water; and that by the oaths of good men, all the aforesaid hindrances might be removed, and it to be made as it was wont of old.
Whereupon Roger le Brabason, the constable of the Tower, with the mayor and sheriffs, were assigned to take with them honest and discreet men, and to make diligent search and enquiry how the said river was in old time, and that they leave nothing that may hurt or stop it, but keep it in the same state that it was wont to be."
So far the record.
Whereupon it followed that the said river was at that time cleansed, these mills removed, and other things done for the preservation of the course thereof, notwithstanding never brought to the old depth and breadth; whereupon the name of river ceased, and it was since called a brook, namely, Turnmill or Tremill brook, for that divers mills were erected upon it, as appeareth by a fair register-book, containing the foundation of the priory at Clarkenwell, and donation of the lands thereunto belonging, as also divers other records.
This brook hath been divers times since cleansed, namely, and last of all to any effect, in the year 1502, the 17th of Henry VII., the whole course of Fleete dike, then so called, was scowered, I say, down to the Thames, so that boats with fish and fuel were rowed to Fleete bridge, and to Oldborne bridge, as they of old time had been accustomed, which was a great commodity to all the inhabitants in that part of the city.
In the year 1589 was granted a fifteenth, by a common council of the city, for the cleansing of this brook or dike; the money amounting to a thousand marks, was collected, and it was undertaken, that by drawing divers springs about Hampstead heath into one head and course, both the city should be served of fresh water in all places of want; and also, that by such a follower, as men call it, the channel of this brook should be scowered into the river of Thames; but much money being therein spent, the effect failed, so that the brook, by means of continual encroachments upon the banks getting over the water, and casting of soilage into the stream, is now become worse cloyed and choken than ever it was before.
The original foundation of London bridge, by report of Bartholomew Linsted, alias Fowle, last prior of St. Mary Overies church in Southwark, was this:
A ferry being kept in place where now the bridge is built, at length the ferryman and his wife deceasing, left the same ferry
to their only daughter, a maiden named Mary, which with the goods left by her parents, and also with the profits arising of the said ferry,
built a house of Sisters, in place where now standeth the east part of St. Mary Overies church, above the choir, where she was buried,
unto which house she gave the oversight and profits of the ferry; but afterwards the said house of Sisters being converted into a college of priests,
the priests built the bridge (of timber) as all the other great bridges of this land were, and from time to time kept the same
in good reparations, till at length, considering the great charges of repairing the same, there was, by aid of the citizens of
London, and others, a bridge built with arches of stone, as shall be shown.
But first of the timber bridge, the antiquity thereof being great, but uncertain; I remember to have read, that in the year of Christ 994, Sweyn, king of Denmark, besieging the city of London, both by water and by land, the citizens manfully defended themselves, and their king Ethelred, so as part of their enemies were slain in battle, and part of them were drowned in the river of Thames, because in their hasty rage they took no heed of the bridge.
Moreover, in the year 1016, Canute the Dane, with a great navy, came up to London, and on the south of the Thames caused a trench to be cast, through the which his ships were towed into the west side of the bridge, and then with a deep trench, and straight siege, he compassed the city round about.
Also, in the year 1052, Earl Goodwin, with the like navy, taking his course up the river of Thames, and finding none that offered to resist on the bridge, he sailed up the south side of the said river.
Furthermore, about the year 1067, William the Conqueror, in his charter to the church of St. Peter at Westminster, confirmed to the monks serving God there, a gate in London, then called Buttolph's gate, with a wharf which was at the head of London bridge.
We read likewise, that in the year 1114, the 14th of Henry I., the river of Thames was so dried up, and such want of water there, that between the Tower of London and the bridge, and under the bridge, not only with horse, but also a great number of men, women, and children, did wade over on foot.
I also have seen a charter under seal to the effect following:- "Henry king of England, to Ralfe B. of Chichester, and all the ministers of Sussex, sendeth greeting, know ye, etc.
I command by my kingly authority, that the manor called Alcestone, which my father gave, with other lands, to the abbey of Battle, be free and quiet from shires and hundreds, and all other customs of earthly servitude, as my father held the same, most freely and quietly, and namely, from the work of London bridge, and the work of the castle at Pevensey: and this I command upon my forfeiture.
Witness, William de Pontlearche, at Byrry."
The which charter, with the seal very fair, remaineth in the custody of Joseph Holland, gentleman.
In the year 1136, the 1st of king Stephen, a fire began in the house of one Ailewarde, near unto London stone, which consumed east to Aldgate, and west to St. Erkenwald's shrine, in Powle's church;
the bridge of timber over the river of Thames was also burnt, etc., but afterwards again repaired.
For Fitzstephen writes, that in the reign of King Stephen and of Henry II., when pastimes were showed on the river of Thames, men stood in great number on the bridge, wharfs, and houses, to behold.
Now in the year 1163, the same bridge was not only repaired, but newly made of timber as before, by Peter of Cole church, priest and chaplain.
Thus much for the old timber bridge, maintained partly by the proper lands thereof, partly by the liberality of divers persons, and partly by taxations in divers shires, have I proved for the space of 215 years before the bridge of stone was built.
Now touching the foundation of the stone bridge, it followeth:-
About the year 1176, the stone bridge over the river of Thames, at London, was begun to be founded by the aforesaid Peter of Cole church, near unto the bridge of timber, but somewhat more towards the west, for I read, that Buttolfe wharf was, in the Conqueror's time, at the head of London bridge.
The king assisted this work: a cardinal then being legate here; and Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, gave one thousand marks towards the foundation; the course of the river, for the time, was turned another way about, by a trench cast for that purpose, beginning, as is supposed, east about Radriffe, and ending in the west about Patricksey, now termed Batersey.
This work; to wit, the arches, chapel and stone bridge, over the river of Thames at London, having been thirty-three years in building, was in the year 1209 finished by the worthy merchants of London, Serle Mercer, William Almaine, and Benedict Botewrite, principal masters of that work, for Peter of Cole church deceased four years before, and was buried in the chapel on the bridge, in the year 1205.
King John gave certain void places in London to build upon the profits thereof to remain towards the charges
of building and repairing the same bridge: a mason being master workman of the bridge, builded
from the foundation the large chapel on that bridge of his own charges, which chapel was then endowed
for two priests, four clerks, etc., besides chantries since founded for John Hatfield and other.
After the finishing of this chapel, which was the first building upon those arches, sundry houses at times were erected, and many charitable men gave lands, tenements, or sums of money, towards maintenance thereof, all which was sometimes noted and in a table fair written for posterity remaining in the chapel, until the same chapel was turned into a dwelling-house, and then removed to the bridge house, the effect of which table I was willing to have published in this book, if I could have obtained the sight thereof.
But making the shorter work, I find by the account of William Mariner and Christopher Eliot, wardens of London bridge from Michaelmas, in the 22nd of Henry VII., unto Michaelmas next ensuing, by one whole year, that all the payments and allowances came to £815 17s. 2¼d., as there is shown by particulars, by which account then made, may be partly guessed the great charges and discharges of that bridge at this day, when things be stretched to so great a price.
And now to actions on this bridge.
The first action to be noted was lamentable; for within four years after the finishing thereof, to wit, in the year 1212,
on the l0th of July, at night, the borough of Southwark, upon the south side the river of Thames, as also the church of our Lady of the Canons there,
being on fire, and an exceeding great multitude of people passing the bridge, either to extinguish and quench it,
or else to gaze at and behold it, suddenly the north part, by blowing of the south wind was also set on fire,
and the people which were even now passing the bridge, perceiving the same, would have returned, but were stopped by fire;
and it came to pass, that as they stayed or protracted time, the other end of the bridge also, namely, the south end, was fired,
so that the people thronging themselves between the two fires, did nothing else but expect present death;
then came there to aid them many ships and vessels, into the which the multitude so unadvisedly rushed, that the ships being drowned,
they all perished.
It was said, that through the fire and shipwreck there were destroyed about three thousand persons, whose bodies were found in part, or half burnt, besides those that were wholly burnt to ashes, and could not be found.
About the year 1282, through a great frost and deep snow, five arches of London bridge were borne down and carried away.
In the year 1289, the bridge was so sore decayed for want of reparations that men were afraid to pass thereon, and a subsidy was granted towards the amendment thereof, Sir John Britain being custos of London.
1381, a great collection or gathering was made of all archbishops, bishops, and other ecclesiastical persons, for the reparations of London bridge.
1381, Wat Tyler, and other rebels of Kent, by this bridge entered the city, as ye may read in my Summary and Annals.
In the year 1395, on St. George's day, was a great justing on London bridge, betwixt David Earl of Crawford of Scotland, and the Lord Wells of England; in the which the Lord Wells was at the third course borne out of the saddle: which history proveth, that at that time the bridge being coped on either side, was not replenished with houses built thereupon, as it hath since been, and now is.
The next year, on the 13th of November, the young Queen Isabell, commonly called the little, for she was but eight years old, was conveyed from Kenington besides Lamhith, through Southwarke to the Tower of London, and such a multitude of people went out to see her, that on London bridge nine persons were crowded to death, of whom the prior of Tiptre, a place in Essex, was one, and a matron on Cornhill was another.
The Tower on London bridge at the north end of the draw-bridge (for that bridge was then readily to be drawn up, as well to give passage for
ships to Queenhithe, as for the resistance of any foreign force), was begun to be built in the year 1426, John Rainwell being mayor.
Another tower there is on the said bridge over the gate at the south end towards Southwarke, whereof in another place shall be spoken.
In the year 1450, Jack Cade, and other rebels of Kent, by this bridge entered the city: he struck his sword on London Stone, and said himself then to be lord of the city, but were by the citizens overcome on the same bridge, and put to flight, as in my Annals.
In the year 1471, Thomas, the bastard Fawconbridge, besieged this bridge, burnt the gate, and all the houses to the draw-bridge, that time thirteen in number.
In the year 1481, a house called the common siege on London bridge fell down into the Thames; through the fall whereof five men were drowned.
In the year 1553, the 3rd of February, Sir Thomas Wyat, and the Kentish men, marched from Depeford towards London;
after knowledge whereof, forthwith the draw-bridge was cut down, and the bridge gates shut.
Wyat and his people entered Southwarke, where they lay till the 6th of February, but could get no entry of the city by the bridge, the same was then so well defended by the citizens, the Lord William Howard assisting, wherefore he removed towards Kingstone, etc., as in my Annals.
To conclude of this bridge over the said river of Thames, I affirm, as in other my descriptions, that it is a work very rare, having with the draw-bridge twenty arches made of squared stone, of height sixty feet, and in breadth thirty feet, distant one from another twenty feet, compact and joined together with vaults and cellars; upon both sides be houses built, so that it seemeth rather a continual street than a bridge; for the fortifying whereof against the incessant assaults of the river, it hath overseers and officers, viz., wardens, as aforesaid, and others.
Water-gates on the banks of the river Thames have been many, which being purchased by private men,
are also put to private use, and the old names of them forgotten; but of such as remain, from the west towards the east,
may be said as followeth:-
The Blacke-friers stairs, a free landing-place.
Then a water-gate at Puddle wharf, of one Puddle that kept a wharf on the west side thereof, and now of Puddle water, by means of many horses watered there.
Then Powle's wharf, also a free landing-place with stairs, etc.
Then Broken wharf, and other such like.
But, Ripa Regina, the Queene's bank, or Queene hithe may well be accounted the very chief and principal water-gate of this city, being a common strand or landing-place, yet equal with, and of old time far exceeding, Belins gate, as shall be shown in the ward of Queene hithe.
The next is Downe gate, so called of the sudden descending or down-going of that way from St. John's church upon Walbrooke
unto the river of Thames, whereby the water in the channel there hath such a swift course, that in the year 1574, on the fourth of September,
after a strong shower of rain, a lad, of the age of eighteen years, minding to have leapt over the channel, was taken by the feet,
and borne down with the violence of that narrow stream, and carried toward the Thames with such a violent swiftness,
as no man could rescue or stay him, till he came against a cart-wheel that stood in the water-gate, before which time he was drowned and stark dead.
This was sometimes a large water-gate, frequented of ships and other vessels, like as the Queene hithe, and was a part thereof, as doth appear by an inquisition made in the 28th year of Henry III., wherein was found, that as well corn as fish, and all other things coming to the port of Downegate, were to be ordered after the customs of the Queene's hithe, for the king's use; as also that the corn arriving between the gate of the Guild hall of the merchants of Cullen (the Styleyard), which is east from Downegate, and the house then pertaining to the Archbishop of Canterbury, west from Baynarde's Castle, was to be measured by the measure, and measurer of the Queene's soke, or Queene hithe.
I read also, in the 19th of Edward III., that customs were then to be paid for ships and other vessels resting at Downegate, as if they rode at Queene hithe, and as they now do at Belingsgate. And thus much for Downegate may suffice.
The next was called Wolfes gate, in the ropery in the parish of Allhallowes the Lesse, of later time called Wolfes lane,
but now out of use; for the lower part was built on by the Earle of Shrewsburie, and the other part was stopped up and built on
by the chamberlain of London.
The next is Ebgate, a water-gate, so called of old time, as appeareth by divers records of tenements near unto the same adjoining.
It standeth near unto the church of St. Laurence Pountney, but is within the parish of St. Marten Ordegare.
In place of this gate is now a narrow passage to the Thames, and is called Ebgate lane, but more commonly the Old Swan.
Then is there a water-gate at the bridge foot, called Oyster gate, of oysters that were there of old time, commonly to be sold, and was the chiefest market for them and for other shell-fishes.
There standeth now an engine or forcier, for the winding up of water to serve the city, whereof I have already spoken.
The next is the Bridge gate, so called of London Bridge, whereon it standeth.
This was one of the four first and principal gates of the city, long before the Conquest, when there stood a bridge of timber, and is the seventh and last principal gate mentioned by W. Fitzstephen; which gate being new made, when the bridge was built was built of stone, hath been oftentimes since repaired.
This gate, with the tower upon it, in the year 1436 fell down, and two of the farthest arches southwards also fell therewith, and no man perished or was hurt therewith.
To the repairing whereof, divers wealthy citizens gave large sums of money; namely, Robert Large, sometime mayor, one hundred marks; Stephen Forster, twenty pounds; Sir John Crosbye, alderman, one hundred pounds, etc.
But in the year 1471, the Kentish mariners, under the conduct of bastard Fauconbridge, burned the said gate and thirteen houses on the bridge, besides the Beer houses at St. Katherine's, and many others in the suburbs.
The next is Buttolphe's gate, so called of the parish church of St. Buttolph, near adjoining.
This gate was sometimes given or confirmed by William Conqueror to the monks of Westminster in these words: "W. rex Angliæ, etc., William, king of England, sendeth greeting to the sheriffes, and all his ministers, as also to all his loving subjects, French and English, of London:
Know ye that I have granted to God and St. Peter of Westminster, and to the abbot Vitalis, the gift which Almundus of the port of S. Buttolph gave them, when he was there made monke: that is to say, his Lords court with the houses, and one wharf, which is at the head of London bridge, and all other his lands which he had in the same city, in such sort as King Edward more beneficially and amply granted the same; and I will and command that they shall enjoy the same well and quietly and honourably, with sake and soke, etc."
The next is Bellinsgate, used as an especial port, or harbour, for small ships and boats coming thereto, and is now most frequented, the Queen's hithe being almost forsaken.
How this gate took that name, or of what antiquity the same is, I must leave uncertain, as not having any ancient record thereof, more than that Geoffrey Monmouth writeth, that Belin, a king of the Britons, about four hundred years before Christ's nativity, built this gate, and named it Belin's gate, after his own calling; and that when he was dead, his body being burnt, the ashes, in a vessel of brass, were set upon a high pinnacle of stone over the same gate.
But Cæar and other Roman writers affirm, of cities, walls, and gates, as ye have before heard; and therefore it seemeth to me not to be so ancient, but rather to have taken that name of some later owner of the place, happily named Beling, or Biling, as Somar's key, Smart's key, Frosh wharf, and others, thereby took their names of their owners.
Of this gate more shall be said when we come to Belin's gate ward.
Then have you a water-gate, on the west side of Wool wharf, or Customers' key, which is commonly called the water-gate, at the south end of Water lane.
One other water-gate there is by the bulwark of the Tower, and this is the last and farthest water-gate eastward, on the river of Thames, so far as the city of London extendeth within the walls; both which last named water-gates be within the Tower ward.
Besides these common water-gates, were divers private wharfs and keys, all along from the east to the west of this city,
on the bank of the river of Thames; merchants of all nations had landing-places, warehouses, cellars, and stowage of their goods and merchandises,
as partly shall be touched in the wards adjoining to the said river.
Now, for the ordering and keeping these gates of this city in the night time, it was appointed in the year of Christ 1258, by Henry III., the 42nd of his reign, that the ports of England should be strongly kept, and that the gates of London should be new repaired, and diligently kept in the night, for fear of French deceits, whereof one writeth these verses:
Per noctem portæ clauduntur Londoniarum,
Mœnia ne forte fraus frangat Francigenarum.
"The city of London (saith Fitzstephen) hath in the east a very great and a most strong palatine Tower, whose turrets and walls
do rise from a deep foundation, the mortar thereof being tempered with the blood of beasts.
In the west part are two most strong castles, etc."
To begin therefore with the most famous Tower of London, situate in the east, near unto the river of Thames: it hath been the common opinion, and some have written (but of none assured ground), that Julius Cæsar, the first conqueror of the Britons, was the original author and founder, as well thereof as also of many other towers, castles, and great buildings within this realm; but (as I have already before noted) Cæsar remained not here so long, nor had he in his head any such matter, but only to dispatch a conquest of this barbarous country, and to proceed to greater matters.
Neither do the Roman writers make mention of any such buildings created by him here; and therefore leaving this, and proceeding to more grounded authority, I find in a fair register-book, containing the acts of the Bishops of Rochester, set down by Edmond de Hadenham, that William I., surnamed Conqueror, built the Tower of London; to wit, the great white and square tower there, about the year of Christ 1078, appointing Gundulph, then Bishop of Rochester, to be principal surveyor and overseer of that work, who was for that time lodged in the house of Edmere, a burgess of London; the very words of which mine author are these:
"Gundulphus Episcopus mandato Willielmi Regis magni præfuit operi magnæ Turris London.
Quo tempore hospitatus est apud quendam Edmerum Burgensem London.
Qui dedit unum were Ecclesiæ Rofen."
Ye have before heard that the wall of this city was all round about furnished with towers and bulwarks, in due distance every one from other; and also that the river Thames, with his ebbing and flowing, on the south side, had subverted the said wall and towers there.
Wherefore King William, for defence of this city, in place most dangerous, and open to the enemy, having taken down the second bulwark in the east part of the wall from the Thames, built this tower, which was the great square tower, now called the White Tower, and hath been since at divers times enlarged with other buildings adjoining, as shall be shown.
This tower was by tempest of wind sore shaken in the year 1090, the 4th of William Rufus, and was again by the said Rufus and Henry I. repaired.
They also caused a castle to be built under the said tower, namely, on the south side towards the Thames, and also incastellated the same round about.
Henry Huntingdon, libro sexto, hath these words:
"William Rufus challenged the investure of prelates; he pilled and shaved the people with tribute, especially to spend about the Tower of London, and the great hall at Westminster."/p>
Othowerus, Acolinillus, Otto, and Geffrey Magnaville, Earl of Essex, were four the first constables of this Tower of London, by succession;
all which held by force a portion of land (that pertained to the priory of the Holy Trinitie within Aldgate);
that is to say, East Smithfield, near unto the Tower, making thereof a vineyard, and would not depart from it till the 2nd year of King Stephen,
when the same was abridged and restored to the church.
This said Geffrey Magnaville was Earl of Essex, constable of the Tower, sheriff of London, Middlesex, Essex, and Hertfordshire, as appeareth by a charter of Maud the empress, dated 1141.
He also fortified the Tower of London against King Stephen; but the king took him in his court at St. Albones, and would not deliver him till he had rendered the Tower of London, with the castles of Walden and Plashey in Essex.
In the year 1153 the Tower of London and the castle of Windsor were by the king delivered to Richard de Lucie, to be safely kept.
In the year 1155, Thomas Becket being chancellor to Henry II., caused the Flemings to be banished out of England, their castles lately built to be pulled down, and the Tower of London to be repaired.
About the year 1190, the 2nd of Richard I., William Longshampe, Bishop of Elie, Chancellor of England, for cause of dissension betwixt him and Earl John, the king's brother that was rebel, inclosed the tower and castle of London, with an outward wall of stone embattled, and also caused a deep ditch to be cast about the same, thinking (as I have said before) to have environed it with the river of Thames.
By the making of this inclosure and ditch in East Smithfield, the church of the Holy Trinitie in London lost half a mark rent by the year, and the mill was removed that belonged to the poor brethren of the hospital of St. Katherine, and to the church of the Holy Trinitie aforesaid, which was no small loss and discommodity to either part; and the garden which the king had hired of the brethren for six marks the year, for the most part was wasted and marred by the ditch.
Recompense was often promised, but never performed, until King Edward coming after, gave to the brethren five marks and a half for that part which the ditch had devoured, and the other part thereof without he yielded to them again, which they hold: and of the said rent of five marks and a half, they have a deed, by virtue whereof they are well paid to this day.
It is also to be noted, and cannot be denied, but that the said inclosure and ditch took the like or greater quantity of ground from the city within the wall; namely, one of that part called the Tower Hill, besides breaking down of the city wall, from the White Tower to the first gate of the city, called the Postern; yet have I not read of any quarrel made by the citizens, or recompense demanded by them for that matter, because all was done for good of the city's defence thereof, and to their good likings.
But Matthew Paris writeth, that in the year 1239, King Henry III. fortified the Tower of London to another end; wherefore the citizens, fearing lest that were done to their detriment, complained, and the king answered, that he had not done it to their hurt, but (saith he) I will from henceforth do as my brother doth, in building and fortifying castles, who beareth the name to be wiser than I am.
It followed in the next year, saith mine author, the said noble buildings of the stone gate and bulwark, which the king had caused to be made by the Tower of London, on the west side thereof, were shaken as it had been with an earthquake, and fell down, which the king again commanded to be built in better sort than before, which was done; and yet again, in the year 1247, the said wall and bulwarks that were newly built, wherein the king had bestowed more than twelve thousand marks, were irrecoverably thrown down, as afore; for the which chance the citizens of London were nothing sorry, for they were threatened that the said wall and bulwarks were built, to the end that if any of them would contend for the liberties of the city, they might be imprisoned; and that many might be laid in divers prisons, many lodgings were made that no one should speak with another: thus much Matthew Paris for this building.
More of Henry III., his dealings against the citizens of London, we may read in the said author, in 1245, 1248, 1249, 1253, 1255, 1256, etc.
But, concerning the said wall and bulwark, the same was finished, though not in his time; for I read that Edward I., in the second of his reign, commanded the treasurer and chamberlain of the Exchequer to deliver out of his treasury unto Miles of Andwarp two hundred marks, of the fines taken out of divers merchants or usurers of London, for so be the words of the record, towards the work of the ditch then new made, about the said bulwark, now called the Lion Tower.
I find also recorded, that Henry III., in the 46th of his reign, wrote to Edward of Westminster, commanding him that he should buy certain perie plants, and set the same in the place without his Tower of London, within the wall of the said city, which of late he had caused to be inclosed with a mud wall, as may appear by this that followeth:
the mayor and commonalty of London were fined for throwing down the said earthen wall against the Tower of London, the 9th of Edward II.
Edward IV. in place thereof built a wall of brick.
But now for the Lion Tower and lions in England, the original, as I have read, was thus.
Henry I. built his manor of Wodstock, with a park, which he walled about with stone, seven miles in compass, destroying for the same divers villages, churches, and chapels; and this was the first park in England.
He placed therein, besides great store of deer, divers strange beasts to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from far countries, as lions, leopards, linces, porpentines, and such other.
More I read, that in the year 1235, Frederick the emperor sent to Henry III. three leopards, in token of his regal shield of arms, wherein three leopards were pictured; since the which time those lions and others have been kept in a part of this bulwark, now called the Lion Tower, and their keepers there lodged.
King Edward II., in the 12th of his reign, commanded the sheriffs of London to pay to the keepers of the king's leopard in the Tower of London sixpence the day for the sustenance of the leopard, and three-halfpence a day for diet for the said keeper, out of the fee farm of the said city.
More, in the 16th of Edward III., one lion, one lioness, one leopard, and two cat lions, in the said Tower, were committed to the custody of Robert, the son of John Bowre.
Edward IV. fortified the Tower of London, and inclosed with brick, as is aforesaid, a certain piece of ground, taken out of the
Tower Hill, west from the Lion Tower, now called the bulwark.
His officers also, in the 5th of his reign, set upon the said hill both scaffold and gallows, for the execution of offenders; whereupon the mayor and his brethren complained to the king, and were answered that the same was not done in derogation of the city's liberties, and thereof caused proclamation to be made, etc., as shall be shown in Tower street.
Richard III., repaired and built in this tower somewhat.
Henry VIII., in 1532, repaired the White Tower, and other parts thereof.
In the year 1548, the 2nd of Edward VI., on the 22nd of November, in the night, a Frenchman lodged in the round bulwark, betwixt the west gate and the postern, or drawbridge, called the warders' gate, by setting fire on a barrel of gunpowder, blew up the said bulwark, burnt himself, and no more persons.
This bulwark, was forthwith again new built.
And here, because I have by occasion spoken of the west gate of this tower the same, as the most principal, is used for the receipt and delivery
of all kinds of carriages, without the which gate divers bulwarks and gates, towards the north, etc.
Then near within this west gate, opening to the south, is a strong postern for passengers by the ward-house, over a drawbridge let down for that purpose.
Next on the same south side, toward the east, is a large water-gate, for receipt of boats and small vessels, partly under a stone bridge from the river of Thames.
Beyond it is a small postern, with a drawbridge, seldom let down but for the receipt of some great persons, prisoners.
Then towards the east is a great and strong gate, commonly called the Iron gate, but not usually opened.
And thus much for the foundation, building, and repairing of this tower, with the gates and posterns, may suffice.
And now somewhat of accidents in the same shall be shown.
In the year 1196, William Fitzosbert, a citizen of London, seditiously moving the common people to seek liberty, and not to be subject to the rich and more mighty, at length was taken and brought before the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Tower, where he was by the judges condemned, and by the heels drawn thence to the Elms in Smithfield, and there hanged.
In 1214, King John wrote to Geffrey Magnaville to deliver the Tower of London, with the prisoners, armour, and all other things found therein belonging to the king, to William, archdeacon of Huntingdon.
In the year 1216, the 1st of Henry III., the said Tower was delivered to Lewis of France and the barons of England.
In the year 1206 pleas of the crown were pleaded in the Tower; likewise in the year 1220, and likewise in the year 1224, and again in the year 1243, before William of Yorke, Richard Passelew, Henry Brahe, Jerome of Saxton, justices.
In the year 1222, the citizens of London having made a tumult against the abbot of Westminster, Hubert of Burge, chief justice of England, came to the Tower of London, called before him the mayor and aldermen, of whom he inquired for the principal authors of that sedition; amongst whom one, named Constantine Fitz Aelulfe, avowed that he was the man, and had done much less than he ought to have done: whereupon the justice sent him with two other to Falks de Brent, who with armed men brought them to the gallows, where they were hanged.
In the year 1244, Griffith, the eldest son of Leoline, Prince of Wales, being kept prisoner in the Tower, devised means of escape, and having in the night made of the hangings, sheets, etc., a long line, he put himself down from the top of the Tower, but in the sliding, the weight of his body, being a very big and a fat man, brake the rope, and he fell and brake his neck withall.
In the year 1253, King Henry III. imprisoned the sheriffs of London in the Tower more than a month, for the escape of a prisoner out of Newgate, as you may read in the chapter of Gates.
In the year 1260, King Henry, with his queen (for fear of the barons), were lodged in the Tower.
The next year he sent for his lords, and held his parliament there.
In the year 1263, when the queen would have removed from the Tower by water towards Windsor, sundry Londoners got them together to the bridge,
under the which she was to pass, and not only cried out upon her with reproachful words, but also threw mire and stones at her,
by which she was constrained to return for the time;
but in the year 1265, the said citizens were fain to submit themselves to the king for it, and the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs were sent to divers prisons, and a custos also was set over the city; to wit, Othon, constable of the Tower, etc.
In the year 1282, Leoline, prince of Wales, being taken at Bewlth castle, Roger Lestrange cut off his head, which Sir Roger Mortimer
caused to be crowned with ivy, and set it upon the Tower of London.
In the year 1290, divers justices, as well of the bench as of the assizes, were sent prisoners to the Tower, which with great sums of money redeemed their liberty.
Edward II., the 14th of his reign, appointed for prisoners in the Tower, a knight twopence the day, an esquire one penny the day, to serve for their diet.
In the year 1320, the king's justices sat in the Tower, for trial of matters; whereupon John Gifors, late mayor of London, and many others, fled the city, for fear to be charged of things they had presumptuously done.
In the year 1321, the Mortimers yielding themselves to the king, he sent them prisoners to the Tower, where they remained long, and were adjudged to be drawn and hanged.
But at length Roger Mortimer, of Wigmore, by giving to his keepers a sleepy drink, escaped out of the Tower, and his uncle Roger, being still kept there, died about five years after.
In the year 1326, the citizens of London won the Tower, wresting the keys out of the constable's hands, delivered all the prisoners, and kept both city and Tower to the use of Isabel the queen, and Edward her son.
In the year 1330, Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, was taken and brought to the Tower, from whence he was brought to the Elms, and there hanged.
In the year 1344, King Edward III., in the 18th of his reign, commanded florences of gold to be made and coined in the Tower; that is to say, a penny piece of the value of five shillings and eight pence, the halfpenny piece of the value of three shillings and four pence, and a farthing piece worth twenty pence; Percevall de Port of Lake being then master of the coin.
And this is the first coining of gold in the Tower, whereof I have read, and also the first coinage of gold in England.
I find also recorded, that the said king in the same year ordained his exchange of money to be kept in Serne's Tower, a part of the king's house in Bucklesbury.
In the year 1360, the peace between England and France being confirmed, King Edward came over into England, and straight to the Tower, to see the French king then prisoner there, whose ransom he assessed at three millions of florences, and so delivered him from prison, and brought him with honour to the sea.
In the year 1381, the rebels of Kent drew out of the Tower (where the king was then lodged) Simon Sudberie, archbishop of Canterbury, lord chancellor, Robert Hales, prior of St. John's, and treasurer of England, William Appleton, friar, the king's confessor, and John Legg, a sergeant of the king's, and beheaded them on the Tower hill, etc.
In the year 1387, King Richard held his feast of Christmas in the Tower. And in the year 1399, the same king was sent prisoner to the Tower.
In the year 1414, Sir John Oldcastell brake out of the Tower. And the same year, a parliament being holden at Leycester, a porter of the Tower was drawn, hanged, and headed, whose head was sent up, and set over the Tower gate, for consenting to one Whitlooke, that brake out of the Tower.
In the year 1419, Friar Randulph was sent to the Tower, and was there slain by the parson of St. Peter's in the Tower.
In the year 1428, there came to London, a lewd fellow, feigning himself to be sent from the Emperor to the young King Henry VI., calling himself Baron of Blakamoore, and that he should be the principal physician in this kingdom; but his subtlety being known, he was apprehended, condemned, drawn, hanged, headed, and quartered, his head set on the Tower of London, and his quarters on four gates of the city.
In the year 1458, in Whitsun week, the Duke of Somerset, with Anthonie Rivers, and other four, kept jousts before the queen in the Tower of London, against three esquires of the queen's, and others.
In the year 1465, King Henry VI. was brought prisoner to the Tower, where he remained long.
In the year 1470, the Tower was yielded to Sir Richard Lee, mayor of London, and his brethren the aldermen, who forthwith entered the same, delivered King Henry of his imprisonment, and lodged him in the king's lodging there; but the next year he was again sent thither prisoner, and there murdered.
In the year 1478, George Duke of Clarence was drowned with malmsey in the Tower; and within five years after King Edward V., with his brother, were said to be murdered there.
In the year 1485, John Earl of Oxford was made constable of the Tower, and had custody of the lions granted him.
In the year 1501, in the month of May, was a royal tourney of lords and knights in the Tower of London before the king.
In the year 1502, Queen Elizabeth, wife to Henry VII., died of childbirth in the Tower.
In the year 1512, the chapel in the high White Tower was burnt. In the year 1536 Queen Anne Bullein was beheaded in the Tower. 1541, Lady Katherine Howard, wife to King Henry VIII., was also beheaded there.
In the year 1546, the 27th of April, being Tuesday in Easter week, William Foxley, potmaker for the Mint in the Tower of London, fell asleep, and so continued sleeping, and could not be wakened with pricking, cramping, or otherwise, burning whatsoever, until the first day of the term, which was full fourteen days and fifteen nights, or more, for that Easter term beginneth not before seventeen days after Easter. The cause of his thus sleeping could not be known, though the same was diligently searched after by the king's physicians, and other learned men; yea, the king himself examining the said William Foxley, who was in all points found at his awakening to be as if he had slept but one night. And he lived more than forty years after in the said Tower, to wit, until the year of Christ 1587, and then deceased on Wednesday in Easter week.
Thus much for these accidents:
and now to conclude thereof in summary.
This Tower is a citadel to defend or command the city;
a royal palace for assemblies or treaties;
a prison of state for the most dangerous offenders;
the only place of coinage for all England at this time;
the armoury for warlike provision;
the treasury of the ornaments and jewels of the crown;
and general conserver of the most records of the king's courts of justice at Westminster.
The next tower on the river of Thames is on London bridge, at the north end of the drawbridge.
This tower was newly begun to be built in the year 1426.
John Reynwell, mayor of London, laid one of the first corner stones in the foundation of this work, the other three were laid by the sheriffs and bridge masters; upon every of these four stones was engraven in fair roman letters the name of "Ihesus." [ie "Jesus"]
And these stones I have seen laid in the bridge storehouse since they were taken up, when that tower was of late newly made of timber.
This gate and tower was at the first strongly built up of stone, and so continued until the year 1577, in the month of April, when the same stone arched gate and tower being decayed, was begun to be taken down, and then were the heads of the traitors removed thence, and set on the tower over the gate at the bridge-foot towards Southwark.
This said tower being taken down, a new foundation was drawn, and Sir John Langley, lord mayor, laid the first stone in the presence of the sheriffs and bridge masters, on the 28th of August; and in the month of September, in the year 1579, the same tower was finished, - a beautiful and chargeable piece of work, all above the bridge being of timber.
Another tower there is on London bridge, to wit, over the gate at the south end of the same bridge towards Southwark.
This gate, with the tower thereupon, and two arches of the bridge, fell down, and no man perished by the fall thereof, in the year 1436; towards the new building whereof divers charitable citizens gave large sums of money; which gate, being then again newly built, was, with seventeen houses more on the bridge, in the year 1471, burnt by the mariners and sailors of Kent, Bastard Fauconbridge being their captain.
"... The first of these castles, banking on the river Thames, was called Baynard's Castle, ..."
The next tower or castle, banking also on the river of Thames, was, as is afore showed, called Mountfiquit's castle, ...
... the stock fishmongers in Thames street;
wet fishmongers in Knightriders street and Bridge street;...
... But the brewers for the more part remain near to the friendly water of Thames; ...
.. That merchants of all nations had their keys and wharfs at this city, whereunto they brought their merchandises before and in the reign of Henry II., mine author wrote of his own knowledge to be true,
... In Easter holidays they fight battles on the water;
a shield is hung upon a pole, fixed in the midst of the stream, a boat is prepared without oars, to be carried by violence of the water, and in the fore part thereof standeth a young man, ready to give charge upon the shield with his lance; if so be he breaketh his lance against the shield, and doth not fall, he is thought to have performed a worthy deed; if so be, without breaking his lance, he runneth strongly against the shield, down he falleth into the water, for the boat is violently forced with the tide; but on each side of the shield ride two boats, furnished with young men, which recover him that falleth as soon as they may. Upon the bridge, wharfs, and houses, by the river's side, stand great numbers to see and laugh thereat. ...
The first ward in the east part of this city within the wall is called Tower street ward, and extendeth along the river of Thames
from the said Tower in the east almost to Belinsgate in the west.
One half of the Tower, the ditch on the west side, and bulwarks adjoining, do stand within that part where the wall of the city of old time went straight from the postern gate south to the river of Thames, before that the Tower was built...
... Now for the two Church lanes, they meeting on the south side of this church and church yard, do join in one, and running down to the Thames street,
the same is called St. Dunstan's hill, at the lower end whereof the said Thames street towards the west on both sides almost to Belin's gate,
but towards the east up to the water gate, by the bulwark of the Tower, is all of Tower street ward.
In this street, on the Thames side, are divers large landing-places called wharfs or keys, for craneage up of wares and merchandise, as also for shipping of wares from thence to be transported.
These wharfs and keys commonly bear the names of their owners, and are therefore changeable.
I read, in the 26th of Henry VI., that in the parish of St. Dunstone in the east, a tenement, called Passeke's wharf, and another called Horner's key, in Thames street, were granted to William Harindon, esq.
I read also, that in the 6th of Richard II., John Churchman, grocer, for the quiet of merchants, did newly build a certain house upon the key, called Wool wharf, in the Tower street ward, in the parish of Allhallows Barking, betwixt the tenement of Paule Salisberrie on the east part, and the lane called the water gate on the west, to serve for tronage, or weighing of wools in the port of London; whereupon the king granted that during the life of the said John, the aforesaid tronage should be held and kept in the said house, with easements there for the balances and weights, and a counting place for the customer, controllers, clerks, and other officers of the said tronage, together with ingress and egress to and from the same, even as was had in other places, where the said tronage was wont to be kept, and that the king should pay yearly to the said John during his life forty shillings at the terms of St. Michael and Easter, by even portions, by the hands of his customer, without any other payment to the said John, as in the indenture thereof more at large appeareth.
Near unto this Customer's key towards the east, is the said water gate, and west from it Porter's key, then Galley key, where the gallies were used to unlade and land their merchandises and wares; and that part of Thames street was therefore of some called Galley row, On the north side, as well as on the south of this Thames street, are many fair houses large for stowage, built for merchants; but towards the east end thereof, namely, over against Galley key, Wool key, and the Custom house, there have been of old time some large buildings of stone, the ruins whereof do yet remain, but the first builders and owners of them are worn out of memory, wherefore the common people affirm Julius Cæsar to be the builder thereof, as also of the Tower itself.
But thereof I have spoken already.
Some are of another opinion, and that a more likely, that this great stone building was sometime the lodging appointed for the princes of Wales, when they repaired to this city, and that, therefore, the street in that part is called Petty Wales, which name remaineth there most commonly until this day, even as where the kings of Scotland were used to be lodged betwixt Charing cross and White hall, it is likewise called Scotland, and where the earls of Britons were lodged without Aldersgate, the street is called Britain street, etc.
The said building might of old time pertain to the princes of Wales, as is aforesaid, but is since turned to other use. It is before noted of Galley key, that the galleys of Italie, and other parts, did there discharge their wines and merchandises brought to this city.
It is like, therefore, that the merchants and owners procured the place to build upon for their lodgings and storehouses, as the merchants of the Haunce of Almaine were licensed to have a house, called Gilda Teutonicorum, the Guild hall of the Germans.
Also the merchants of Burdeaux were licensed to build at the Vintry, strongly with stone, as may be yet seen, and seemeth old, though often repaired; much more cause have these buildings in Petty Wales, though as lately built, and partly of the like stone brought from Caen in Normandie, to seem old, which for many years, to wit, since the galleys left their course of landing there, hath fallen to ruin, and been let out for stabling of horses, to tipplers of beer, and such like; amongst others, one Mother Mampudding (as they termed her) for many years kept this house, or a great part thereof, for victualling; and it seemeth that the builders of the hall of this house were shipwrights, and not house carpenters; for the frame thereof (being but low) is raised of certain principal posts of main timber, fixed deep in the ground, without any groundsell, boarded close round about on the inside, having none other wall from the ground to the roof, those boards not exceeding the length of a clap board, about an inch thick, every board ledging over other as in a ship or galley, nailed with ship nails called rough and clench, to wit, rough nails with broad round heads, and clenched on the other side with square plates of iron.
The roof of this hall is also wrought of the like board, and nailed with rough and clench, and seemeth as it were a galley, the keel turned upwards; and I observed that no worm or rottenness is seen to have entered either board or timber of that hall, and therefore, in mine opinion, of no great antiquity. ...
Billingsgate ward beginneth at the west end of Tower street ward in Thames street, about Smart's key, and runneth down along that street
on the south side to St. Magnus church at the bridge foot, and on the north side of the said Thames street, from over against Smart's key,
till over against the north-west corner of St. Magnus church aforesaid, on this north side of Thames street, is St. Marie hill lane,
up to St. Margaret's church, and then part of St. Margaret Patten's street, at the end of St. Marie hill lane.
Next out of Thames street is Lucas lane, and then Buttolph lane, and at the north end thereof Philpot lane; then is Rother lane, of old time so called, and thwart the same lane is Little Eastcheape; and these be the bounds of Billingsgate ward.
Touching the principal ornaments within this ward.
On the south side of Thames street, beginning at the east end thereof, there is first the said Smart's key, so called of one Smart sometime owner thereof; the next is Belinsgate, whereof the whole ward taketh name; the which (leaving out of the fable, thereof feigning it to be built by King Beline, a Briton, long before the incarnation of Christ), is at this present a large water-gate, port, or harborough, for ships and boats, commonly arriving there with fish, both fresh and salt, shell-fishes, salt, oranges, onions, and other fruits and roots, wheat, rye, and grain of divers sorts, for service of the city and the parts of this realm adjoining.
This gate is now more frequented than of old time, when the Queen's hithe was used, as being appointed by the kings of this realm, to be the special or only port for taking up of all such kind of merchandises brought to this city by strangers and foreigners, and the drawbridge of timber at London bridge was then to be raised or drawn up for passage of ships with tops thither.
Touching the ancient customs of Belinsgate in the reign of Edward III., every great ship landing there paid for standage two-pence, every little ship with orelockes a penny, the lesser boat called a Battle a halfpenny; of two quarters of corn measured the king was to have one farthing, of a combe of corn a penny, of every weight going out of the city a halfpenny, of two quarters of sea coal measured a farthing, and of every tun of ale going out of England beyond the seas, by merchant strangers, four-pence, of every thousand herrings a farthing, except franchises, etc.
Next to this is Sommer's key, which likewise took that name of one Sommer dwelling there, as did Lion key of one Lion, owner thereof, and since of the sign of a Lion.
Then is there a fair wharf, or key, called Buttolph's gate, by that name so called in the times of William the Conqueror, and of Edward the Confessor, as I have shown already in the description of the gates.
... William Rainwell, fishmonger, and John Rainwell, his son, fishmonger, mayor 1426, and deceasing 1445 ...
...He gave ... that the mayor and chamberlain shall pay yearly to the sheriffs eight pounds, so that the said sheriffs take no manner of toll or money of any person of this realm for their goods, merchandises, victuals, and carriages, for their passages at the great gate of the bridge of the city, nor at the gate called the Drawbridge, etc. ...
and the other moiety to clear and cleanse the shelves, and other stoppages of the river of Thames, etc.
Bridge ward within, so called of London bridge, which bridge is a principal part of that ward, and beginneth at the stulpes on the south end by Southwark, runneth along the bridge, and north up Bridge street, commonly called (of the fish market) New Fish street, from Fish street hill, up Grasse street, to the north corner of Grasse church; all the bridge is replenished on both the sides with large, fair, and beautiful buildings, inhabitants for the most part rich merchants, and other wealthy citizens, mercers, and haberdashers.
In New Fish street be fishmongers and fair taverns on Fish street hill and Grasse street, men of divers trades, grocers and haberdashers.
In Grasse street have ye one fair conduit of sweet water castellated with crest and vent, made by the appointment of Thomas Hill, mayor, 1484, who gave by his testament one hundred marks towards the conveyance of water to this place.
It was begun by his executors in the year 1491, and finished of his goods whatsoever it cost.
On the east side of this bridge ward have ye the fair parish church of St. Magnus; in the which church have been buried many men of good worship, whose monuments are now for the most part utterly defaced.
I find John Blund, mayor, 1307; Henry Yeuele, freemason to Edward III., Richard II., and Henry IV., who deceased 1400; his monument yet remaineth; William Brampton; John Michell, mayor, 1436; John French, baker, yeoman of the crown to Henry VII., 1510; Robert Clarke, fishmonger, 1521; Richard Turke, one of the sheriffs, 1549; William Steede, alderman; Richard Morgan, knight, chief justice of the common pleas, 1556; Mauritius Griffeth, Bishop of Rochester, 1559; Robert Blanch, girdler, 1567; Robert Belgrave, girdler; William Brame, John Couper, fishmonger, alderman, who was put by his turn of mayoralty 1584; Sir William Garrard, haberdasher, mayor 1555; a grave, wise, and discreet citizen, equal with the best and inferior to none of our time, deceased 1571 in the parish of St. Christopher, but was buried in this church of St. Magnus as in the parish where he was born; a fair monument is there raised on him; Robert Harding, salter, one of the sheriffs, 1568; Simon Low, merchant-tailor, esquire, etc.
Then is the parish church of St. Margaret on Fish street hill, a proper church, but monuments it hath none: a footway passeth by the south side of this church from Fish street hill unto Rother lane.
Up higher on this hill is the parish church of St. Leonard, Milke church, so termed of one William Melker, an especial builder thereof, but commonly called St. Leonard's in East Cheape, because it standeth at East Cheape corner.
Monuments there be of the Doggets, namely, Walter Dogget, vintner, one of the sheriffs, 1380; John Dogget, vintner, and Alice his wife, about 1456; this John Dogget gave lands to that church; William Dogget, etc.
This church, and from thence into Little East Cheape to the east end of the said church, is of the Bridge ward.
Then higher in Grasse street is the parish church of St. Bennet, called Grasse church, of the herb-market there kept: this church also is of the Bridge ward, and the farthest north end thereof.
Some monuments remain there undefaced, as of John Harding, salter, 1576; John Sturgeon, haberdasher, chamberlain of London; Philip Cushen, Florentine, a famous merchant, 1600.
The customs of Grass church market, in the reign of Edward III., as I have read in a book of customs, were these:
Every foreign cart laden with corn or malt, coming thither to be sold, was to pay one halfpenny, every foreign cart bringing cheese two-pence, every cart of corn and cheese together (if the cheese be more worth than the corn) two-pence, and if the corn be more worth than the cheese, it was to pay a halfpenny; of two horses laden with corn or malt the bailiff had one farthing; the cart of the franchise of the Temple and of St. Martin le Grand paid a farthing; the cart of the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem paid nothing for their proper goods, and if the corn were brought by merchants to sell again, the load paid a halfpenny, etc.
On the west side of this ward, at the north end of London bridge, is a part of Thames street, which is also of this ward, to wit, so much as of old time was called Stocke Fishmonger row, of the stock fishmongers dwelling there, down west to a watergate, of old time called Ebgate, since Ebgate lane, and now the Old Swan, which is a common stair on the Thames, but the passage is very narrow by means of encroachments.
On the south side of Thames street, about the midway betwixt the bridge foot and Ebgate lane, standeth the Fishmongers' hall,
and divers other fair houses for merchants.
These fishmongers were sometimes of two several companies, to wit, Stock-fishmongers and Salt-fishmongers, of whose antiquity I read, that by the name of fishmongers of London, they were, for forestalling, etc., contrary to the laws and constitutions of the city, fined to the king at five hundred marks, the 18th of King Edward I.
More, that the said fishmongers, hearing of the great victory obtained by the same king against the Scots, in the 26th of his reign, made a triumphant and solemn show through the city, with divers pageants, and more than one thousand horsemen, etc., as in the chapter of sports and pastimes.
These two companies of stock-fishmongers and salt-fishmongers of old time had their several halls; to wit, in Thames street twain, in New Fish street twain, and in Old Fish street twain: in each place one for either company, in all six several halls, the company was so great, as I have read, and can prove by records.
These fishmongers having been jolly citizens, and six mayors of their company in the space of twenty-four years; to wit, Walter Turke, 1350; John Lofkin, 1359; John Wroth, 1361; John Pechie, 1362; Simon Morden, 1369; and William Walworth, 1374.
It followed that in the year 1382, through the counsel of John Northampton, draper, then being mayor, William Essex, John More, mercer, and Richard Northburie, the said fishmongers were greatly troubled, hindered of their liberties, and almost destroyed by congregations made against them, so that in a parliament at London the controversy depending between the mayor and aldermen of London, and the fishmongers there, Nicholas Exton, speaker for the fishmongers, prayeth the king to receive him and his company into his protection, for fear of corporal hurt: whereupon it was commanded, either part to keep the peace, on pain of losing all they had; hereupon, a fishmonger, starting up, replied that the complaint brought against them by the movers, etc., was but matter of malice, for that the fishmongers, in the reign of Edward III., being chief officers of the city, had for their misdemeanors then done, committed the chief exhibitors of those petitions to prison.
In this parliament the fishmongers, by the king's charter patents, were restored to their liberties; notwithstanding in the year next following, to wit, 1383, John Cavendish, fishmonger, craveth the peace against the chancellor of England, which was granted, and he put in sureties the Earls of Stafford and Salisburie.
Cavendish challengeth the chancellor for taking of a bribe of ten pounds for favour of his case, which the chancellor by oath upon the sacrament avoideth.
In further trial it was found that the chancellor's man, without his master's privity, had taken it; whereupon Cavendish was adjudged to prison, and to pay the chancellor one thousand marks for slandering him.
After this, many of the nobles assembled at Reading to suppress the seditious stirs of the said John Northampton, or Combarton, late mayor, that had attempted great and heinous enterprises, of the which he was convicted; and when he stood mute, nor would utter one word, it was decreed that he should be committed to perpetual prison, his goods confiscate to the king's use, and that he should not come within one hundred miles of London during his life.
He was therefore sent to the castle of Tintegall in the confines of Cornewall, and in the mean space the king's servants spoiled his goods.
John More, Richard Northbery, and other, were likewise there convicted, and condemned to perpetual prison, and their goods confiscate, for certain congregations by them made against the fishmongers in the city of London, as is aforesaid; but they obtained and had the king's pardon, in the 14th of his reign, as appeareth of record; and thus were all these troubles quieted.
Those stock-fishmongers and salt-fishmongers were united in the year 1536, the 28th of Henry VIII.; their hall to be but one, in the house given unto them by Sir John Cornwall, Lord Fanhope, and of Ampthull, in the parish of St. Michael in Crooked lane, in the reign of Henry VI.
Thus much have I thought good to note of the fishmongers, men ignorant of their antiquities, not able to show a reason why or when they were joined in amity with the goldsmiths, do give part of their arms, etc.
Neither, to say aught of Sir William Walworth, the glory of their company, more than that he slew Jack Straw, which is a mere fable, for the said Straw was after overthrowing of the rebels, taken, and by judgment of the mayor beheaded; whose confession at the gallows is extant in my Annals, where also is set down the most valiant and praiseworthy act of William Walworth against the principal rebel Waltar Tighlar.
As in reproof of Walworth's monument in St. Michael's church, I have declared, and wished to be reformed there, as in other places.
On that south side of Thames street have ye Drinkwater wharf and Fish wharf, in the parish of St. Magnus.
On the north side of Thames street is St. Martin's lane; a part of which lane is also of this ward, to wit, on the one side to a well of water, and on the other side as far up as against the said well.
Then is St. Michael's lane, part whereof is also of this ward up to a well there, etc.
Then at the upper end of New Fish street is a lane turning towards St. Michael's lane, and is called Crooked lane, of the crooked windings thereof.
Above this lane's end, upon Fish street hill, is one great house, for the most part built of stone, which pertained sometime to Edward the Black Prince, son to Edward III., who was in his lifetime lodged there.
It is now altered to a common hostelry, having the Black Bell for a sign.
Above this house, at the top of Fish street hill, is a turning into Great Eastcheape, and so to the corner of Lombard street, over against the north-west corner of Grasse church;
and these be the whole bounds of this Bridge ward within:
the which hath an alderman and his deputy, for the common council sixteen, constables fifteen, scavengers six, for the wardmote inquest sixteen, and a beadle.
It is taxed to the fifteen in London at forty-seven pounds.
... And first of Vintry ward, so called of vintners, and of the vintry, a part of the bank of the river of Thames, where the merchants of Burdeaux craned their wines out of lighters and other vessels, and there landed and made sale of them within forty days after, until the 28th of Edward I., at which time the said merchants complained that they could not sell their wines, paying poundage, neither hire houses or cellars to lay them in; and it was redressed by virtue of the king's writ, directed to the mayor and sheriffs of London, dated at Carlaveroke, or Carlisle, since the which time many fair and large houses, with vaults and cellars for stowage of wines, and lodging of the Burdeaux merchants have been built in place where before time were cooks' houses; for Fitzstephen, in the reign of Henry II., writeth, that upon the river's side, between the wine in ships, and the wine to be sold in taverns, was a common cookery or cooks' row, etc., as in another place I have set down; whereby it appeareth, that in those days (and till of late time) every man lived by his professed trade, not any one interrupting another: the cooks dressed meat, and sold no wine, and the taverner sold wine, but dressed no meat for sale, etc.
... Now, on the Thames' side, west from Grantham's lane, have ye Herber lane, or Brikels' lane, so called of John Brikels, sometime owner thereof.
Then is Simpson's lane, of one Simpson, or Emperor's head lane, of such a sign.
Then the Three Cranes' lane, so called not only of a sign of three cranes at a tavern door, but rather of three strong cranes of timber placed on the Vintry wharf by the Thames side, to crane up wines there, as is afore showed.
This lane was of old time, to wit, the 9th of Richard II., called The Painted Tavern lane, of the tavern being painted.
Then next over against St. Martin's church, is a large house built of stone and timber, with vaults for the stowage of wines, and is called the Vintry.
There dwelt John Gisers, vintner, mayor of London, and constable of the Tower, and then was Henry Picard, vintner, mayor.
In this house Henry Picard feasted four kings in one day (as in my Summary I have showed).
Then next is Vanner's lane, so called of one Vanner that was owner thereof; it is now called Church lane, of the coming up from the wharf to St. Martin's church.
Next is Brode lane, for that the same is broader for the passage of carts from the Vintrie wharf, than be the other lanes. ...
... Then is the parish church of St. James, called at Garlick hithe, or Garlicke hive; for that of old time, on the bank of the river of Thames, near to this church, garlick was usually sold. ...
... Buckles bury, so called of a manor and tenements pertaining to one Buckle, who there dwelt and kept his courts.
This manor is supposed to be the great stone building, yet in part remaining on the south side of the street, which of late time hath been called the Old Barge, of such a sign hanged out near the gate thereof.
This manor or great house hath of long time been divided and letten out into many tenements; and it hath been a common speech, that when Walbrooke did lie open, barges were rowed out of the Thames, or towed up so far, and therefore the place hath ever since been called the Old Barge.
Next unto Bread street ward, on the south side thereof, is Queene Hithe ward, so called of a water gate, or harbour for boats, lighters, and barges; and was of old time for ships, at what time the timber bridge of London was drawn up, for the passage of them to the said hithe, as to a principal strand for landing and unlading against the midst and heart of the city. ...
On the south side of Thames street, beginning again in the east, among the cooks, the first in this ward, is the sign of David the King;
then is Towne's end lane, turning down to the Thames;
then is Queene hithe, a large receptacle for ships, lighters, barges, and such other vessels.
Touching the antiquity and use of this gate and hithe, first, I find the same belongeth to one named Edred, and was then called Edred's hithe, which since falling to the hands of King Stephen, it was by his charter confirmed to William De Ypre; the farm thereof in fee and in heritage, William De Ypre gave unto the prior and convent of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate, as appeareth by this charter:-
"To Theobalde, by the grace of God, Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of England, and Legate Apostolike, to the Bishoppe of London, and to all faithful people, clarkes and layemen, William de Ypre sendeth greeting.
"Know ye me to have given and graunted to God, and to the church of the Holy Trinitie of London, to the prior and canons there serving God in perpetuall almes, Edred's hith, with the appurtenances, with such devotion, that they shall send every yeare twentie pound unto the maintenance of the hospital of St. Katherens, which hospitall they have in their hands, and one hundred shillinges to the monkes of Bermondsey, and sixty shillinges to the brethren of the hospitall of St. Giles, and that which remayneth, the said prior and canons shall enjoy to themselves.
Witnesses, Richard de Lucie, Raph Picot, etc."
This Edred's hithe, after the aforesaid grants, came again to the king's hands, by what means I have not read, but it pertained unto the queen, and, therefore, was called Ripa reginæ, the Queene's bank, or Queen's hithe, and great profit thereof was made to her use, as may appear by this which followeth.
King Henry III. in the 9th of his reign, commanded the constables of the Tower of London to arrest the ships of the Cinque Ports on the river of Thames, and to compel them to bring their corne to no other place, but to the Queen's hithe only.
In the eleventh of his reign, he charged the said constable to distrain all fish offered to be sold in any place of this city, but at the Queene hithe.
Moreover, in the 28th of the said king's reign, an inquisition was made before William of Yorke, provost of Beverley, Henry of Bath, and Hierome of Caxton, justices itinerant, sitting in the Tower of London, touching the customs of Queen hithe, observed in the year last before the wars between the king and his father, and the barons of England, and of old customs of other times, and what customs had been changed, at what time the tax and payment of all things coming together, and between Woore path and Anedehithe, were found and ceased, according to the old order, as well corn and fish as other things: all which customs were as well to be observed in the part of Downegate, as in Queen hithe, for the king's use. When also it was found that the corn arriving between the gate of the Guildhall of the merchants of Cologne, and the soke of the Archbishop of Canterbury (for he had a house near unto the Blacke Fryers), was not to be measured by any other quarter, than by that of the Queene's soke.
After this, the bailiff of the said hithe complained that, since the said recognition, fourteen foreign ships laden with fish, arrived at Belinge's gate, which ships should have arrived at the same hithe; and, therefore, it was ordered, that if any foreign ship laden with fish, should in form aforesaid, arrive elsewhere than at this hithe, it should be at the king's pleasure to amerce them at forty shillings.
Notwithstanding, the ships of the citizens of London were at liberty to arrive where the owners would appoint them.
After this, the said Henry III. confirmed the grant of Richard Earl of Cornwall for the farm of the Queen hithe unto John Gisors, then mayor, and to the commonalty of London, and their successors for ever, as by this his charter appeareth:
"Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Guien, and Earl of Anjou, to all archbishops, etc.
Be it known, that we have seen the covenant between our brother, Richard Earl of Cornwall, on the one part, and the mayor and commonalty on the other part, which was in this sort.
In the 30th year of Henry, the son of King John, upon the feast of the Translation of St. Edward, at Westminster, this covenant was made between the honourable Lord Richard Earl of Cornwall, and John Gisors, then mayor of London, and the commons thereof, concerning certain exactions and demands pertaining to the Queen hithe of London.
The said earl granted for himself and his heirs, that the said mayor, and all mayors ensuing, and all the commons of the city, should have and hold the Queen hithe, with all the liberties, customs, and other appurtenances, repaying yearly to the said earl, his heirs and assigns, fifty pounds, at Clarkenwell, at two several terms; to wit, the Sunday after Easter twenty-five pounds, and at Michaelmas twenty-five pounds.
And for more surety hereof the said earl hath set thereunto his seal, and left it with the mayor, and the mayor and commonalty have set to their seal, and left it with the earl.
Wherefore we confirm and establish the said covenant for us, and for our heirs.
Witnesses, Raph Fitz Nichol, Richard Gray, John and Wil. Brithem, Paulin Painter, Raph Wancia, John Cumbaud, and other, at Windsor, 26th of February, in the 31st of our reign."
The charge of this Queen hithe was then committed to the sheriffs, and so hath continued ever since; the profits whereof are sore diminished,
so that (as writeth Robert Fabian) it was worth in his time little above twenty marks, or fifteen pounds, one year with another.
Now for customs of this Queen hithe.
In the year 1302, the 30th of Edward I., it was found by the oath of divers men, that bakers, brewers, and others, buying their corn at Queen hithe, should pay for measuring, portage, and carriage, for every quarter of corn whatsoever, from thence to West Cheap, to St. Anthonie's church, to Horshew bridge, and to Woolsey street, in the parish of Allhallowes the Less, and such like distances, one halfpenny farthing; to Fleet bridge, to Newgate, Cripplegate, to Bircheovers lane, to Eastcheape, and Billingsgate, one penny.
Also, that the measure (or the meter) ought to have eight chief master-porters, every master to have three porters under him, and every one of them to find one horse, and seven sacks; and he that so did not, to lose his office.
This hithe was then so frequented with vessels, bringing thither corn (besides fish, salt, fuel, and other merchandises), that all these men, to wit, the meter, and porters, thirty-seven in number, for all their charges of horses and sacks, and small stipend, lived well of their labours;
but now the bakers of London, and other citizens, travel into the countries, and buy their corn of the farmers, after the farmers' price.
King Edward II., in the 1st of his reign, gave to Margaret, wife to Piers de Gavestone, forty-three pounds twelve shillings and nine pence halfpenny farthing, out of the rent of London, to be received of the Queen's hithe.
Certain impositions were set upon ships and other vessels coming thither, as upon corn, salt, and other things, toward the charge of cleansing Roome-land there, the 41st of Edward III.
The 3rd of Edward IV., the market at Queen hithe being hindered by the slackness of drawing up London bridge, it was ordained, that all manner of vessels, ships, or boats, great or small, resorting to the city with victual, should be sold by retail; and that if there came but one vessel at a time, were it salt, wheat, rye, or other corn, from beyond the seas, or other grains, garlic, onions, herrings, sprats, eels, whiting, plaice, cods, mackarel, etc., then that one vessel should come to Queen hithe, and there to make sale; but if two vessels come, the one should come to Queen hithe, the other to Billingsgate; if three, two of them should come to Queen hithe, the third to Billingsgate, etc., always the more to Queen hithe; if the vessel being great, coming with salt from the Bay, and could not come to these keys, then the same to be conveyed by lighters, as before is meant.
One large house for stowage of corn craned out of lighters and barges, is there lately built; Sir John Lion, grocer, mayor 1554, by his testament, gave a hundred pounds towards it; but since increased and made larger at the charges of the city, in the year 1565.
Against this Queen's hithe, on the river Thames, of late years, was placed a corn mill, upon or betwixt two barges or lighters,
and there ground corn, as water mills in other places, to the wonder of many that had not seen the like;
but this lasted not long without decay, such as caused the same barges and mill to be removed, taken asunder, and soon forgotten.
I read of the like to have been in former time, as thus:-
In the year 1525, the 16th of Henry VIII., Sir William Bayly being mayor, John Cooke of Glocester, mercer, gave to the mayor and commonalty of London, and theirs for ever, one great barge, in the which two corn mills were made and placed, which barge and mills were set in and upon the stream of the river of Thames, within the jurisdiction and liberty of the said city of London.
And also he gave to the city all such timber, boards, stones, iron, etc., provided for making, mending, and repairing of the said barge and mills, in reward whereof the mayor gave him fifty pounds presently, and fifty pounds yearly during his life; and if the said Cooke deceased before Johan his wife, then she to have forty marks the year during her life.
Next adjoining to this Queen hithe, on the west side thereof, is Salt wharf, named of salt taken up, measured, and sold there.
The next is Stew lane, of a stew or hothouse there kept.
After that is Timber hithe, or Timber street, so called of timber or boards there taken up and wharfed; it is in the parish of St. Mary Somershithe, as I read in the 56th of Henry III., and in the 9th of Edward II.
Then is Brookes wharf, and Broken wharf, a water gate or key, so called of being broken and fallen down into the Thames.
By this Broken wharf remaineth one large old building of stone, with arched gates, which messuage, as I find, in the reign of Henry III., the 43rd year, pertaining unto Hugh de Bygot; and in the 11th of Edward III., to Thomas Brotherton, the king's brother, Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England; in the 11th of Henry VI. to John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, etc.
Within the gate of this house (now belonging to the city of London) is lately, to wit, in the years 1594 and 1595, built one large house of great height, called an engine, made by Bevis Bulmar, gentleman, for the conveying and forcing of Thames water to serve in the middle and west parts of the city.
The ancient great hall of this messuage is yet standing, and pertaining to a great brewhouse for beer.
The next is Castle Baynard ward, so named of an old castle there.
This ward beginneth in the east on the Thames side, at a house called Huntingdon house, and runneth west by Paule's wharf, by Baynard's castle, Puddle wharf, and by the south side of Black Friers. ...
... Then have you Baynard's castle, whereof this whole ward taketh the name.
This castle banketh on the river Thames, and was called Baynard's castle, of Baynard, a nobleman that came in with William the Conqueror, of the which castle, and of Baynard himself, I have spoken in another place.
There was also another tower by Baynard's castle, built by King Edward II. Edward III., in the 2nd of his reign, gave it to William Duke of Hamelake, in the county of York, and his heirs, for one rose yearly, to be paid for all service, the same place (as seemeth to me) was since called Legate's inn, in the 7th of Edward IV., where be now divers wood wharfs in place.
Then is there a great brewhouse, and Puddle wharf, a watergate into the Thames, where horses use to water, and therefore being defiled with their trampling, and made puddle, like as also of one Puddle dwelling there, it is called Puddle wharf.
Then is there a lane between the Blacke Fryers and the Thames, called in the 26th of Edward III. Castle lane. ...
... Now here is to be noted, that the wall of London at that time went straight south from Ludgate down to the river of Thames; but for building of the Blacke Fryers church, the said wall in that place was by commandment taken down, and a new wall made straight west from Ludgate to Fleet bridge, and then by the water of Fleet to the river of Thames, etc. ...
Having treated of wards in London, on the north side of the Thames (in number twenty-five), I am now to cross over the said river
into the borough of Southwark, which is also a ward of London without the walls, on the south side thereof, as is Portsoken on the east,
and Farringdon extra on the west.
This borough being in the county of Surrey, consisteth of divers streets, ways, and winding lanes, all full of buildings, inhabited; and, first, to begin at the west part thereof, over against the west suburb of the city.
On the bank of the river Thames there is now a continual building of tenements, about half a mile in length to the bridge.
Then from the bridge, straight towards the south, a continual street, called Long Southwark, built on both sides with divers lanes and alleys up to St. George's church, and beyond it through Blackman street towards New town (or Newington); the liberties of which borough extend almost to the parish church of New town aforesaid, distant one mile from London Bridge, and also south-west a continual building almost to Lambeth, more than one mile from the said bridge.
Then from the bridge along by the Thames eastward is St. Olave's street, having continual building on both the sides, with lanes and alleys, up to Battle bridge, to Horsedowne, and towards Rother hithe; also some good half mile in length from London Bridge.
So that I account the whole continual buildings on the bank of the said river, from the west towards the east, to be more than a large mile in length. ...
... Next is the Bridgehouse, so called as being a storehouse for stone, timber, or whatsoever pertaining to the building or repairing of London bridge.
This house seemeth to have taken beginning with the first founding of the bridge either of stone or timber; it is a large plot of ground, on the bank of the river Thames, containing divers large buildings for stowage of things necessary towards reparation of the said bridge.
There are also divers garners, for laying up of wheat, and other grainers for service of the city, as need requireth.
Moreover, there be certain ovens built, in number ten, of which six be very large, the other four being but half so big.
These were purposely made to bake out the bread corn of the said grainers, to the best advantage for relief of the poor citizens, when need should require.
Sir John Throstone, knight, sometime an embroiderer, then a goldsmith, one of the sheriffs 1516, gave by his testament towards the making of these ovens, two hundred pounds, which thing was performed by his executors.
Sir John Munday, goldsmith, then being mayor, there was of late, for the enlarging of the said Bridge house, taken in an old brewhouse, called Goldings, which was given to the city by George Monex, sometime mayor, and in place thereof, is now a fair brewhouse new built, for service of the city with beer.
Next was the abbot of Battailes inn, betwixt the Bridge house and Battaile bridge, likewise on the bank of the river of Thames; the walks and gardens thereunto appertaining, on the other side of the way before the gate of the said house, and was called the Maze; there is now an inn, called the Flower de Luce, for that the sign is three Flower de Luces.
Much other buildings of small tenements are thereon builded, replenished with strangers and other, for the most part poor people.
Then is Battaile bridge, so called of Battaile abbey, for that it standeth on the ground, and over a water-course (flowing out of Thames) pertaining to that abbey, and was, therefore, both built and repaired by the abbots of that house, as being hard adjoining to the abbot's lodging. ...
... Wapping in the west, the usual place of execution for hanging of pirates and sea rovers, at the low-water mark,
and there to remain, till three tides had overflowed them, ...
but since the gallows being after removed farther off ...
... now one note on the north side, also concerning pirates.
I read that in the year 1440, in the Lent season, certain persons, with six ships, brought from beyond the seas fish to victual the city of London, which fish, when they had delivered, and were returning homeward, a number of sea thieves, in a barge, in the night came upon them, when they were asleep in their vessels, riding at anchor on the river Thames, and slew them, cut their throats, cast them overboard, took their money, and drowned their ships, for that no man should espy or accuse them.
Two of these thieves were after taken, and hanged in chains upon a gallows set upon a raised hill, for that purpose made, in the field beyond East Smithfield, so that they might be seen far into the river Thames. ...
Next without the bar is the New Temple, and liberties of the city of London, in the suburbs, is a liberty pertaining to the duchy of Lancaster,
which beginneth in the east, on the south side or left hand, by the river Thames, and stretcheth west to Ivie bridge, where it endeth; ...
... But first amongst other buildings memorable for greatness, on the river of Thames, Excester house, so called for that the same belonged to the bishops of Excester, and was their inn or London lodging: who was first builder thereof I have not read, but that Walter Stapleton was a great builder there in the reign of Edward II. is manifest; for the citizens of London, when they had beheaded him in Cheape, near unto the cathedral church of St. Paule, they buried him in a heap of sand or rubbish in his own house without Temple bar, where he had made great building.
Edmond Lacie, bishop of Excester, built the great hall in the reign of Henry VI., etc.
The same hath since been called Paget house, because William Lord Paget enlarged and possessed it.
Then Leycester house, because Robert Dudley, earl of Leycester, of late new built there, and now Essex house, of the earl of Essex lodging there...